Chapter 6_ Perception by fjzhangweiyun

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									             Warm UP- page 36
   1. How does our system of sensing smell differ
    from our sensory system for vision, touch and
    taste?
   2. Can you recall a time when, with you
    attention focused on some activity, you felt no
    pain from a wound or injury?
   3. What is the gate control theory? Give an
    example of how it would be used?
   4. How are your senses of smell and taste
    connected?
   5. What sense is associated with the Olfactory
    Bulbs?
Chapter 6: Perception
              Perception

 Selective
 Attention: the
 focus of
 conscious
 awareness on a
 particular
 stimulus.
        Selective Attention

 The  most
 famous
 example to
 illustrate
 selective
 attention is
 known as the
 “cocktail party
 effect.”
Testing Selective Attention
           Perception
 Visual Capture:
 refers to the
 tendency for
 vision to dominate
 the other senses.
       Perceptual Organization
 Gestalt: an organized
  whole.
 Gestalt psychologists
  emphasize humans’
  tendencies to integrate
  pieces of information into
  meaningful wholes.
 Things are not seen as
  sum of parts but
  immediately as wholes.
Gestalt
   Perceptual Organization

 Figure-Ground
 Relationship:
 tendency to organize
 information into
 objects (figure) that
 stand out from their
 background(ground)
Figure Ground Relationship
        Gestalt Psychology
 Grouping:    the perceptual tendency
  to organize stimuli into coherent
  groups
 Grouping Principles:
   Proximity
   Similarity
   Continuity
   Closure
   Connectedness
Proximity: tendency to group
   nearby figures together

Similarity: tendency to group
   figures that are similar

      Continuity: tendency to
    perceive continuous patterns

Closure: tendency to fill in the
  gaps in visual information.
Connectedness: spots, lines and
  areas are seen as unit when
           connected

  Illusionary Contours: We
constantly filter information so
     it makes sense to us.
          Depth Perception
 Depth    Perception:
  the ability to see
  objects in three
  dimensions. Allows
  us to gauge
  distance.
 Visual Cliff:
  illustrated that
  crawling infants and
  newborns perceive
  depth.
    Types of Depth Perception
 Binocular    Cues: depth cues that rely on
  the use of two eyes.
 Examples of Binocular Cues:
    Retinal Disparity: idea that images of
     an object from the two eyes differ. The
     closer the object, the larger the
     difference (disparity.)
    Convergence: extent to which the
     eyes converge inward when looking at
     an object that brain keeps track of to
     measure distance.
    Types of Depth Perception
 Monocular Cues: distance cues that are
  available to either eye alone. Often used in art.
 Examples of Monocular Cues
    Relative size: smaller image is more
     distant
    Interposition: closer object blocks distant
     object
    Relative Clarity: hazy object seen as more
     distant
    Texture: coarse=close ; fine=distant
       Types of Depth Perception
   Examples of Monocular Cues Continued:
     Relative Height: higher objects seen as
      more distant
     Relative Motion: closer objects seem to
      move faster
     Linear Perspective: parallel lines converge
      with distance
     Relative Brightness: closer objects appear
      brighter
     Light and Shadow: nearby objects reflect
      more light to our eyes.
Monocular Cue?
Monocular Cue?
    Monocular Cue?

What Cues Do You See?
How many Legs?
          Perceptual Constancy
   Perceptual Constancy: perceiving objects
    as unchanging despite changes in retinal
    image
       color
       shape
       size
Interplay Between Perceived
     Size and Distance
   Using monocular cues for distance can
    often cause us to perceive incorrect
    information.
Diameter of Circles Are the Same
Muller-Lyer Illusion
        Warm Up

On the overhead
Page 39
Cultural Influences on Depth
          Perception

Impossible Image
Impossible Staircase
Day 2
    Sensory Deprivation and
            Perception
 Blind Person Example
   Some  aspects of perception might
    be innate
   Others involve experiences
        period for development of
 Critical
 sensation and perception
Sensory Deprivation and
      Perception
             Kittens raised
             without
             exposure to
             horizontal lines
             later had
             difficulty
             perceiving
             horizontal bars.
    Perceptual Adaptation

 Perceptual     Adaptation
  (vision) ability to adjust to an
   artificially displaced visual field
    prism glasses
http://jeffmilner.com/backmasking.htm
   Perceptual Interpretation

 Perceptual    Set: a
  mental predisposition to
  perceive one thing and
  not another.
 What you see in the
  middle is influenced by if
  you looked at bottom or
  the top
Lochness Monster or a Tree
         Trunk?
        Perceptual Set Affects
            Other Senses

 Perceptual   Set also affects other senses
 like audition.
 Ex:  eel is on the wagon vs. eel is on
  the orange.
 CONTEXT MATTERS!
 Rat Man
 Lyrics
Perception and the Human Factor
 Human   Factors Psychologists-
 explore how people and machines interact
 and how machines and environments can
 be adapted to human behaviors
           Is there Extrasensory
                Perception?
   Extrasensory Perception: claim that perception
    can occur apart from sensory input.
     Astrologicalpredictions, psychic healing,
      communication with the dead
     Telepathy- mind to mind
     Clairvoyance- perceiving remote events
     Precognition- perceiving future events
     Psychokinesis- mind over matter
          Example- light as a feather stiff as a
           board
       Is there Extrasensory
            Perception?
 Parapsychology:      study of paranormal
  phenomenon, including ESP and psycho
  kinesis.
 Research
    Psychics not accurate
    More predictions- police work
    Vague predictions
    Lottery
    No experiment has EVER produced a
     convincible demonstration of ESP
              Psi Phenomenon
   Blinking lights give the illusion of motion

								
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