Title: Native American Cultural Regions

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Title: Native American Cultural Regions Powered By Docstoc
					Title: Native American Cultural Regions
Lesson Author: Jamie Bates and Michael Hincker
Key Words: culture, environment, Kwakiutl, potlatch, totem, Pueblo, adobe, Inuit, igloo, parka, Sioux,
teepee, Iroquois, wigwam, longhouse, Seminole, chickee
Grade Level: 6th Grade U.S. History to 1877, general education
Time Allotted: 45 minutes

                                       Rationale/ Purpose (so what?)
The rationale and purpose is to engage students in a variety of cultural perspectives through the use of visual as well
as textual artifacts of various Native American cultural regions. The environment has a huge impact of culture (food,
housing, clothing, values, recreation). It is important for students to understand this phenomenon and recognize how
Native American groups adapted to their environments



Key Concept(s) include definition:
Culture- a set of ideas and practices shared by a group; can include food, clothing, housing, values,
and recreation
Environment- physical factors and features that combine to create a unique surrounding area; can
include physiographic features such as lakes, oceans, streams, and rivers, climate, wildlife, and
vegetation
                                          NCSS Standard(s)
     SOL Information (As written in the Virginia SOL “Curriculum Framework” for the grade level)

NCSS Theme (s) with indicators: III. People, Places, and Environments

Teachers of social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as
they guide learners in the study of people, places and environments. They should:

-have learners create, interpret, use, and distinguish various representations of Earth, such as maps,
globes and photographs, and use appropriate geographic tools such as atlases, data bases, systems,
charts, graphs, and maps to generate, manipulate, and interpret information;
-help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global
patterns of geographic phenomena such as landforms, climate, and natural resources;
-ask learners to describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and
ideals, and government policies;
-challenge learners to examine, interpret, and analyze the interactions of human beings and their
physical environments;
-have learners explore the ways Earth’s physical features have changed over time; and to describe and
assess the ways historical events have influenced and have been influenced by physical and human
geographic features

SOL:
USI.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by
      a) locating where the American Indians (First Americans) settled, with emphasis on Arctic (Inuit),
         Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plains (Sioux), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodland (Iroquois);
USI.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by
      b) describing how the American Indians (First Americans) used their environment to obtain food,
        clothing, and shelter.




            Essential Knowledge                                       Essential Skills
        (minimum for SOL Resource Guide)                      (minimum for SOL Resource Guide)

Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska and northern      Sequence events in United States history. (USI.1c)
  Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the
temperature is below freezing much of the year.      Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships
                                                         among landforms, water features, climatic
Kwakiutl inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast,        characteristics, and historical events. (USI.1f)
   characterized by a rainy, mild climate.

Sioux inhabited the interior of the United States,
called the Great Plains and characterized by dry
                   grasslands.

Pueblo inhabited the Southwest in present-day
 New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in
    desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and
                   mountains.


 Iroquois inhabited northeast North America, the
   Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.

  The American Indians (First Americans) fished,
hunted, and harvested crops for food. Clothing was
 made from animal skins and plants. Their shelter
was made of resources found in their environment
     (e.g., sod, stones, animal skins, wood).



Guiding Question(s):
1. How did the environment affect Native American culture? (food, housing, clothing, values, recreation)
2. What are identifying features of the different Native American cultural regions? (Northwest Coast,
Southwest, Great Plains, Southeast, Eastern Woodlands, Arctic)

Assessment Tool(s):
Just Do It! Discussion (Informal)- Student understanding will be assessed during the discussion of
the Just Do It! responses to see if they are making connections between environment and culture.
Slideshow Game (Informal)- Student understanding of the features of Native American cultural
regions and the interaction of environment and culture will be assessed through the answers and
evidence they give during the game.
Short Essay (Formal)- Students will write a short essay for homework, identifying which region they
would have liked to have lived in with three pieces of supporting evidence.
Unit Test (Formal)- Students will be given a unit test during the next class meeting, covering Native
Americans, including migration and arrival theories as well as the Native American cultural regions. The
test will consist of multiple choice questions, map questions, PowerPoint slides showing pictures of
various regions that the students will have to identify, and a short essay question.


