Prokaryotes Notes Outline

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					[UNIT 5 – ORIGIN OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES]                            Biology I Notes Outline

Origin of Life

   1. The Earth formed _________________ years ago.

   2. List the components of the Early Earth’s atmosphere.

            a.

            b.

            c.

            d.

            e.


   3. Label each of the parts of the Miller-Urey Apparatus:




   4. What three conditions on Earth were simulated by this experiment?

            a.

            b.

            c.



Biology I                                                                               1
[UNIT 5 – ORIGIN OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES]                             Biology I Notes Outline

   5. List the organic compounds that were formed after two weeks of running this experiment.

            a.

            b.

            c.

The First Cells

   6. Define prokaryotic organisms –



   7. Complete the table below:

                                        Energy Source?            Carbon Source?
                                      (Light or chemicals)   (CO2 or organic compounds)
       Photoautotroph

       Chemoautotroph

       Photoheterotroph

       Chemoheterotroph



   8. Define each of the following:

            a. Obligate aerobe –



            b. Facultative anaerobe –



            c. Obligate anaerobe –



Archaea

   9. Define archaea –




Biology I                                                                                 2
[UNIT 5 – ORIGIN OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES]                                  Biology I Notes Outline

   10. What are the three differences between bacteria and archaea?

            a.

            b.

            c.

   11. There are three types of extremophile archaea:

            a. Thermophiles like ________________ environments.

            b. Halophiles like _______________ environments.

            c. Acidophiles like ______________ environments.

Reproduction
  12. How often can prokaryotes divide?


            a. Define binary fission –


   13. What do endospores allow prokaryotes to do?



   14. Prokaryotes can experience exponential growth under the right conditions. Draw an
       exponential growth curve:




            a. What conditions must be met for this growth to happen?



            b. What do petri dishes contain that meets these conditions?



   15. How does the rate of evolution in prokaryotes relate to their reproduction?




Biology I                                                                                     3
[UNIT 5 – ORIGIN OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES]                     Biology I Notes Outline

Anatomy

   16. Define the three shapes of bacteria:

            a. Coccus –

            b. Bacillus –

            c. Spirilla –

   17. Label each of the structures on a typical bacterium:




   18. Where is the DNA kept within a prokaryote?


            a. How is this different than a eukaryote?



   19. What are plasmids?



   20. What is the purpose of DNA?




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[UNIT 5 – ORIGIN OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES]                                 Biology I Notes Outline

   21. What structures do bacteria have that take the place of organelles like mitochondria and
       chloroplasts?



   22. What is the function of cell walls in bacteria?

            a.


            b.


            c.


   23. Some bacteria have capsules in addition to cell walls. What advantage do these give?



   24. What is the function of pili?



   25. What is the function of flagella?



Relationship to Other Life

   26. What kind of relationship is mutualism?



   27. What kind of relationship is commensalism?



   28. Explain the mutualistic relationship between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and plants.



   29. How are decomposing bacteria beneficial to ecosystems?




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[UNIT 5 – ORIGIN OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES]                                   Biology I Notes Outline

   30. Describe a mutualistic relationship that bioluminescent bacteria have.



   31. What kind of relationship is parasitism?



            a. What are pathogens?



   32. What are exotoxins?



   33. What are endotoxins?



   34. Explain how antibiotics effect bacteria.



   35. What is antibiotic resistance?



   36. Label the antibiotics that are effective in the petri dish below, and the ones that the bacteria is
       resistant to.




Biology I                                                                                          6

				
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Description: A notes outline to go along with the lecture Powerpoint covering Prokaryotes, bacteria and archaea.