VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 53 POSTED ON: 11/18/2012
THE BEGINNINGS... Photography-the name from Sir John Herschel - first used the term in 1839, (year the photographic process became public) -The word is derived from the Greek words for light and writing. -Herschel used the term first in a lecture before the Royal Society on March 14, 1839, he was beaten to the post by an anonymous writer with the initials "J.M." a few weeks earlier, on February 25 (Eventually determined to be Johann von Maedler (1794-1874), who was an astronomer in Berlin) Hershel was the person who, with his fame and position, made the word "photography" known to the world. The idea of photography existed long before the camera was invented -Conceptual basis for photography: The human urge to make pictures that augment the faculty of memory by capturing time: -first goal: to expedite the picture making process. (primary function of visual arts was to capture likeness of someone or something worth commemorating...) -An uncanny prediction made by a man called de la Roche (1729- 1774) in a fictional work called Giphantie. -In his tale, it was possible to capture images from nature, on a canvas which had been coated with a sticky substance. This surface, so the tale goes, would not only provide a mirror image on the sticky canvas, but would remain on it. After it had been dried in the dark the image would remain permanent. “That window, that vast horizon, those black clouds, that raging sea, are all but a picture... You know that the rays of light, reflected from different bodies, form a picture, and paint the image reflected on all polished surfaces, for instance, on the retina of the eye, on water, and on glass. The elemental spirits have sought to fix these fleeting images; they have composed a subtle matter, very viscous and quick to harden and dry, by means of which a picture is formed in a twinkling of an eye. They coat a piece of canvas with this matter, and hold it in front of objects they wish to paint. The first effect of the canvas is similar to that of a mirror; one sees there all objects, near and far, the image off which light can transmit. But what a glass cannot do, the canvas by means of viscous matter, retains the images The mirror represents the objects faithfully, but retains them not; our canvas shows them with the same exactness, and retains them all. This impression of the image is immediately carried away into some dark place. An hour later the impression is dry, and you have to picture that more valuable in that it cannot be imitated by art or destroyed by time...The correctness of the drawing, the truth of the expression, the stronger or weaker strokes, the gradation of the shades, the rules of perspective, all these we leave to Nature, who with sure and never-erring hand, draws upon our canvases images which deceive the eye.” (de la Roche--prophetic this tale, only a few decades after his death) There are two distinct scientific processes that combined make photography possible. -These processes had been known for quite some time (separately). -Not until the two distinct scientific processes had been put together that photography came into being. The first of these processes was optical. -5th century BC, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti discovered that light reflecting from an illuminated object and passing through a pinhole into a darkened area would form an exact, but inverted image of that object, offering a prototype of the pinhole camera (lens-less camera). -Aristotle, Greek philosopher in 330 BCE (384-322BCE) observed a crescent-shaped image of the sun during a partial eclipse as projected through the small opening between the leaves of a tree onto the ground. -The Camera Obscura (Latin for room darkened or Dark room) was a dark box or room with a hole in one end. If the hole was small enough, an inverted image would be seen on the opposite wall. -The Camera Obscura --in existence for at least 400 yrs. -Its first use was for the viewing of solar eclipses; without harming the eyes by looking directly at the sun. -a drawing, dated 1519, of a Camera Obscura by Leonardo da Vinci; about this same period its use as an aid to drawing was being advocated. 10th century AD, Arabian mathematician Alhazen (aka Ibn Al Haitham), described what can be called a camera obscura in his writings; manuscripts of his observations are to be found in the India Office Library in London. (disc. image sharper as aperture/opening became smaller) In his essay "On the form of the eclipse" he wrote: "The image of the sun at the time of the eclipse, unless it is total, demonstrates that when its light passes through a narrow, round hole and is cast on a plane opposite to the hole it takes on the form of a moon-sickle. The image of the sun shows this peculiarity only when the hole is very small. When the hole is enlarged, the picture changes... ." -1267 in Roger Bacon’s treatise Perspectiva and De multiplicatione specie rum he indicates use of optical principals to contrive an arrangement of mirrors to project images of solar eclipses, as well as views of his house interiors and street scenes. (CO w/ mirrors) -1279, John Peckhan, the Archbishop of Canterbury and possible student of Bacon, remarks about observing a solar eclipse through a darkened piece. Background: Renaissance -New focus on science, experimentation and observation over an authorities’ (religious monarchs) unproven word of what was real, ---new look to an open process not predicated by belief or magic. -Besides praying to go to other worlds, people built large ocean-bound ships and complex machines to carry their physical bodies out of the Old World into a new material world. -Educated society shifted towards objective, documented, repeatable facts - science as an alternative to faith. -1413 Birth of Linear Perspective fathered by Filippo Brunelleschi of Italy (& Romans) (objects are foreshortened as they recede into space and lines converge to a vanishing point that corresponds to the spectator’s viewpoint. -1435, Leon Battista Alberti’s treatise On painting , compares the picture plane to a window and advocates the use of geometric linear perspective in picture making. -Led to artists constructing and eyepiece for the convention of viewing a scene through one eye at one place at one time (in order to compress 3D space and easier visual observation for recreation on a flat surface)--Device for "miracles in painting". -Changes in mapmaking: 15th century produced geometrically consistent maps in 2D guides; versus previous adjustment of size and position of a site according to its cultural significance. -New mass printed & illustrated books+ access by larger audience. 1490-The earliest written record of description & uses of a camera obscura in 2 notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519; not pub. until 1797): “A large dark room that an artist physically entered. Light entered through a small hole in one of the walls and projected a distinct but inverted, color image onto the opposite wall that could then be traced.” 1521- Cesare Cesariano, pupil of Leonardo da Vinci described the camera obscura in an annotation in his edition of Vitrruvius’s De architectura in which an image of everything outside the room can be seen. 1545 Dutch physician & mathematician Reiner Gemma Frisius first published an illustration of a camera obscura in De radio astronomico et geometrico liber. -Leonardo Alberti invented a device as a sort of camera obscura which he called “miracles of painting.” -Albrecht Durer 1471-1528)uses camera-based principles of perspective and proportion in his drawings. 1550-Girolamo Cardano, a Milanese physician, inserted a bi-convex lens (thick in middle) in the aperture of the camera obscura in order to form brighter & sharper image. (in his work, De subtilitate) -1558, Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615) published in his treatise in Magiae naturalis (Natural Magic) -most extensive description on record and 1st recommended use as as aid in drawing- “The Manner in which one can perceive in the dark the things on the outside are illuminated by the sun, and with their colors...will make possible for anyone ignorant of the art of painting to draw with a pencil or pen the image (made by the camera obscura) of any object whatsoever.” ...