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					                       Space Exploration Review Booklet

   Unit E: Space Exploration (Science and Technology Emphasis)

   Focusing Questions:
       How have humans attained a presence in space?

          What technologies have been developed and on what scientific ideas are they based?

          How has the development of these technologies contributed to the exploration, use and
           understanding of space and to benefits on Earth?

   Key Concepts
   The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units at
   other grade levels. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes below.
        technologies for space exploration                   reference frames for describing
           andobservation                                       position and motion in space
        distribution of matter through space                 life-support technologies
        composition and characteristics of                   satellites and orbits    
           bodies in space                                    communication technologies

Outcomes for Science, Technology and Society (STS) and Knowledge
Students will:
1. Investigate and describe ways that human understanding of Earth and space has depended on
technological development

      identify different perspectives on the nature of Earth and space, based on culture and science
            identify the components of the Earth-centered model of the universe and its name

              identify the components of the sun centered model of the solar system and its name

      investigate and illustrate the contributions of technological advances—including optical
       telescopes, spectral analysis and space travel—to a scientific understanding of space
            relate the sun centered model to technology and observations
                     telescope
           identify the composition of a star given spectral analysis

           identify if a star is approaching or receding given its spectral shift

           identify the advantages of the Hubble telescope over an Earth based telescope

   describe, in general terms, the distribution of matter in space
         describe how matter in space is distributed
                  stars, star systems, galaxies, nebulae

   identify evidence for, and describe characteristics of, bodies that make up the solar system; and
    compare their characteristics with those of Earth
         identify and classify the first four planets

           identify and classify the (four) gaseous planets

           identify evidence used to classify a planet as being terrestrial or gaseous
       describe and apply techniques for determining the position and motion of objects in space,
             identify that the planets all travel in elliptical paths (what does this mean?)

               identify how an ellipse can be drawn using a string and two points

               describe a technique that can be used to estimate the distance to an object in space

               explain how the motion of a body in space can be traced

               describing the position of objects in space, using angular coordinates
                     altitude-azimuth
                     apply altitude –azimuth system to locate a terrestrial object

       investigate predictions about the motion, alignment and collision of bodies in space; and critically
        examine the evidence on which they are based
             predict the probability of meteorites colliding with the Earth

               investigate the history of comets crossing the Earth’s path

2. Identify problems in developing technologies for space exploration, describe technologies developed
for life in space, and explain the scientific principles involved

       analyze space environments, and identify challenges that must be met in developing life-
        supporting systems
             identify the essential resources and conditions necessary to support life in space
   describe technologies for life-support systems, and interpret the scientific principles on which
    they are based
         describe the need for systems to recycle air and water in a space station

   describe technologies for space transport, and interpret the scientific principles involved
         describe the elements of a multistage rocket and the advantage

           describe the purpose and advantages of a space shuttle vehicle

           describe the purpose and advantage of the ISS (space station)

   identify materials and processes developed to meet needs in space, and identify related
         identify the materials and technologies necessary for space flight and exploration
                  medicines, remote sensing, polymers, wireless communication, fuels,

   describe the development of artificial satellites, and explain the major purposes for which they are
         describe the orbits of geosynchronous and low orbit satellites
               list three applications of a satellite

               identify the components of a GPS system

3. Describe and interpret the science of optical and radio telescopes, space probes and remote sensing

       explain, in general terms, the operation of optical telescopes, including telescopes that are
        positioned in space environments
             identify the major components of an optical telescope (draw each)
                      reflecting, refracting

               identify the advantages of the Hubble telescope

       explain the role of radio and optical telescopes in determining characteristics of stars and star
             describe how images are produced with a radio telescope

               describe how observations have increased our knowledge of the formation of stars and
                the universe

       describe and interpret, in general terms, the technologies used in global positioning systems and
        in remote sensing
              describe the components of a GPS system
               explain how the GPS system is used to locate a position or object
                     triangulation

4. Identify issues and opportunities arising from the application of space technology, identify alternatives
involved, and analyze implications

       recognize risks and dangers associated with space exploration
             identify the risks of space exploration
                     space junk, fuel expenditure, radiation

       describe Canadian contributions to space research and development and to the astronaut program
             describe the function of the Canada-arm

               recognize the names of Canadian astronauts

       identify and analyze factors that are important to decisions regarding space exploration and
             identify barriers to space exploration

