Female anatomy by NKB4nmzL

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									      Animal Science/Dairy Science 434


                     Reproductive Physiology

            Lecture 1: Introduction, Female Anatomy




Updated:11/18/2012
             What is happening in this image?




Updated:11/18/2012
                          Instructions
    • Graded exercise (5 points)
    • On the card provided, list 3 things that
         you observe or know are occurring in
         the scene. (2 minutes)
           » Print   your name at the top
    • Form groups of 4 or 5            (List the names in the
         group on your card).
           » Take   2 minutes to discuss the scene and
               make a group list of what is occurring in
               the scene.


Updated:11/18/2012
     Potential Ways To Interpret Image
    • Superficial
           » Looking into         each other’s eyes
           » Touching
    • Physiological changes
           » Heart rates increasing
           » Increased blood flow to             reproductive organs
                     • Lubrication of vagina, clitoral enlargement,
                       contractions of uterus
                     • Erection of penis, contractions of epididymis


Updated:11/18/2012
                     Instructor
    • John J. Parrish
    • 714 Animal Science
    • parrish@ansci.wisc.edu
    • 263-4324




Updated:11/18/2012
                           Laboratories
    • Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday
    • Room 134 Animal Science
    • 3:30 - 5:30
           » may     last until 6:00




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Text
                     •   Pathways to Pregnancy
                         and Parturition - Second
                         Edition
                          » P.L. Senger
                     •   UW Bookstore
                     •   Library (not 2nd edition)




Updated:11/18/2012
                 Web Page
      http://www.wisc.edu/ansci_repro/
                         •   Syllabus
                         •   Lecture Outlines and
                             Handouts
                         •   Labs
                         •   Old Exams
                         •   Project Information
                         •   Important Dates
                         •   Grading


Updated:11/18/2012
                 434 Web Site Modifications
    • Updates may occur daily.
    • Lecture outlines and labs are currently
         for last year
    •    2004 lecture updates are usually done
         by 8:15 the day of lecture
    •    2004 lab material will be updated by
         the time of Tuesday’s lecture.



Updated:11/18/2012
                     Web Page Techniques
         •    Netscape 4.5 or better
                » Internet    Explorer 5.0 or better
         •    Will work best from a campus networked
              computer
                » essential   for video clips in WebCT
         •    Display set for 800 X 600
         •    Frames were used in page construction
                » Printing (check FAQ)
                » movement within web site
         •    Reload button (for lab computers)
                » the   site is continually being changed


Updated:11/18/2012
Updated:11/18/2012
                     Initial
               Syllabus
               Lectures
                     Labs
              Handouts
             Old Exams
                 Project
                     FAQ

Updated:11/18/2012
                                     Syllabus
                     Tentative Schedule - Spring 2002
                                                               Reading
        Week Date            Title
                                                               in Text

            1        Jan 20 Lec 1 – Introduction, female       Ch. 1, 2
                            reproductive tract anatomy

                     Jan 22 Lec 2 - Comparative female         Ch. 1, 2
                            anatomy, historical perspectives

                             Lab 1 - Internet access, female
                             anatomy, follicular aspiration

Updated:11/18/2012
                            Important Dates
             •       Lecture Exams
                     » February 19
                     » April 8
                     » May 12 (12:25   PM, Friday )
             •       Lab Exams
                     » February 24 (given 3X on Tuesday)
                     » April 27, 28 or 29 (taken in lab)
             •       Oral Final
                     » April 8 to end of class


Updated:11/18/2012
                     Grading (Tentative)
           Lecture Exam I                                      100
           Lecture Exam II                                     100
           Lecture Exam III                                    100
           Lab Exam I                                           50
           Lab Exam II                                          50
           Oral Final                                          100
           Project                                             200
           Lab Exercises                                        65
           Lab quizzes (start of lab; 5 @ 5 pts each)           25
           Lab quizzes (end of lab; 13 @ 5 pts each)            65
           Total                                               855
   The final grade will be curved but generally ends near the following
   percentages: A (100-93%), AB (88-93%), B (80-88%), BC (79-70%), C
   (69-60%), D (59-50%), F (<50%).
Updated:11/18/2012
     Case or Problem Based Approach
                     Dear Uncle Ed;
                        I turned my heifers out this
                     fall with a bull. The
                     veterinarian determined most
                     were pregnant in January. The
                     heifer in the center of the
                     picture was however not
                     pregnant. What could be the
                     problem?
                     Your nephew,
                     John