“If you cannot paint, you can by this arrangement draw (the outline of the images) with a pencil. You have then only to lay on the colors. This is done by reflecting the image downwards on to a drawing-board with paper. And for a person who is skillful this is a very easy matter.” -Porta’s Magiae naturalis was one of the best-known works on poplar science published in the 16th Century, published in many editions & languages. -Second enlarged edition 31 years later Porta expands to portraiture with a sitter posed in direct sunlight outside the room and in front of the aperture in the window-shutter. Also- mirror in CO to reverse image & CO to make nighttime court dramas with torch-light: -published what is believed to be the first account of the possibilities as an aid to drawing. It is said that he made a huge "camera" in which he seated his guests, having arranged for a group of actors to perform outside so that the visitors could observe the images on the wall. -The story goes, that the sight of upside down performing images was too much for the visitors; they panicked and fled, and Battista was later brought to court on a charge of sorcery. -Despite Battista's account associated with the study of the occult, it is likely that from that time onwards many artists used a camera obscura to aid them in drawing but because of the association with the occult, or -Because they felt that in some way their artistry was lessened, few would admit to using one... 1568-Daniel Barbaro, a Venetian nobleman, in La Pratica della perspecttiva mentions adding lens diaphragms of various sizes so that the image can be sharpened. -Barbaro also used a convex lens.&recomm. the camera as an aid to drawing and perspective. He wrote: "Close all shutters and doors until no light enters the camera except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper, which you move forward and backward until the scene appears in the sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colors and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately color it from nature." 1573 Egnatio Danti, a Florentine mathematician & astronomer in La prospettiva di Euclide published the improvements of adding a concave mirror to correct the inverted image. Giovanni Canale - better known as Canaletto (1697- 1768), Vermeer (1632-1675), Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), and Paul Sandby (1725-1809), a founding member of the Royal Academy. -Some, including Joshua Reynolds, warned against the indiscriminate use of the camera obscura, others, notably Algarotti, a writer on art and science; a highly influential man amongst artists --strongly advocated its use in his Essays on Painting (1764): "The best modern painters among the Italians have availed themselves of this contrivance; nor is it possible that they should have otherwise represented things so much to the life... Let the young painter, therefore, begin as early as possible to study these divine pictures... Painters should make the same use of the Camera Obscura, which Naturalists and Astronomers make of the microscope and telescope; for all these instruments equally contribute to make known, and represent Nature." -Same period, the lens was being developed... -Roger Bacon's name is associated with this; some claim he invented spectacles. -Gerolomo Cardano (1501- 1576), an Italian mathematician, introduced a glass disc in place of a pinhole in his camera. 1646- Daniel Schwenter, Prof. of mathematics at Altdorf University described in Deliciae physico-mathematicae an elaborate lens-system combining three different focal lengths. -A scioptric ball or “ox-eye” consisted of a hollow, revolvable wooden sphere with a hole bored through its axis and a lens fitted a either end, each of a different focal length. -Combined gave a shorter focus than either separately -Screwed into a window-shutter of a darkened room, the scioptric ball projected onto the opposite wall or screen, pictures from all directions in which the ball was turned, instead of only the view through the front window. -Mentions it’s use by artist Hans Hauer in a panoramic drawing of Nuremberg with excellent perspective. Why -name lens? It is claimed...Italian lenses were by-convex, they seemed to resemble the brown lentils they used to make soup - "lens" came from the Latin for "lentil". The first cameras were enormous. -16th century: brightness and clarity of camera obscuras improved by enlarging the hole inserting a telescope lens. Pre-1580 Friedrich Risner suggests the use of portable camera obscuras; published posthumously in 1606 in his Optics -1611, Johannes Kelper, during a survey of upper Austria in capacity as Imperial Mathematician, built a proto-portable camera: -a human-size tent that could be dismantled and transported to make drawing easier: -A black tent with a tube at the top for projection, containing a bi-convex lens, and a mirror to reflect the image down to the drawing-board. -1646-Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680) (ETCHING), a Jesuit scholar & Prof. in Rome described & illustrated his portable camera obscura in Ars magnus lucis et umbrae: -light enough to be carried on poles by two men. -consisted of an outer cube made of strong, lightweight material with lenses in the center of each wall, and an inner cube containing transparent paper for drawing on; the artist needed to enter by a trapdoor on the floor. -Tent-type cameras were in use up until the beginning of the nineteen hundreds. Then smaller, portable ones were made. -The camera obscura, became a popular aid to sketching. -Mid 17th Century: Johannes Kelper modifies and scales down his camera so that the viewer remains outside of it (made smaller) and views the image projected onto a translucent window. Kaspar Schott, Prof. of mathematics at Wurzburg, a pupil of Kircher realized it wasn’t necessary for an artist to get inside the camera; it would perfectly suffice to look through a hole in its side. 1657 Kaspar Schott in Magica Optica says a traveler returned from Spain and told him about a camera obscura small enough to be carried under the arm. - He then constructs one in the form of two boxes, one slightly smaller then the other so that it could slide within the other to adjust the focus. -Two convex lenses were fitted in an adjustable tube and “erect images obtained”. -1676- Earliest reflex cameras described & illustrated by Johann Christoph Sturm, Prof. of mathematics at Altdorf, in Collegium ex-perimentale, sive curio sum: -A plane mirror at a 45 degree angle to the lens reflected the image right way up on to a piece of oiled paper stretched across the opening in the top of the camera, which was shaded by a hood for improved visibility of the image. 1685- Johann Zahn, a Premonstratensian monk at Wurzburg, illustrated in Oculus artificialis teledioptricus, several box camera types small enough to be taken anywhere. -The reflex type was 9 inches in height & width and 2 feet in length -Described with an opal-glass focusing screen (for the 1st time) and painted black interior of the box and lens-tube to avoid reflections. -In size & design Zahn’s cameras are prototypes of 19th Century photographic box & reflex cameras. -Sedan chairs -converted into portable camera obscuras used by artists. -Lens aberrations are corrected to give better resolution & made to produce images of different sizes (for different needs of portrait and landscape artists) -Image size in relation to the focal length and distance from to a point of sharp focus. -Instruction manuals for matching lenses with cameras and situations appeared. -Drawing shifted from the private act of a highly trained individual to a broader commercial enterprise that incorporated ideas of mass production and standardization 18th Century: use of the camera obscura was common knowledge among the educated; -Long descriptions of the camera obscura apparatus were included in most works on optics, treatises on painting, and books on popular recreation --CO tailored w/ Renn. demands of pictoral innear perspective to make drawing easier & quicker. Evidence of CO use in paintings of Jan Vermeer (1632-1675) -tight use of space -unbalanced composition -unusual POV light at specific times of day -detailed edges of frame -use of pts of focus -repres. through stillness of time (new ways of seeing...) -extreme detail 18th cent rising middle class wanted status commemorated as rich -inventors given incentives to use CO toward portraiture (less artist training=less cost of portrait)--machine based-systems in demand over hand-made... 1786-The Physionotrace by Gilles Louis Chretien -combo of portraiture, silouette & engraving-- -trace profile w/ stylus on glass; tool connected to engraving tool which copied strokes onto copper plate in one min;-smaller scale--plate used to make mulit-copies - expanded portraiture to middle class & less need for eye-hand coord. -copied style of miniaturists satisfied desire for accurate vis. description of indivd's presence social status 1796-Aloys Senefelder Invents Lithography -cheaper means of mass production & distrib. of printed pictures (Oil medium drawn on plate & oil based ink (=ink sticks only to oil areas vs. water) -wood engraving also used...for demand for multiples 1770's Phillip Jacques de Loutherbourg combines magic lanterns with automatas w/ clock drivers (mechanical toys & early slide projector)= Argand Oil Lamp -1st mod lighting system for projected images onto a screen w/ bean of light -Eidophusikon = protean TV/theater stage 6ftH x 10ftw x 8ftD -colored lights w /A O L & sound fr revolving cylinders of rocks & shells... (show of Captain Cooks Voyages) 1788-Daily Universal Register: "...the most magnificent (spectacle) that modern times has produced." 