韜光養晦的中世紀The Middle Ages _The Medieval Times_ with by dffhrtcv3

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 11

									        The Medieval Time
            中世紀的期間:
•   476-1453 : 西、東羅馬滅亡之間的一千年
•   公元 五世紀 至 十五世紀 之間的一千年

•   The Dark Ages (前五百年) +
    The Middle Ages (後五百年)
•   在 The Middle Ages 一千年中 前七百年
    為 The Dark Ages
             中世紀的社會:
1. Feudalism or Feudal System
   (封建制度):

    Dominant from 9th to 14th C.

    Feudal lords, vassals, serfs
•   (封建領主)        (臣僕)     (奴人)
    Inheritable fiefs (封地、釆邑)
         中世紀的社會:
2. The Church & the Kings:

•   Alliance & Struggle between them
•   The Carolingians ( 查理曼王朝)
•   Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne
    Emperor of the West in 800
           中世紀的社會:
3. Classical Learning Ignored:
• Ecclesiastical (宗教的) libraries
• Compendiums (概要) of knowledge
   written in monasteries (寺廟)
• Universities began as colleges of
   theology (神學) & divinity (神).
• Patristic (神父的) writings: Fathers of the
   Church
         Medieval Writers:
1. St. Augustin (354-430):
    – Confessions (399): 《懺悔錄》
      conversion to Christianity (改信基督教)
    – The City of God (c. 420): 《天神城邦》
      the City of God vs. the Earthly City
2. Boethius (480-525):《哲學的慰藉》
•   The Consolation of Philosophy (525)
     An allegorical dialogue in 5 books
     Philosophy, Fortune, evil, free will
           Medieval Writers:
3. Dante Alighieri (但丁,1265-1321):
    –   Vita Nuova (The New Life):《新生活》
    –   The Divine Comedy (c. 1307-1321):《神曲》
•   An allegory of a human soul’s journey through hell and purgatory
    and on to heaven led by Reason (Virgil) and Theology (Beatrice).
•   Symbols with multiple meanings (3, 7, 9, 10, 100)
•   Three books: Inferno (33 + 1 cantos), Purgatory (33 cantos),
    Paradise (33 cantos) 〈地獄篇〉〈煉獄篇〉〈天堂篇〉
•   Epic of the Middle Ages: written in the dialect of Tuscan
•   Preparation for the life after death
4. Chaucer (喬塞,1343?-1400):
             – Canterbury Tales 《坎特伯里故事集》
              “The Pardoner’s Tale” : Greed & Death
                發展中的文類:
1. Epic and Saga: 史詩 與 英勇故事
•   Bards (詩人) & Minstrels (遊吟詩人): scops, scalds,
    troubadours, jongleurs, etc.
   a. Beowulf (Anglo-Saxon):《貝奧武夫》
   b. The Volsungasaga (Scandinavian): Sigurd & Brynhild
   c. The Epic Edda (Iceland): Brynhild & Sigurth 史詩集
   d. The Nibelungenlied (尼伯龍根之歌, a German Iliad) :
        Brunhild & Siegfried
   e. Chanson de Roland (old French epic):《羅郎之歌》
        Chansons de geste (事跡之歌)
   f. El Cantor del Mio Cid (Spanish epic):《席德傳》
             發展中的文類:
2. Romances of Chivalry and Love:
   俠義與愛情 傳奇
• Le Morte d’Arthur (Sir Thomas Malory)
      《亞瑟之死》
• Tristram and Iseult (Bèroul & Thomas of Brittany)
• Aucassin and Nicolette (ProvenÇal love romance)
3. The Folk Ballad: 民謠
   “Edward”
                                                   “Edward”
•   “Why dois your brand sae drap wi bluid, “And whatten penance wul ye drie for that,          “And what wul ye
•                 Edward, Edward,                                   Edward, Edward,                leive to your ain
•   “Why dois your brand sae drap wi bluid,      And whatten penance wul ye drie for that,        mither deir,
•     And why sae sad gang yee O?”                 My deir son, now tell me O.”                    Edward, Edward,
•   “O I hae killed my hauke sae guid,          “Ile set my feit in yonder boat,                  And what wul ye
•                 Mither, mither,                                   Mither, mither,               leive to your ain
•    O I hae killed my hauke sae guid,           Ile set my feit in yonder boat,                  mither deir?
•     And I had nae mair but hee O.”                 And Ile fare ovir the sea O”                 My deir son, now
•   “Your haukis bluid was nevir sae reid      “And what wul ye doe wi your towirs and your ha, tell me O.”
•                 Edward, Edward,                                   Edward, Edward,
•    Your haukis bluid was nevir sae reid,      And what wul ye doe wi your towirs and your ha, “The curse of hell
•     My deir son I tell thee O.”                  That were sae fair to see O?”                   frae me sall ye beir,
•   “O I hae killed my reid-roan steid,        “Ile let thame stand tul they doun fa,             Mither, mither,
•                 Mither, mither                                    Mither, mither,               The curse of hell
•    O I hae killed my reid-roan steid,         Ile let thame stand tul they doun fa,             frae me sall ye beir,
•     That erst was sae fair and frie O.”          For here nevir mair maun I bee O.”                  Sic counseils
•   “Your steid was auld, and ye hae gat mair, “And what wul ye leive to your bairns and your wife,    ye gave
•                 Edward, Edward,                                  Edward, Edward,                     to me O.”
•    Your steid was auld, and ye hae gat mair, And what wul ye leive to your bairns and your wife,
•     Sum other dule ye drie O.”                   When ye gang ovir the sea O?”
•   “O I hae killed my fadir deir,             “The warldis room, late them beg thrae life,
•                  Mither, mither,                                  Mither, mither,
•    O I hae killed my fadir deir,              The warldis room, late them beg thrae life,
•     Alas, and wae is mee O.”                     For thame nevir mair wul I see O.”
               發展中的文類:
4. Other Genres (其他文類):
•    Goliardic verse: 暢懷詩
•    Latin hymns, Sacred songs: 拉丁贊美詩、聖詩
•    Lullabies: 催眠曲
•    Débat: 辯論 The Owl and the Nightingale
•    Fabliau: 低俗故事詩
•    Allegory: 寓言
    The Romance of the Rose (Guillaume de Lorris &
      Jean de Meun)
    Piers Plowman (William Langland)
    Beast epic: 獸類史詩 The Romance of Renart
        Conclusion:
• 中世紀的 文化 與 文學
  並非全然黑暗。
• 以宗教的、出世的、禁慾的
  內容為主。
• 是 多種文類 發展的搖籃。
• 是 courtly love 和 chivalry
  昌盛的時期。

								
To top