               discuss the risk-benefit of space exploration

               discuss ethical and political issues associated with space exploration and discovery
                                     Practice Questions
1. Many dates in the celestial calendar are marked by the amount of daylight. In the Northern
   Hemisphere the longest day occurs on June 21 and is called ...
         A. Vernal equinox
         B. Autumnal equinox
         C. Summer solstice
         D. Winter solstice
2. Aristotle’s proposed model of the solar system to explain planetary motion was the Geocentric
   Model. At the center was the Earth and …
         A. water
         B. wind
         C. fire
         D. gas
3. Copernicus proposed a different model to explain planetary motion. His model, called the
   Heliocentric model. Galileo Galilei later confirmed his model, in his observations with one of the
   first telescope. But it was this Johannes Kepler, who put in place what was missing from
   Copernicus’ model. He realized that the orbits of the planets were …
         A. circular
         B. geocentric
         C. intersecting
         D. ellipses
4. The unit used to measure ‘local distances’ in space (inside our solar system) is called an
   astronomical unit. One astronomical unit is equal to the average distance from the center of the
   Earth to the center of the Sun. The largest planet, Jupiter, is approximately …
         A. 5 AU’s from the Sun
         B. 10 AU’s from the Sun
         C. 19 AU’s from the Sun
         D. 30 AU’s from the Sun
5. In the 2nd Century A.D. Egyptian astronomers used an instrument, called a quadrant to …
         A. measure the angle between the Moon and any given star
         B. identify details in the far reaches of the night sky
         C. chart astronomical position and predict the movement of stars
         D. measure a star’s height above the horizon
6. Arabian Astronomers used an instrument, called an astrolabe to …
         A. measure the angle between the Moon and any given star
         B. identify details in the far reaches of the night sky
         C. Make accurate charts of star positions predict the movement of stars
         D. measure a star’s height above the horizon
7. The light from our sun takes about 5 minutes to reach the Earth. Light from the planet Pluto
         A. 5 hours
         B. 5 days
         C. 5 weeks
         D. 5 months
8. When measuring the diameter of the sun, we use an indirect method, so that we can determine
   the diameter without actually measuring it directly. To calculate the accuracy of your measured
   value, this is calculated to show how far from the real value your measured value is …
         A. actual error
         B. estimated error
         C. percent error
         D. adjusted error
9. In the 1920’s two scientists began comparing the surface temperature of stars with the star’s
    luminosity. They graphed their results in what is referred to as the …
         A. Solar Shift Model
         B. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
         C. Wegener-Darwin Illustration
         D. Helio-Solar Diagram
10. A star has a definite life cycle. The first stage in the star’s formation is called …
         A. nebulae
         B. dwarf
         C. massive
         D. protostar
11. At the end of the life cycle of a star it explodes in a catastrophic event called a …
         A. massive
         B. supergiant
         C. black hole
         D. supernova
12. Astronomers are discovering these are more common than first thought. Although they are
    invisible to observers, using even the most powerful telescopes, Astronomers know of their
    existence because of how matter near it becomes very hot and bright. Because these bodies are
    so dense, even light cannot escape. They are called …
         A. Neutron Stars
         B. Supernovas
         C. Black Dwarfs
         D. Black Holes
13. Constellations are groupings of stars that we see as patterns. The International Astronomical
    Union recognizes 88 officially. There are other patterns that are unofficially recognized, such as
    The Big Dipper, and are known as …
         A. anomalies
         B. asterisms
         C. asteroids
         D. aspergummies
14. Solar winds pass the Earth at an average speed of 400 km/s. This protects us from the
    devastating effects of the solar winds …
         A. Earth’s atmosphere
         B. Earths gravity
         C. Earth’s magnetic field
         D. Earth’s ozone
15. Small pieces of rock that travel through space with no predictable or recognizable path are called
         A. comets
         B. asteroids
         C. meteoroids
         D. fragments
16. During a solar eclipse this is visible …
         A. the sun’s core
         B. the sun’s electromagnetic shield
         C. the sun’s atmosphere
         D. the sun’s corona
17. The direction directly overhead is called …
         A. azimuth
         B. altitude
         C. zenith
         D. astroplane
18. To locate an object in the sky, two questions must be solved. How high is it in the sky? and in
    what direction is it? The term that identifies the compass direction is …
          A. azimuth
          B. altitude
          C. zenith
          D. astroplane
19. When constructing an astrolabe to locate the position of a star in the night sky, the protractor is
    used to determine the …
          A. azimuth
          B. altitude
          C. zenith
          D. astroplane
20. The ancient Greeks studied the stars and the celestial bodies. They had a word that meant
    ‘wanderer’ to describe a celestial body that changed its position in the sky. ‘Wanderer’ is the
    origin for the word
          A. Comet
          B. Asteroid
          C. Star
          D. Planet
21. The imaginary ‘sphere of sky’ showing the ecliptic (apparent path of the Sun through the sky
    during the year) that surrounds the Earth is identified as the …
          A. Equinox sphere
          B. Celestial sphere
          C. Heavenly sphere
          D. Solstice sphere
22. Satellites transmit non-stop information for use in all of the following EXCEPT...
          A. communications
          B. navigation
          C. structural strength