1826 The Drummond Light aka limelight replaced Argand light -more powerful & accurate beam of light - use for ent, education & social change... 1800 Etienne Robert & Paul de Philipstal --the Phantasmagoria (rear projection, live animals, smoke, thunder in theater--moving images to advance, etc) New Industrial Revolution = new vision of world, new desires & new forms of rep. in visual arts Gothic horror & live shows... Cosmorama, Goerama, Neorama, Uranorama -demand for beauty reshaped by new hunger 1807 Dr. William Wollaston designs the Camera Lucida -Another aid to drawing, but worked in a different way, with a reflecting prism which enabled artists to draw outlines in correct perspective: -No dark room was needed. The paper was laid flat on the drawing board, -The artist would look through a lens containing the prism, so that he could see both the paper and a faint image of the subject to be drawn. He would then fill in the image. -The camera Lucida was difficult to use and still required some amount of drawing skill. Good drawing skills were expected of anyone in high society (as a form of literacy), even as a scientist such as William Henry Fox Talbot in England. William Henry Fox Talbot had great difficulty drawing & looked for other ways of forming an image without the use of eye-hand coordination. Costs: -1839 Fox Talbot bought several instruments including a camera obscura for seven pounds fifteen shillings (£7.75). -At that time the typical servant's wage would have averaged between ten and twenty pounds per year. The second process was chemical -For hundreds of years before photography was invented, people were aware that some colors are bleached in the sun, but they had made little distinction between heat, air and light. -The sixteen hundreds: Robert Boyle, a founder of the Royal Society, had reported that silver chloride turned dark under exposure, but he appeared to believe that it was caused by exposure to the air, rather than to light. -Early seventeenth century, Angelo Sala - noticed that powdered nitrate of silver is blackened by the sun. -1727 Johann Heinrich Schulze, prof. of anatomy at the University of Altdorf near Nuremberg, observed the darkening of silver salts when exposed to light and concluded it was due to light alone (vs. air or heat) -Professor J. Schulze in search for phosphorus -mixes saturated chalk with nitric acid (that happened to contain silver) in a flask; it was near an open window in sunshine and he notices a purple darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight; the portion away from the light remained white. -Accidental creation of the first photosensitive compound -He soon cut out letters in paper on the outside of a flask: “Before long I found that the sun’s rays on the side which they had touched the glass through the apertures in paper, wrote the words or sentences so accurately and distinctly on the chalk sediment, that many people... were led to attribute the result to all kinds of artifices.” -1927 Schultz published his findings in the transactions of the Imperial Academy at Nuremberg, entitled Scotophorus pro Phosphoro Inventus or “bringer of darkness” vs. phosphorus, “bringer of light” (his goal). -Known as a parlor trick in books on “rational recreations” and in scientific circles. -Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele proved violet rays of solar spectrum have a more rapid darkening effect on silver chloride than other wavelengths; a disadvantage in photography until the advent of panchromatic emulsions, & caused an incorrect translation of colors of nature in the monochromatic tonal scale. 1777 Scheele notes in Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer, silver chloride acted on by light becomes insoluble ammonia. 1782- Jean Senebier, a librarian in Geneva, moves Scheele’s work forward with the relative speed that different spectrum colors darken silver chloride; 15 seconds for violet, 20 minutes for red), published in his Memoires physico-chymiques sur l’influence de la lumiere solaire. -Senbier also studies the effect of light on resins, finding that some lose their solubility in turpentine after exposure to light; hardening (later used by Nicephore Niepce) -Nineteenth century: Thomas Wedgwood-first to demonstrate the possibility of photography- he had successfully captured images, but his silhouettes could not survive, as there was no known method of making the image permanent. -1800: Thomas Wedgwood, (son of potter Josiah Wedgwood) an amateur scientist attempts to make photographs using the camera obscura and his knowledge of the light sensitivity of silver nitrate (acquired from tutor Alexander Chisholm; former chem. assistant of Dr William Lewis, 1st in England to publish Schultz’s investigations) -Wedgwood fails to fix the images “in any moderate time” (does not define moderate...) -His attempts at photography are published in the Journal of the Royal institution, London, June 1802 by friend, Sir Humphry Davy. -Davy & Wedgwood make copies of insect’s’ wings, leaves, and paintings on glass by laying them on paper or white leather (more) sensitized with silver nitrate (as discovered by Davy; also made photomicrographs.) - These "sun pictures" were unfixed & deteriorated rapidly, if displayed under light stronger than candlelight. -Sir Humphry Davy, distinguished scientist, refers to Scheele’s experiments and fails to notice his statement that ammonia dissolves silver chloride unaffected by light, and could have been used to fix the image! 1793 1st attempt to fix images by chemical means were officers of French army station at Calgari, cap. of Sardinia, and brothers f Joseph Nicephore and Claude Niepce (reference to their experiments in a letter from J. Nicéphore Niépce to Claude on Sept. 1824) 1813 (8 yrs. after death of Wedgwood) Joseph Nicephore Niepce (from noble family; moved to outskirts of France during French Revolution) -Retired in country estate Gras near Chalon-sur-Saone, revives earlier interest in lithography. -lacking in artistic skill he attempts photochemical means -lays engravings made transparent with wax on lithographic stones coated with a light-sensative varnish and exposed to sunlight; later with use of camera obscura -1816: -as described to his brother Claude with use of cameras, bi-convex lens, and a diaphragm: "a small box six inches square, equipped with a tube that can be lengthened, and will carry a lenticular glass (lens) ." -Then replace it with a jewel case and the lens from a microscope to build the world's first miniature camera 11/2inches square. -April 1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscura with photosensitive paper (with silver-chloride) and succeeds in taking a picture of the courtyard of his house, and partially fixed with nitric acid; they were negatives and unsuccessful in printing attempts with one (pre-Talbot) -His experiments with silver chloride as sent to Claude were abandoned by Niepce because he obtained negatives (temporarily fixed with water; debated first pics) "The effect would be more striking," he told Claude, "if the order of the shadows and the lights could be reversed." Fixing: the process of removing from photographic materials the unused light-sensitive solutions, thus making the image more permanent. -Had Thomas Wedgwood been able to fix his pictures, the invention of photography would have been attributable to him. - In a paper printed in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 8 January 1819, Sir John Herschel wrote, "Muriate of silver (now known as silver chloride), newly precipitated, dissolves in this salt (hyposulphite).... almost as readily as sugar in water." -Sodium thiosulphate (incorrectly known as Hypo) is still primary fixing agent used today. (Though fixing made prints more stable, fading was at first a problem that needed to be addressed. One of the causes was inadequate washing of prints after processing. It