Task analysis - Santa Monica College by 3eTW37

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									                        Task analysis
             Teaching new Skills
What is Task Analysis?
• Taking a complex skill and breaking it down into small steps
Teeth Brushing Task analysis
•   Brushing Teeth
•   Pick up the tooth brush
•   Wet the brush
•   Take the cap off the tube
•   Put paste on the brush
•   Brush the outside of the bottom row of teeth
•   Brush the outside of the top row of teeth
•   Brush the biting surface of the top row of teeth
•   Brush the biting surface of the bottom row of teeth
•   Try to make yourself understood while answering the question of someone outside the
    door


Teeth Brushing Task analysis
•   Brush the inside surface of the bottom row of teeth
•   Brush the inside surface of the top row of teeth
•   Spit
•   Rinse the brush
•   Replace the brush in the holder
•   Grasp cup
•   Fill cup with water
•   Rinse teeth with water
•   Spit
•   Replace cup in holder
•   Wipe mouth on sleeve


Teeth Brushing Task analysis
• Screw cap back on tube
• Place tube back in room mate's toiletry/shave kit so s/he doesn't realize
    that you forgot to bring toothpaste on the trip

Why do task analysis?
•     The skill is done the same way every time it is taught.
•   Steps are always taught in the same order.


         Consistency makes the task become easier
Developing a task analysis
• Think about the steps and write them down
• Engage in the behavior, noting the sub behaviors
• Brainstorm with a colleague
                  Create a task analysis
Assume your target learner is totally blind. You and your partner
       are to write a task analysis for setting the table.
When you complete your analysis, trade off with another group to
                    follow your directions.
Create a task analysis
• Write a task analysis for putting on your jacket.

    When you complete your analysis, trade off with another group
                    to follow your directions.

                          Try another
  When your students enter your classroom in the morning, they
don't seem to know what to do with coats, bags, etc. Task analyze
                   "Getting ready for school"


Chaining
• The process of teaching the links in the chain of your task
  analysis
Three types of chaining procedures
• Forward chaining
• Backwards chaining
• Total chaining
Forward Chaining
• Teach the behaviors from the beginning of the chain
    Require student to display increasing amounts of simple behaviors at the front of
     the chain.
    As often as the student is able, s/he adds a new simple behaviors onto the tail end
     of the behaviors already mastered.
    As the learner links more and more of the chain, you have to complete fewer of the
     steps at the end of that chain of behaviors.
Backwards chaining
• Allowing student to do the last steps first
    Instructor performs all the steps in the chain except for the last one
     (which the student performs)
    Instructor performs all the steps in the chain except the last two (which
     the student performs)

Total chaining
• Student performs all the behaviors in the chain during every
  attempt
    Assistance and prompting is given as needed
Which to use?
• Consider why you might choose to use a particular type of
  "chaining" (i.e., forward, backward, or total). What might be the
  benefits of each?
Benefit of forward chaining
• Child gets to show competence from the start before needing
  assistance
    S/he can go home and say “Look what I can do!” and start to show part
     of the skill before the parent helps out.
Benefit of backwards chaining
• Child sees the connection between his/her performance and the
  final product
Benefit of total chaining
• Child is active participant in all parts of the activity

								
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