   Background: How does this lesson fit into a unit of study?   Looking backwards,
                                 looking forwards
This lesson will serve as a conclusion and test review for a unit on Native
Americans. Students will have already studied migration and arrival theories,
the major features of each Native American region, and how environment
affects culture. There will be a unit test following this lesson. Next, the
students will begin to study European Exploration and the Columbian
Exchange. However, the study of Native Americans will be a yearlong process
because they are present in every event and aspect of U.S. History.


Lesson Objective(s) (Please number):

Students will be able to (SWBAT):
1. identify major features of each Native American cultural region.
2. locate each Native American region on a U.S. map.
3. explain key terms associated with Native Americans.
4. describe how environment influences culture with regards to various Native American cultural groups.
Materials: Historical Source(s):                Additional Materials/Resources:
(include copies in materials section)           (include copies in materials section)


Images (photographs and paintings)              Just Do It! Material A
representing the 6 Native American              Images for Just Do It! activity
cultural regions, embedded in the               Material B
PowerPoint presentation Material D              Native Americans notes matrix,
                                                completed by students Material C
                                                United States map Material E
                                                Explanation of short essay
                                                homework Material F


                                              Procedure/Process:


JUST DO IT! The “Hook”: (A high-interest activity that introduces new content with connections to students’ prior
knowledge. Between 1-5 minutes (Could also introduce the days guiding question)

Students will have 2 images to analyze as a group at their table. They will be asked to determine what
kind of environment each image represents and how that environment would affect the culture of the
area. Students will be asked to share theirs answers as a class. Students will then be shown the guiding
questions for the day [1. How did the environment affect Native American culture? (food, housing,
clothing, values, recreation) 2. What are identifying features of the different Native American cultural
regions? (Northwest Coast, Southwest, Great Plains, Southeast, Eastern Woodlands, Arctic)] {5
minutes} Materials A and B
            Processing Activity and Procedure -include directions,   Check for Evidence of Understanding
 Obj #        question frames, assignment detail to be given to            -Either Formal or Informal-
  See     students (these should all be made into explicit materials (Checks Essential Knowledge and Skills)
 above.           (e.g. see material A), and time estimates

            Students will have 2 images to analyze as a group at
            their table. They will be asked to determine what kind
            of environment each image represents and how that
            environment would affect the culture of the area.
            Students will be asked to share theirs answers as a
                                                                    The teacher will check for student
            class. Students will then be shown the guiding
                                                                    understanding through the answers
Just do it. questions for the day [1. How did the environment
                                                                    and explanations given for the Just
            affect Native American culture? (food, housing,
                                                                    Do It! activity.
            clothing, values, recreation) 2. What are identifying
            features of the different Native American cultural
            regions? (Northwest Coast, Southwest, Great Plains,
            Southeast, Eastern Woodlands, Arctic)] {5 minutes}
            Materials A and B
            You have just examined photographs of different environments and speculated how that
            environment influences culture. We are now going to look at images from the Native
            American cultural regions we have been studying. You are going to determine which region
Transition:
            the image represents based on what evidence in the image and identify where the region is
            located on a map. Take a few minutes to study the notes we took yesterday on Native
            American cultural regions. {5 minutes} Material C
            The teacher will divide the students into equal groups. The teacher will assess student
 Objective Students will be shown a PowerPoint presentation of      understanding of each region and
   1,2,3    images representing the 6 Native American cultural      the interplay of environment and
            regions (Northwest Coast, Southwest, Great Plains,      culture through the answers that
            Southeast, Eastern Woodlands, Arctic). The group will    students give during the game.
            have 1 minute to quietly discuss which region they       Students will be asked to use
            think the image represents. They will be expected to     specific terms (naming tribe, type
            give 3 pieces of evidence from the images to justify     of housing and clothing) when
            their answer. Students should use specific and correct   giving their evidence.
            terminology when presenting the group answer. A
            group member will then have to identify the location of
            the region on a U.S. map. The teacher should ask the
            student to clearly explain their answers and ask for
            further detail when appropriate. Each group will be
            asked to share their answers and locate the region on
            the map for each of the 12 images. {20 minutes}
            Materials D and E
            As you can see, Native American regions varied widely with regards to both environment and
Transition:
            culture. Each group made adaptations in order to adapt to their surroundings.
            The teacher should initiate a closing discussion of how
            environment influences culture with a simple question
                                                                     The teacher will check for student
            (How did Native Americans adapt to their environment?
                                                                     understanding of the interaction of
 Objective How did Native Americans create a culture suited to
    4
                                                                     environment and culture through
            their environment?) Explain the essay that is for
                                                                     comments made during the
            homework. Students will choose the region that they
                                                                     discussion.
            would have liked to have been a part of and give 3
            reasons. {10 minutes} Material F