was this instability that caused people to investigate more lasting processes such as the Carbon one) Niepce turns to Senebier’s materials of substances which harden vs. darken when exposed...discovers bitumen of Judea (a type of asphalt used as an engraving material for its resistance to etching fluids) is sensitive to light and is soluble in lavender oil; it would harden when exposed to light. -July 1822 Niepce makes 1st successful photocopy of a copperplate engraving by laying it on glass coated with bitumen of Judea -used zinc or pewter metal plates vs. glass for the ability to etch on them & print from. -He made paper engravings which he exposed to light for 2 hours and developed in a solution of petroleum and lavender oil -It forms a latent image. (without the use of a camera) -1922 makes successful portrait of Cardinal d’Amboise and as printed by the Parisian engraver Lemaitre following Feb. -1826 the world’s first photograph positive, View From The Window at Gras(1822-1827; debated--His son Isadore in 1841 indicates in a letter that in 1824 ) Niepce 1st achieved a definitive permanent fixing of images, using his 1st professionally made camera by pharmacist Charles Chevalier onto a pewter plate of a view from his workroom window (lost until found in a trunk in 1952): -”with the pigeon house on the left, a pear tree with a patch of sky showing through the branches, in the center the slanting roof of the barn, on the right another wing of the house; exposure about eight hours on a summer’s day.” -A one of a kind image that lacked a full tonal range. -Required an exposure of eight hours. -Permanent fixing with solvent of lavender oil & turpentine (white petroleum) -Niepce gave the name Heliographie (sun drawing) to both the photographs made by camera and engravings made by superposition (contact printing) Sept. 1827 Niepce visits brother Claude at Kew near London , bringing his camera view, the engraving of Cardinal d’Amboise (1826-27), and other heliographic reproductions. -Meets botanical painter Francis Bauer who persuades Niepce o address a memoir on the subject to King George IV and to the Royal Society (both memoirs surfaced in 1952) -He refuses to disclose the details of his process and is dismissed by the Royal Society, giving Bauer his equipment and prints and returns home. -Niepce switches from pewter (too soft for litho plates) to silver plated sheets of copper & improves the contrast by blackening the bare parts of the plate with iodine vapor; the exposure is impractically long -Niepce lacked business savy, was quiet, shy, cautious, and struggled with commercial success. 1825 Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre writes to J. Nicéphore Niépce proposing a collaboration (introduced by pharmacist Charles Chevalier); Niepce's brother had died in 1833...needs funding -Daguerre is a theatrical designer & co-creator of the Diorama with Charles Marie Bouton, was cheerful, outgoing & loved publicity. The Diorama-a popular show of enormous views painted on semitransparent canvas, with changing effects of illuminated, reflected, or transmitted light within a dark room 45ft high and 70ft wide, accompanied by music & other sound effects. Daguerre used the camera obscura to sketch backdrops traced by hand in realistic detail before painting, & had failed in any attempts at fixing images... -Has a business motivated agenda; his only asset is PR): -Daguerre states his assets to Niepce as: funding, determination, energy, experience in gauging public taste, friends in prominent positions, credibility, and recognition as an artist with public acclaim. -Daguerre could not produce a successful photograph to show Niepce 1827 they meet in Paris to compare works. On 4 January 1829 Niépce agreed to go into partnership with Louis Daguerre; December 14th, 1829 a contract is signed, for the purpose of perfecting Niepce’s Heliography -They worked separately, under contract, & correspond via coded letters. 1833 Niepce dies suddenly (of a stroke?). He is replace by his son, Isadore in negotiations only, Daguerre picks up his research. -Daguerre later admits the camera he gave to Niepce was ineffective in producing clearer images. -1831, Daguerre uses polished silver plates, and heated iodine crystals vapor in the dark, creating silver iodine and immediately placing them in a camera and creating one hour exposures in bright sunlight without development, creating a highly detailed negative image. 1834-5: Louis Daguerre creates a positive latent image on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and developed" after exposure to warmed mercury vapor, reducing the exposure time from eight hours down to 20-30 minutes. (Mercury references are not unknown and quite familiar in alchemal texts, not accidental as he claimed) 1837: Daguerre discovers that an image could be made permanent by immersing it in a bath of sodium chloride (table salt). -Daguerre believes his new process is distinct from Niepce’s (though founded on his partner’s knowledge) he calls it the Daguerreotypie 1838- Isadore Niepce takes over the contract with Daguerre to try to sell their recipe by both fee and subscription; they fail. 1839: Daguerre recruits astronomer and Deputy, Count Francois Arago, who negotiates with the French government, backed by scientist and member of the Upper House, Gay-Lussac. The discovery is first announced by Arago (very vaguely) on 7 January 1839 at the Royal Society (Daguerre a no-show ) Arago makes a statement to the Chamber of Deputies: The daguerreotype “requires no knowledge of drawing and is not dependent upon any manual dexterity.” (Daguerre is a no-show to this announcement) -Arago’s argument presented to the French gov’t: If the invention remains in the hands of an individual there is a danger that it will remain stationary for a long time; made public it will soon be perfected by the ideas of others. July 1839 the French government acquires the rights & publication of methods of the daguerreotype in order to “give it free to the world” in return for lifetime pensions for Daguerre & Isadore Niepce and the Legion of Honor for Daguerre; and larger sums... August 19, 1839 , the process is announced to the world by Arago, at the official birthday of photography; at a joint meeting of the Academies des Sciences and Beaux-Arts at the Institute de France after D publishes a manual, Historique et Description des procedes du Daguerreotype et du Diorama Daguerre: “The Daguerreotype is not merely an instrument which serves to draw Nature; on the contrary it is a chemical and physical process which gives her the power to reproduce herself.” -Daguerre patents his process in England five days before the French announcement in Paris; a licensing fee is immediately required for use in England. -Daguerre then abandons photography for painting (studio fire in Paris). -The Daguerreotype announced as the first successful photographic process, -Paul Delaroche, a leading scholar of the day, exclaims, “From today, painting is dead!” Details of the Daguerreotype: -This was a positive image on a metal support. -A silvered copper plate, bought ready-made, and sensitized with iodine vapor, the fumes forming light-sensitive silver iodide. The plate would have to be used within an hour. -Exposing to light in a camera, between 10 and 20 minutes, depending upon available light -Developing the plate over mercury heated to 75 degrees Centigrade over a spirit-lamp. This caused the mercury to amalgamate with the silver (to those parts affected by light). -Fixing the image in a warm solution of hyposulphite of soda (table salt; later sodium sulfite was used.) -Rinsing the plate in hot distilled water. -The action of light left a milky white image formed by mercury amalgam. -His first plates were 8 1/2" by 6 1/2"; i--that this still remains the standard "whole-plate" today. -The quality of the photographs was stunning -weaknesses: the pictures could not be reproduced and were therefore unique (1st viewed as a plus; it meant that the owner of the portrait could be certain that he had a piece of art that could not be duplicated.) -the surfaces were extremely delicate, often housed under a glass-cover (in a case) to protect against abrasion, and sealed from air to prevent tarnishing -the image was reversed laterally, the sitter seeing himself as he did when looking at a mirror. (Sometimes the camera lens was equipped with a mirror to correct this). -the chemicals (bromine and chlorine fumes and hot mercury) were highly toxic; -the images were difficult to view from certain angles. -The Daguerreotype process, though good, was expensive, and each picture was a once-only affair; The only way of coping with this was to use two cameras side by side. There was, therefore, a growing need for a means of copying pictures which daguerreotypes could never satisfy. 