Updated:11/18/2012
            How do you approach a case?
    • What information is relevant and what
         is not?
    •    What do you need to know?
                     »Where   will you find this information?
    • Team or Group responsibilities
                     »What will each   member do?
                     »Time limits



Updated:11/18/2012
                     Lecture 1
        Female Reproductive Tract Anatomy




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Learning Objectives
    • To learn the different structures and
         nomenclatures for the parts of the
         female reproductive system.

    • To learn the basic functions for the
         different parts of the tract and how
         they work together.



Updated:11/18/2012
                     Equine - Horse
         Male        Stallion   Female   Mare




Updated:11/18/2012
                      Bovine - Cattle
    Male             Bull      Female   Cow




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Ovine - Sheep
         Male        Ram     Female   Ewe




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Porcine - Swine - Pig
        Male            Boar      Female     Sow




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Avian - Chicken
       Male          Rooster   Female   Hen




Updated:11/18/2012
                                Uterine Body
                                                            Uterine Horn
 Uterine Horn

       Ovary                                                    Ovary


                                                                Oviduct


                     Oviduct                       Cervix

          Bladder

                                                       Vagina


                      Urethra


                     Clitoris                  Vulva
Updated:11/18/2012
          Rectum



                                                     Uterus



 Vulva
                                                      Ovary

        Vagina       Pelvis

                              Bladder Cervix         Oviduct



                                                 Broad
                                               Ligament

Updated:11/18/2012
                       Broad
                     Ligament

                     •   connective tissue
                         sheet which
                         supports and
                         suspends the
                         reproductive
                         tract




Updated:11/18/2012
                           Broad Ligament

                     mesometrium


                                      mesovarium




                                            mesosalpinx
Updated:11/18/2012
                     Ovary - Primary Sex Organ
    • Functions
           » Hormonal
                     • Estrogen
                     • Progesterone
           » Female         gamete
                     • Oocyte




Updated:11/18/2012
     Ovary           Follicle - Estrogen, Oocyte




Corpus Luteum                           Corpus Luteum
Progesterone                              Progesterone




Updated:11/18/2012
                          Ovary
                                                Germinal
                                               Epithelium
          Cortex                              85% of Ovarian
                                                 Cancers




                                                 Medulla


                                               Tunica
                                              Albuginea
    Blood and lymphatic
    Vessels & nerves
                                  }   Hilus

Updated:11/18/2012
       Ruptured follicle   Tertiary follicle
         (ovulation)                              Primary follicle
                                                       Egg nest

                                                         Tertiary
                                                         follicle




                           Atretic follicle
                                                        Secondary
                                                          follicle




         Corpus                               Corpus albicans
                     Corpus luteum
hemorrhagicum
Updated:11/18/2012
 Primordial Follicle                                   Follicle Cells
• Flattened cells                                          Nucleus
 surround oocyte




Primary Follicle                    Ooplasma
• Increase in size of oocyte and    Follicular Cells
 height of follicular cells

 Secondary follicle
                                                       Oocyte
• Surrounded by several
 layers of follicular cells


Tertiary follicle
 • Follicle forms a fluid
   filled cavity
 • Differentiation of cell layers     Antrum
   in the follicle wall
     Tertiary Follicle
                                             Theca Externa


                         Antrum
                     (Follicular Fluid)       Theca Interna

                                               Basement
                                               Membrane


                                               Granulosa

     Oocyte

Updated:11/18/2012
                                     Cumulus Oophorus
                      Tertiary Follicle

                                          Theca Interna


                                          Granulosa



             Oocyte                        Cumulus
                                           Oophorus

                                          Antrum

Updated:11/18/2012
                       Follicular Blood Supply
                        Theca interna cells
                                                   Basement Membrane


                                              Granulosa cells


                     Capillary                    Follicular
                     network                        fluid




Updated:11/18/2012
     Secondary Sex Organ: A Series of Tubes
           to Convey the Oocyte/Embryo/Fetus to the Outside