Modifications/Accommodations for Diverse Learners: This lesson can be modified for students
with special needs by allowing them to use their notes sheet as reference during the slideshow game.
On the notes matrix, the print size can be enlarged. Also, students can have a typed version of the
notes if needed. The groups for the game will be heterogeneous, so there will be mixed ability levels
within each group. Students may also sit closer to the screen to see the images more clearly if
necessary. Also, a resource teacher or aide may sit with students or groups that need extra attention.
Directions for the Just Do It!, the slideshow game, and the essay will be given in both written and oral
forms. Simplified directions will be given if necessary. Students may also type the essay on a computer
or typewriter. They may also dictate the essay to an aide or parent.


Closure/Writing Prompt/Rubric:

Closure: The teacher should initiate a closing discussion of how environment influences culture with a
simple question (How did Native Americans adapt to their environment? How did Native Americans
create a culture suited to their environment?) Explain the essay that is for homework. Students will
choose the region that they would have liked to have been a part of and give 3 reasons. {10 minutes}
Material F

Writing Prompt:

If I were a Native American living in the 1500s, I would want to be a part of the _______________
tribe/region because...

*Choose 1 of the Native American tribes/regions that we have studied that you would most want to be a
member of. Give 3 reasons/pieces of evidence for choosing that tribe or region. Please edit your essay
for grammatical and spelling errors.
Rubric:

Native American Cultural Regions Essay Rubric- 5 points

___   Clearly identified region or tribe to be discussed (1)
___   Correct Reason/Evidence #1 (1)
___   Correct Reason/Evidence #2 (1)
___   Correct Reason/Evidence #3 (1)
___   Essay is free of grammatical, spelling, and stylistic errors (1)


Materials (one resource per page- so it becomes a teacher or student handout, or overhead directions or ppt
presentation.)

Material   A: Just Do It! (first slide of PowerPoint presentation)
Material   B: Images of 4 different environments for Just Do It! activity
Material   C: Native Americans notes matrix, completed
Material   D: PowerPoint presentation, Name that Native American Cultural Region
Material   E: U.S. Map
Material   F: Explanation of Short Essay Homework and Rubric
Material A


Just Do It!
•Look at the two photographs in the middle of your
table.
•Determine with the other people sitting at your table

what kind of environment each photo represents (Is
is cold, hot, rainy, dry, windy?)
•Then discuss how the environment in the

photograph might influence the culture of the area
(food, housing, clothing, values, recreation).
•Be prepared to share your answers with the class!
Material B
Material C
Region                             Housing                        Food                          Clothing                         Recreation                      Values
         Great Plains              Teepees made of animal skins   Mainly buffalo                Made of animal skins             Games similar to real life      Many ceremonies (for buffalo,
                                                                                                                                 events (Buffalo Hunt)           horses)
Tribe: Sioux                       Grass huts                     Corn                          Decorated with fringe, quills,
                                                                                                and animal teeth
Physiographic: vast treeless                                      Beans
grassland, cold winters, hot
and dry summers, moderate                                         Squash
rainfall