1840 daguerreotypes were generally toned with chloride of gold, due to Hippolyte Fizeau; this increased contrast and greater adherence of mercury to the silvered plate 7th of January, 1839 after Arago’s announcement of Daguerre’s invention, several inventors came forward with claims to having also made pictures by he action of light. Friedrich Gerber, a veterinary surgeon and prof. at Berne University announced Feb. 2nd, 1839 in the Schweizerischer Beobachter- of fixing images of the camera obscura on paper coated with silver salts; independently achieving a process of direct-positives, and a negative process allowing any number of positive copies, & enlarged images of microscopic objects - Results not perfected & images mostly contact prints -Rev. J.B. Reade, distinguished scientist in astronomical & microscopical fields, made photomicrographs (based on work of Wedgwood) on white leather, and on silver chloride paper washed with gallic acid solution; used in tanning leather. -Reade used gallic acid as an accelerator and did not realize he was developing a latent image. -He fixed with hyposulphite of soda, listed in Brande’s manual on chemistry on Herschel’s authority as a solvent of silver salts. -He called his micrographs made with a solar telescope, solar mezzotints, and made contact copies of botanical specimens and lace by superposition on sensitive paper, and took photographs in the camera obscura; shown at the Royal Society , London, April 1939 and compared notes with Talbot mentioning the use of an infusion of galls to speed up his photographs. (1037 claim contradicted by a letter from Reade to his brother April1st, 1939) - 1834: William Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper.... He sets his invention aside until the announcement by the French Gov’t of Daguerre...(aka The Salted Paper Print or Salt Print due the process) -His paper to the Royal Society of London, dated 31 January 1839, actually precedes the paper by Daguerre; it was entitled "Some account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the process by which natural objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the artist's pencil." Talbot: "How charming it would be if it were possible to cause these natural images to imprint themselves durably and remain fixed on the paper!" The Calotype -invented by William Henry Fox Talbot, rival to the Daguerreotype, the calotype provided the answer to the problem of duplication. -The earliest paper negative we know of was produced in August 1835; it depicts the now famous window at Lacock Abbey, his home. -The negative is small (1" square), and poor in quality, compared with the striking images produced by the Daguerreotype process. _Also made by wife, Constance "little mouse traps" 1st known female photographer... -1840, Talbot had made significant improvements, 1844 he was able to bring out a photographically illustrated book entitled “The Pencil of nature." -Compared with Daguerreotypes the quality of the early calotypes were somewhat inferior. -The great advantage of Talbot's method was that an unlimited number of positive prints could be made. In fact, today's photography is based on the same principle, whereas by comparison the Daguerreotype, for all its quality, was a blind alley. -1841: Talbot patents his process under the name "Calotype". Astronomer Sir John Herschel, on hearing Daguerre’s discovery in Jan, 1839, sets out and solves the problem of photography within a week. -His 1st photograph of his father’s telescope at Slough near London, taken Jan 29, 1939 on paper sensitized with carbonate of silver and fixed with hyposulphite of soda. -March 14, 1839 Herschel reads a paper to the Royal Society “On the Art of Photography”, accompanied by 23 photographs on paper; some negatives... -Hippolyte Bayard; develops positive prints in March-1839-(May shows to Arago) after announcement and before detailed instructions are released by the French Government (and by Daguerre to the French gov’t). Upon telling Arago, he is paid a small fee by the French gov’t to keep quiet until Daguerre’s details are released. -Feb. 1840 Bayard publishes his findings. -February 1839 Sir John Herschel tells of his own findings and key to fixing prints; the fact that he openly shares his knowledge with Talbot and Daguerre leads to the stability and longevity of the medium, and as a practice. Antoine Hercules Romuald Florence, a french artist living a remote area of Brazil, with notebooks from 1829-1837 (discovered in 1970) record his image making with a camera obscura and silver nitrate; develops the fundamental application of photochemical discoveries, refocusing his efforts to produce copies for the use of labels for pharmaceuticals and diplomas (pre-1837). -In 1833 he uses the word, “photographie” to describe his efforts, 5 years before Hershel recommended the word, “photography,” to Talbot, and in 1834 the word, “photographer”. Daguerreomania -Daguerreotypes that remain are noticeable for their detail, and this caused quite a sensation at the time. -The Spectator (2 February 1839) called daguerreotypes the "self operating process of Fine Art." -The reaction in America was also one of amazement. The Journal, "The Knickerbocker": The Daguerreotype "requires no knowledge of drawing...." and that "anyone may succeed.... and perform as well as the author of the invention." -The publicity was greeted with enormous interest, and "Daguerreomania" became a craze overnight. -An interesting account of these days is given by a writer called Gaudin , who was present the day that the announcement was made. -However, not all people welcomed this exciting invention; some pundits viewed in quite sinister terms. A newspaper report in the Leipziger Stadtanzeiger, Leipzig city advertiser stated: The wish to capture evanescent reflections is not only impossible, as has been shown by thurough German investigation, but the mere desire alone, the will to do so, is blasphemy. God created man in His own image, and no man- made machine may fix the image of God. Is it possible that God should have abandoned His eternal principles, and allowed a Frenchman in Paris to give to the world an invention of the Devil?...The ideal of the Revolution-fraternity, and Napoleon’s ambition to turn Europe into one realm-all these crazy ideas Monsieur Daguerre now clams o surpass because he wants to outdo the Creator of the world. If this thing were at all possible, then something similar would have been done a long time ago in antiquity by men like Archimedes or Moses. But if these wise men knew nothing or mirror pictures made permanent, then one can straight away call the Frenchman Daguerre, who boasts of such unheard of things, the fool of fools.” -At that time some artists saw in photography a threat to their livelihood -some even prophesied that painting would cease to exist. The mushrooming of photographic establishments -Reflects photography's growing popularity; from a mere handful in the mid 1840s to 66 in 1855, and to 147 two years later. -In London, a favorite venue was Regent Street where, in the peak in the mid 'sixties there were no less than forty-two photographic establishments! -In America the growth was just as dramatic: in 1850 there were 77 photographic galleries in New York alone. -The demand for photographs was such that Charles Baudelaire (1826-1867), a well known poet of the period and a critic of the medium, commented: "our squalid society has rushed, Narcissus to a man, to gloat at its trivial image on a scrap of metal." Talbot's photography was on paper, and inevitably the imperfections of the paper were printed alongside with the image, when a positive was made. Several experimented with glass as a basis for negatives, but the problem was to make the silver solution stick to the shiny surface of the glass. Albumen process: 1848 a cousin of Nicephore Niépce, Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, perfected a process of coating a glass plate with white of egg sensitized with potassium iodide, and washed with an acid solution of silver nitrate. -This new Albumen process made for very fine detail and much higher quality. -However, it was very slow, & generally used for architecture and landscapes; portraiture was simply not possible. -Progress slow in England, compared with other countries’ -Both Daguerre and Fox Talbot were partly responsible, the former for having rather slyly placed a patent on his invention whilst the French government had made it freely available to the world, the latter for his lawsuits in connection with his patents. -Also in England there were fees associated with the French copyright process... 