                             Serosa




                     Submucosa


                     Lumen                     Longitudinal smooth
                                               muscle layer
                                      Circular smooth
                         Mucosa
                                      muscle layer      Muscularis

Updated:11/18/2012
                     Functions of Oviduct
    • Gamete Transport
           » Sperm
           » Oocyte
    • Supports early
         embryo development
    •    Transport of embryo
         to uterus



Updated:11/18/2012
                                          Uterine Horn
                                               Isthmus

   Utero-Tubal Junction


    Oviduct
                     Ampullary-Isthmic
                        Junction
                                                             Ampulla
                          Infundibulum
                          (20 - 30 cm2)
               Ostium

Cumulus Oophorus
   and Oocyte                                      Fimbria


              Ovary
Updated:11/18/2012
                                             Follicle
                               Oviduct

                     Ampulla
                               Mesosalpinx

                                      Isthmus

                                     UT Junction


                                         Uterine Horn
Updated:11/18/2012
                     Oviduct Histology

                              Mucosa
                                 •Ciliated Columnar
                                 •Nonciliated Columnar




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Functions of the Uterus
    • Muscle contractions
           » Transport sperm
           » Expel fetus and placenta
    • Absorption and phagocytosis
    • Partially prepares sperm for
         fertilization
           » capacitation
    • Provides environment for embryo and
         fetal growth
    •    Hormone production
Updated:11/18/2012
                                                 horn
       Uterus (bovine)



          • Bicornuate                   body

                 » poorly to moderately
                   developed uterine
                   horns                cervix
                 » uterine body
                 » one cervix



Updated:11/18/2012
                     Caruncles




Updated:11/18/2012
                        Uterine Histology
                                       Endometrium




                                             Endometrial
                 Perimetrium
Updated:11/18/2012             Myometrium      Glands
                     Uterine Histology
                           Mucosa




                                         Endometrial
Endometrium                                Gland
                           Submucosa




Myometrium


                          Perimetrium
Updated:11/18/2012
                     Functions of the Cervix
    • Transport of sperm
    • Barrier to sperm (species dependent)
    • Reservoir for sperm
    • Blocking bacterial invasion during
         pregnancy
    •    Birth canal




Updated:11/18/2012
                                     Uterine Body                   COW
  • Cervix is composed                              Internal Cervical Os
     of thick connective
     tissue
                                                    • Mucus is secreted
                                                      near the time of
Cervix                                                breeding and
                     Cow has 4-5                      ovulation.
                     annular rings




    External Cervical Os



Updated:11/18/2012                     Vagina
                                     Cervix
            COW
                          Internal Os

                                Cervical
                                               Cervical
                                 Ring
                                                Ring
            Fornix
                                     Fornix



                       External Os
                                              EWE   Fornix
                     Anterior Vagina                  Anterior Vagina
Updated:11/18/2012
                     Functions of the Vagina
    • Copulatory organ
    • Glands secrete lubrication
    • Birth canal
    • Glands secrete pheremones




Updated:11/18/2012
 Vagina                          Anterior Vagina    Posterior Vagina (Vestibule)


                 Cervix
                                    Fornix

                                                                          Vulva-
                                                                          Vaginal
                                                                          Sphincter
                                                        Stratified
                          Columnar                     Squamous
                          Epithelium      Urethra      Epithelium




                                         Mucosa


                     Submucosa                                       Submucosa

Updated:11/18/2012
                 Posterior Vaginal Histology


                                Stratified Squamous
                                     Epithelium




                               Mucosa



Updated:11/18/2012
                                    Submucosa
            Function of External Genitalia
    • Labia
           » Closes   entrance to vagina
    • Clitoris
           » Female   sensory organ




Updated:11/18/2012
              External Genitalia of the Cow
                           Anus
                                      Vulva

                            Labia



                           Clitoris

                           Labia




Updated:11/18/2012
                     Phenomena For Fertility
     •     vagina dentata - a vagina with teeth
     •     female bedbug - no vagina
     •     hysterectomy - if woman went to long
           without becoming pregnant then uterus would
           wonder in body causing hysteria and other
           distresses
     •     hyena - clitoris is very large and looks like
           the male penis; female also has a false
           scrotum (labia); female is the dominate sex
           and produces more testosterone than male


Updated:11/18/2012

								
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