Wildlife: buffalo, antelopes,
mule deer, coyotes, prairie
dogs, quails, pheasants
    Eastern Woodlands              Wigwams and longhouses         Deer                          Made of animal skins             Tattoos and body painting for   Dreams
                                   made of wood                                                                                  ceremonies
Tribe: Iroquois                                                   Fish                          Skirts                                                           Sun and moon

Physiographic: distinct                                           Squirrels                     Breech cloths
seasons of hot summers and
cold winters, plentiful water in                                  Also some corn, squash, and
lakes, streams, and rivers, lush                                  beans
forests

Wildlife: abundant animals;
bear, deer, rabbits, squirrels,
birds, fish, turtles
           Southeast               Chickees                       CORN                          Made of animal skins, tree       Lacrosse                        Corn
                                                                                                bark, and Spanish moss
Tribe: Seminole                    Raised 3 feet off the ground   Some hunting                                                   Corn festival                   Sun

Physiographic: coastal plains                                                                                                                                    water
with marshes, grasses as well
as areas with mountains and
plentiful water

Wildlife: wild boars,
opossums, raccoons, muskrats,
otters, snakes, alligators
Region                            Housing                        Food                    Clothing                        Recreation                   Values
     Northwest Coast              Large wooden homes             Lots of food sources:   Cedar bark                      Art (carving and painting)   Raven was spiritual
                                                                 Fish
Tribe: Kwakiutl                                                  Berries                 Animal skins                    Potlach                      Totem poles
                                                                 Roots
Physiographic: borders                                           Birds                   B-Day Suit                                                   Wealth and possession
Pacific, many lakes and bays,                                    Whales
mild and moist climate,                                          Clams
frequent rainfall, dense forest                                  Elk…

Wildlife: rich in fish, whales,
otter, deer, moose, and elk
           Southwest              Pueblos made of adobe (clay    Corn                    Only group to make cotton       Foot races                   WATER
                                  and soil)                                              clothing
Tribe: Pubelo                                                    Pumpkins                                                pottery                      (because they didn’t have
                                                                                                                                                      much)
Physiographic: open treeless                                     Beans
plains, flat-topped mesas,
canyons, dry desert, sparse                                      Small animals
vegetation

Wildlife: jackrabbits,
kangaroo rats, and pocket
mice
             Arctic               Typically igloos made of ice   Only hunting            Made of animal skins and furs   Fishing                      Spirits of ancestors

Tribe: Inuit                                                     Fish                    Many layers                     Physical games

Physiographic: winters very                                      Whales                  Jackets with hoods called       Carvings out of stone and
long and cold, ocean covered                                                             parkas                          ivory
with ice, ground is frozen, ice                                  Seals
melts in short summer when a
few small plants grow                                            No real vegetation

Wildlife: fish, whales,
walruses, seals, caribou, musk
oxen, polar bears
Material D

PowerPoint presentation, see attachment or disk
Material E
Material F

Native American Cultural Regions Essay

-Complete this essay as homework. Turn it in the next time we meet.

If I were a Native American living in the 1500s, I would want to be a part of the _______________
tribe/region because...

*Choose 1 of the Native American tribes/regions that we have studied that you would most want to be a
member of. Give 3 reasons/pieces of evidence for choosing that tribe or region. Please edit your essay
for grammatical and spelling errors.

Rubric:

Native American Cultural Regions Essay Rubric- 5 points

___   Clearly identified region or tribe to be discussed (1)
___   Correct Reason/Evidence #1 (1)
___   Correct Reason/Evidence #2 (1)
___   Correct Reason/Evidence #3 (1)
___   Essay is free of grammatical, spelling, and stylistic errors (1)

				
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