1851 a new era in photography was introduced by Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in London, who introduced the Collodion process. This process was much faster than conventional methods, reducing exposure times to two or three seconds, thus opening up new horizons in photography: improves photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of collodion (nitrated cotton dissolved in ether and alcohol) and chemicals on sheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was much cheaper than daguerreotypes, the negative/positive process permitted unlimited reproductions, and the process was published but not patented. The collodion process required that the coating, exposure and development of the image should be done whilst the plate was still wet. The wet collodion process, though in its time a great step forward, required a considerable amount of equipment on location. There were various attempts to preserve exposed plates in wet collodion, for development at a more convenient time and place, but these preservatives lessened the sensitivity of the material. It was clear, then, that a dry method was required. It is likely that the difficulties of the process hastened the search for instantaneous photography. Skaife, in a pamphlet, aptly commented (1860): "Speaking in general, instantaneous photography is as elastic a term as the expression 'long and short.'" Introduced in 1851, it a watershed in photography. Up till then the two processes in use were the daguerreotype and the calotype. Daguerreotypes were better than calotypes in terms of detail and quality, but could not be reproduced; calotypes were reproducible, but suffered from the fact that any print would also show the imperfections of the paper. The search began, then, for a process which would combine the best of both processes - the ability to reproduce fine detail and the capacity to make multiple prints. The ideal would have been to coat light sensitive material on to glass, but the chemicals would not adhere without a suitable binder which obviously had to be clear. At first, Albumen (the white of an egg) was used. Then in 1851 Frederick Scott Archer came across collodion. Collodion was a viscous liquid - guncotton dissolved in ether and alcohol - which had only been invented in 1846, but which quickly found a use during the Crimean war; when it dried it formed a very thin clear film, which was ideal for dressing and protecting wounds. (One can still obtain this today, for painting over a cut). Collodion was just the answer as far as photography was concerned, for it would provide the binding which was so badly needed. Lewis Carroll, himself a photographer who used collodion, described the process in a poem he called "Hiawatha's Photography." "First a piece of glass he coated With Collodion, and plunged it In a bath of Lunar Caustic Carefully dissolved in water; There he left it certain minutes. Secondly my Hiawatha Made with cunning hand a mixture Prices for daguerreotypes varied, but in general would cost about a guinea (£1.05), which would be the weekly wage for many workers. The collodion process, however, was much cheaper; prints could be made for as little as one shilling (5p). * 1853: Nada (Felix Toumachon) opens the first portrait studio in Paris * 1854: Adolphe Disderi develops carte-de-visite photography in Paris, leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios for the next decade ...photography for the masses by the introduction of carte-de-visite photographs by André Disdéri . This developed into a Daguerrotypomania, though it was relatively short-lived. Cartes-de-visite were small visiting card portraits (usually measuring 4 1/2 x 2 1/2") introduced by a Parisian photographer, André Disdéri, who in late 1854 patented a way of taking a number of photographs on one plate (usually eight), thus greatly reducing production costs. (He was not actually the first to produce them; this honor belongs to an otherwise obscure photographer called Dodero, from Marseilles). Different types of cameras were devised. Some had a mechanism which rotated the photographic plate, others had multiple lenses which could be uncovered singly or all together. The carte-de-visite did not catch on until one day in May 1859 Napoleon III, on his way to Italy with his army, halted his troops and went into Disdéri's studio in Paris, to have his photograph taken. From this welcome publicity Disdéri's fame began, and two years later he was said to be earning nearly £50,000 a year from one studio alone. In England carte-de-visite portraits were taken of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. One firm paid a small fortune for exclusive rights to photograph the Royal Family, and this signaled the way for a boom in collecting pictures of the famous, or having one's own carte-de-visite made. It is said that the portraits of Queen Victoria and the Royal Family taken by John Mayall sold over one hundred thousand copies. 1855-57, Another process developed by Archer was named the Ambrotype , which was a direct positive on glass. *: and metal (Tintypes or Ferrotypes) are popular in the US. * 1855: beginning of stereoscopic era STEREOSCOPIC photography Stereoscopic, or 3D photography, works because it is able to recreate the illusion of depth. Human eyes are set about two-and-a-half inches apart, so each eye sees an image slightly differently. If one takes two separate photographs that same distance apart, with a suitable viewer it is possible to recreate that illusion of depth. It comes as a surprise to many to learn that the idea of stereoscopy actually preceded photography. Binocular drawings were made by Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615), whilst about the same period Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli (1554-1640) produced drawings side by side which clearly indicated his understanding of binocular vision. In 1613 the Jesuit Francois d'Aguillion (1567-1617), in his treatise, coined the word "stéréoscopique" The first practical steps to demonstrate the theory by constructing equipment for the purpose did not take place until the 1800s. Though most associate Brewster with the invention, it was Sir Charles Wheatstone who, in June 1838, gave an address to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts on the phenomena of binocular vision. In describing the equipment, he said: "I...propose that it be called a Stereoscope, to indicate its property of representing solid figures." Wheatstone's actual stereoscope is preserved at the Science Museum in London. Eleven years were to elapse before Sir David Brewster described a binocular camera, and the first stereoscopic photographs began to be produced. Early workers in this field include Fenton, who took photographs in Russia, when he visited there in 1852, and Jules Duboscq, who made stereoscopes and stereoscopic daguerreotypes. Duboscq in turn caused Antoine Claudet to become interested in stereoscopy; indeed, it was Claudet who patented stereoscopes in 1853. The stereoscope took off in a big way when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert observed one at the exhibition at the Crystal Palace, and Brewster presented her with a stereoscope made by Duboscq. This signaled the beginning of a huge trade in stereoscopes and images; it is estimated that by the mid eighteen-fifties over a million homes owned one. One of the most successful salesmen of stereoscopic cards was George Nottage, later Lord Mayor of London, his catalogues listing over one hundred thousand views. The most common process for making stereoscopic cards was the Albumen one, daguerreotype images being very rare. A variety of viewers became available, from the simple Holmes viewer, to cabinet-type viewers which could store fifty or so positives. A different way to view images is the anaglyph process, which was developed by Ducos Du Hauron, and was a method of printing two images on to one sheet. The process is still quite popular today. The conventional method of viewing stereoscopic photographs in the last century was to use a viewer which held a pair of images, and which enabled each eye to see only one; by fusing these together a three dimensional effect was recreated. It was W. Rollman who in 1853 first illustrated the principle of the anaglyph using blue and red lines on a black field with red and blue glasses to perceive the effect, but this was for line drawings only. In 1858 Joseph D'Almeida began projecting three-dimensional magic lantern slide shows using red and green filters with the audience wearing red and green goggles. It is to Louis Ducas du Hauron that we owe the first printed anaglyphs, produced in 1891. This process consisted of printing the two negatives which form a stereoscopic photograph on to the same paper, one in blue (or green), one in red. The viewer would then use colored glasses with red (for the left eye) and blue or green (right eye). The left eye would see the blue image which would appear black, whilst it would not see the red; similarly the right eye would see the red image, this registering as black. Thus a three dimensional image would result. The London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company came into being in 1850 and continued for some seventy years. Their output was colossal; they listed over a hundred thousand stereo photographs in their 1858 catalogue. In general they tended to be views, plus some portraits of comic scenes. The Stereoscopic Society was founded in 1893, and is one of two societies operating in Britain which continue to promote this form of photography. It is still in existence. An article in Amateur Photographer, dated November 27, 1902, had a lengthy article, together with examples of the picture produced. “Those able to uncross their eyes so that the two pictures fuse can see the stereo effect.” The earliest enlargers used direct sunlight, and thus came to be known as "solar cameras". It was an American, D.A. Woodward, who in 1857 first constructed an enlarger. It was a cumbersome object. The sun was collected by means of a convex lens, and the camera has to be turned with the sun. This design became the model for a number of solar cameras. The picture shows an advert for his cameras, and a medal that he had been awarded to him at a major exhibition. Another pioneer was Wothly, from Aachen, who made a few improvements to Woodward's solar camera, and exhibited portraits almost at life size. Wothly's solar camera was a monstrosity! The condenser had a diameter of 1 meter. The heat of the condensed rays of sun was such that one had to have water troughs built in. However, perhaps the first ever reference to an enlarging process can be attributed to Draper. In 1840 he wrote: "Exposures are made with a very small camera on very small plates. They are subsequently enlarged to the required size in a larger camera on a rigid stand. This method will probably contribute very much to the practice of the art." Louis Jules Duboscq (1817-1886) made an apparatus for enlarging by electric light, and showed it to the Paris Photographic Society in 1861. Eventually, of course, the solar camera disappeared from the photographic industry and was replaced by enlarging cameras that used arc lamps. As the sensitivity of papers increased, so it was possible to use other sources of light. * 1861: Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates a color photography system involving three black and white photographs, each taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were turned into Lantern Slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. This is the "color separation" method. * 1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods for color photography. The Dry Plate Process 1871, when Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using an emulsion of gelatin (which had been discovered only a few years before) instead of collodian; plates could be sensitized in advance, a "dry plate" process, and eliminated the fumes associated which had led to health conditions in practitioners. 1878 improvements lead to emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, improving the "dry plate" process in sensitivity. This led to the development of the dry plate process. * gelatin a, Dry plates could be developed much more quickly than with any previous technique. Initially it was very insensitive compared with existing processes, but it was refined to the extent that the idea of factory-made photographic material was now becoming possible. The introduction of the dry-plate process marked a turning point. No longer did one need the cumbersome wet-plates, no longer was a darkroom tent needed. Dry plates remained sensitive for months and did not have to be processed immediately. This led to more field work; and the commercially manufactured standardization of the materials, equipment and processes, requiring no specialized knowledge. Edward L Wilson of The Philadelphia Photographer, took gelatin dry plates on a 22,000-mile voyage and developed them upon his return eight months later, declaring, “It has been the salvation of photography!Blessed be the dry-plate!” PALLADIUM PROCESS (ORIG.: PLATINUM PROCESS) This process dates from 1873, when it was introduced by William Willis. Plain paper with sensitive iron salts (no silver) was exposed in contact with a negative. The print would then be developed in a potassium oxalate solution. The process produced an image with beautifully rich black tones, and a tremendous tonal range, that makes platinum prints stand out. It was also, unlike other processes, permanent. Amongst those who used this medium were Peter Henry Emerson, Clarence White , Frederick Evans, and Gertrude Kasebier. One of the reasons why this and the gum-bichromate process became more popular amongst serious photographers was that these were ways of distancing themselves from the snap shooters which began to proliferate as a result of the introduction of the first Kodak cameras and film; both processes required skills above the level of the casual amateur photographer. Its use declined after the first world war because of the rising cost of platinum, when palladium largely replaced it. Celluloid had been invented in the early eighteen-sixties, and John Carbutt persuaded a manufacturer to produce very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material. 1884. George Eastman introduces flexible film Four years later he introduced the box camera, and photography could now reach a much greater number of people. Other names of significance include Herman Vogel , who developed a means whereby film could become sensitive to green light, and Eadweard Muybridge who paved the way for motion picture photography. Popular in the Victorian times was stereoscopic photography , which reproduced images in three dimensions. It is a process whose popularity waxed and waned - as it does now - reaching its heights in the mid-Victorian era. * 1877-8: Edweard Muybridge, born in England as Edward Muggridge, settles "Do a horse's four hooves ever leave the ground at once?" bet among rich San Franciscans by time-sequenced photography, of Leland Stanford's (former governor of CA & builder of The Central Pacific Railroad) horse in 1872. In 1874 Muybridge, who was charged for the murder of his wife’s lover, was acquitted by a jury, though he left the country until 1877. On return he resumed work for Stanford using ripen emulsion, one aged for several days at 90 degrees to increase sensitivity. It produced, through a system of a tripwires to a camera, an underexposed negative of the house’s four feel off the ground which he retouched “for the purpose of giving better effect to the details.” The validity was challenged and so he continued with electrical tripwire cables on a system of 24 cameras at a right angle to the motion on a racetrack. The horse raced by, breaking the threads and firing each shutter at 1/2000 of a second. People were shocked by his silhouettes not only because all four feel were off the ground at once, but only under his abdomen, not hobbyhorse style when extended which had been the pictorial & theoretical standard. This created the phenomenon of the persistence of vision, the sensation that images are continuous, and showed an audience moving pictures. 1878 Oct. 19 issue of Scientific American readers were instructed to cut and paste the images onto paper strips facing out onto the inner compartment of a zoetrope with the images facing out; a handheld rotating drum that when rotated and viewed through the open top, blends a sequence of images to produce the illusion of motion. Muybridge begins a lecture tout of America and Europe with his zoopraxiscope, a modified zoetrope using transparencies of images mounted on a rotating circular glass and projected by a magic lantern. Thomas Eakins who incorporated the camera in his painting courses, suggested to M to include a measurement scale in the background so that artists could copy his results. He convinced the University of Pennsylvania to underwrite Muybridge’s plan for an expanded study of animal locomotion; for which he built an outdoor studio in 1884 and concluded a year later. The project used animals from a local zoo and in 1887, published the results by subscription in eleven volumes of Animal Locomotion. Eakins uses a wheel disk camera with M. to record successive phases of motion on a single plate. M’s work revolutionized the study of animals and their anatomical spacial relationships while moving through space. Muybridge continues to use cameras with shutters controlled by an electromagnetic device, enabling them to be fired at selective intervals., but switched to gelatin dry plates for ease of use. Then used models on a dark background divided by white threads into a grid of squares so that images could be more effortlessly analyzed and drawn Late 1850’s Etiene-Jules Marley, a scientist, built mechanical and pneumatic devices directly attached to his subject which activated a pen resting on a band of moving paper which recorded the unobservable movements of human locomotion. Marley’s quest to simultaneously display the relationship of all the body’s moving parts in time and space led him to photography, “all at oneness”. This was a major break in the Renaissance representation of the still frame and a rupture in the western perception of time; movement as a collection of events or “moments” to be perceived all at one time. He wanted to portray the notion of “now”. The evolving notion of simultaneous time is now known as stream of consciousness. Marley developed graph methods of recording skeletal and muscle movements with the fusel photograhique (the photographic gun), a camera with a rotating plate capable of taking a rapid sequence of images, in order to provide an accurate schematic diagram of muscle movement. Chronophotographs used a rotating slit shutter. He accurately photographed the free flight of birds. (Of interest to the Wright brothers) His use of a single camera at a single vantage point and a single subject was a pre-cinematic concept. He revolutionized the camera to from recording a single moment to a flow of moments. In 1892 Marley develops a projector to analyze his studies. He was unable to commercially develop his research and was not widely recognized. He confirms the notions of Charles Lyell (1830; Principles of Geology) and Charles Darwin (1859; Origin of the Species) that the earth is not a static environment, governed by a biblical clock, but a continuum of time. * 1880: George Eastman, age 24, sets up Eastman Dry Plate Company in Rochester, New York. First halftone photograph appears in a daily newspaper, the New York Graphic. * 1888: first Kodak camera, containing a 20-foot roll of paper, enough for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures. George Eastman: “You Push the Button, We Do the Rest!” Popular photography was born * 1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of paper * 1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced. Unusual Developments Frederick Boissonas, a German, used a large camera to photograph close-ups of the Acropolis in Athens, in 1913. The largest camera in the world. In 1900 the Mammoth camera was used to photograph trains in America. Weighing 600 Kg., it took fifteen men to operate the brute. George R Lawrence set it up and pointed at a brand-new train standing in the distance. The Alton Limited was the pride of the Chicago & Alton Railway Lawrence had been asked to make the largest photograph possible of it, sparing no expense. It reputedly cost five thousand dollars to build this camera - a huge sum in the 1900s. The picture size was 4.5 x 8 feet. Whether the prints still exist, or how the development took place, I have as yet been unable to ascertain! Edmond Bloch, from Paris, designed a Photo-Cravate in 1890; this was operated using a pneumatic bulb in the hand. Several walking canes (e.g. the Ben Akiba) had small cameras inserted into their handles. Cameras disguised as binoculars were also produced. On show in the RPS Museum is Nicour's Photobinocular, dated 1867. The left-hand side contained the camera, the right the viewfinder. Samuel McKellen patented a detective camera, shaped like an attaché case. Cameras were disguised as parcels, or books. The Taschenbuck, shaped like a book, became quite popular, selling for £7 10s (£7.50) Famous was Stirn's Detective camera, made from 1886, and costing less than two pounds. This was worn under a waistcoat, with the lens protruding through a buttonhole. The Ticka camera, made from 1906, was shaped like a large pocket watch There were even cameras designed to look like a pistol. One, dated 1862, was the Thompson Revolver. It was fitted with an f2 Petzval design, which permitted instantaneous exposures in good light. Another example was Skaife's "Pistolgraph." He once aimed this at Queen Victoria, and was immediately surrounded by the police, and he was forced to open the pistol to satisfy the police that this was not an assassination attempt. There were other unusual applications. One camera was mounted on a kite, another on a rocket, whilst a Dr. Neubronner perfected a camera to be mounted on a homing pigeon. Photographers using the Collodion process had a particular difficulty when on location, as the sensitizing, exposure and development had to be carried out whilst the plate was still wet. Some used tents as makeshift darkrooms, but a more up-market darkroom was a converted hansom cab, such as one used by Thomas Annan. An example of a converted perambulator is described in the "Photographic News" for 29 April 1859. Perhaps the most unusual method of enlargement was the use of Cristoid film, in use at the turn of the century. This being all gelatin, it swelled when it was developed, and therefore produced a larger photograph without the need for enlargement. It is claimed that Alvin Langdon Coburn experimented with this film, his "ten by eights" finishing up as twelve by tens! In 1856 the King of Naples forbade the practice of photography in his dominions. The reasons are not given, but it is possible that he or his subjects associated it with the evil eye! "Watch the birdie!" The Museum at George Eastman House displays a little brass bird over a camera. The legend reads: "Birdie, 1870s. Nineteenth-century photographers used many devices to try to get the attention of their subjects. This birdie not only tweeted, but also fluttered its tail when the photographer squeezed the air bulb attached to the slender pipe. The phrase 'watch the birdie' originated with this item." (1) (1) I am grateful to Claudio Simone, of George Eastman House, for this information. The following appeared in the St. Catherine's Journal, Ontario, 10/9/1859: "An Irishman in Oswego [New York] who had been two or three times, unsuccessfully, to an artist to take a Daguerreotype (sic) of his dead child, actually stopped the funeral procession, last Saturday, and taking the coffin up into the daguerrean gallery, insisted that the likeness should be taken. It was done, and the procession moved on, after standing some time in the street." A photograph taken in 1842 has sold for a world record £565,250 at auction. The photograph of the Temple of Jupiter at the Acropolis in Athens was taken in 1842 by the French artist and historian, Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey. It was expected to fetch up to £120,000 but attracted rival telephone bids that pushed the price up during the auction at Christie's in London. The image, known as a Daguerreotype after the inventor, was taken using an early photographic process with the image made on a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic plate. The record sale was among 86 photographs taken by Girault de Prangey, which raised £3.7 million. They featured some of the earliest surviving photographs of Greece and the Middle East, which the artist photographed on his travels. Story filed: 16:49 Thursday 22nd May 2003 In 1906 a Mr. S. L. Rothafel dipped cotton material in rose essence, and hung this in front of an electric fan at a cinema in Pennsylvania during the showing of a newsreel. We have no record of how successful it was. Rather disastrous was the production of a play in Broadway in 1945, when the usherettes, programs and upholstery were sprayed with French perfume. Sadly, the audience went to sleep, the actors became sick, and the experiment was abandoned! In early 1960 "Smellovision" was launched with the screening of a film called "Scent of Mystery." The smells were piped to each seat in the auditorium, programmed by a track on the film. The smells were said to include new bread, garlic, coffee, oranges and sea breezes. A review quoted an entrepreneur as saying "I am scared that too many of the opposition will turn up at the premier armed with Airwicks!"