          D. weather forecasting
23. There are different alternative ways to power spacecraft. One of these alternatives is solar power.
    It is estimated that spacecraft with solar sails could travel 5 times faster than the conventional
    spacecraft. What do solar sails use for their propulsion?
          A. wind
          B. heat
          C. magnets
          D. light
24. The International Space Station is a joint venture of 16 countries. Private companies as well are
    planning to develop these in space, or on the Moon.
          A. Research centers
          B. Resorts and historical holidays
          C. Hotels and amusement parks
          D. Construction and mining sites
25. All of the following are hazards of living in space, EXCEPT …
          A. Environmental hazards
          B. Psychological challenges to confinement
          C. The body and microgravity
          D. Food consumption and exercise
26. In the condition of weightlessness the body undergoes many changes. Because bones have less
    pressure on them in this type of gravity, they …
          A. expand
          B. shrink
          C. get soft
          D. become porous
27. Almost 100% of all materials used on the International Space Station are recycled. The primary
    reason for this is because of
        A. storage space
        B. cost
        C. energy use
        D. time saving
28. Satellites are used for numerous purposes. A ‘natural’ satellite is any
        A. thing orbiting the Earth
        B. small body orbiting a larger body
        C. large object that is put into orbit with rockets
        D. object that communicates information back to Earth
29. LANDSAT and RADARSAT are Canadian satellites that monitor ships at sea, soil quality, track
    forest fires, report on environmental change & search for natural resources. These satellites are
    NOT in
        A. Earth orbit
        B. geosynchronous orbit
        C. use 24 hours a day
        D. alignment with radar stations on the Earth
30. Observation & research satellites are put into geosynchronous orbit. This means that they move
        A. faster than the Earth spins
        B. slower than the Earth spins
        C. at the same rate as the Earth spins
        D. twice as fast as the Earth spins
31. GPS satellites enable you to find out your exact position on the Earth at any time. 24 GPS
    satellites are orbiting the Earth at all times. To use the GPS system you need to get a signal from
        A. 2 of them
        B. 3 of them
        C. 4 of them
        D. 6 of them
32. Space Age materials are used on the Earth as well as in space. The improvement of traction on
    car winter tires is the result of an application that was originally developed for …
        A. parachute material for the Viking space mission
        B. voice-controlled wheelchairs
        C. structural analysis of a spacecraft
        D. microlasers for communication
33. This type of telescope is a ...
        A. reflecting
        B. refracting
        C. complex
        D. compound
34. One of the newest innovations for ground-based optical reflecting
    telescopes is the use of ...
        A. metal instead of glass
        B. liquid instead of glass
        C. segmented mirrors
        D. mirror arrays
35. Interferometry is a technique of using telescopes in combination. The advantage of using two or
    more telescopes together is that astronomers are able to …
        A. work together
        B. see more detail
        C. hypothesize about images
        D. create more colorful images
36. The Hubble Space Telescope offers a solution to the problems faced by astronomers on the
    Earth. Despite the remote mountain locations of ground-based telescopes to get away from light
    and air pollution, astronomers on the Earth still have to deal with interference caused by …
         A. noise
         B. aircraft
         C. weather
         D. earthquakes
37. Optical telescopes give us information based on visible light. However, objects in space, such as
    stars and galaxies, also emit many forms of electromagnetic energy. The energy form that has
    the longest wavelength is …
         A. infrared
         B. gamma
         C. x-ray
         D. radio
38. The electromagnetic spectrum identifies the many forms of electromagnetic energy. We an only
    see the visible light, but bees and other insects can see this form of electromagnetic energy
         A. x-rays
         B. infrared
         C. ultraviolet
         D. microwaves
39. Although neutral hydrogen (which makes up a large bulk of matter in space) emits no light, it does
    emit energy at a specific wavelength. Astronomers are able to map out this neutral hydrogen in
    our Milky Way galaxy by using these type of telescopes …
         A. radio telescopes
         B. infrared telescopes
         C. refracting telescopes
         D. interferometry telescopes
40. Radio Interferometry, the combinations of many radio telescopes enables astronomers to improve
    performance and accuracy of images. They can more accurately measure position if they are …
         A. at a higher altitude
         B. closer to sea level
         C. closer together
         D. further apart
41. If you have a baseline and know the angles to an object - an unknown distance away - you can
    accurately determine its actual distance away by using this method …
         A. triganometry
         B. interferometry
         C. triangulation
         D. base ten math
42. Parallax is the apparent shift in position of a nearby object when the object is viewed from two
    different positions. Astronomers use a star’s parallax to determine …
         A. what angles to use when they triangulate the star’s distance from Earth
         B. it’s orbital velocity and rotation compared to the Earth
         C. it’s actual distance from our Sun, measured in parsecs
         D. the degree of shift that will account for its relative position in the night sky
43. A police officer might pull you over because you were speeding. The officer can prove you were
    traveling at a certain speed because the radar device that is used sends out a radio signal that
    reflects off your vehicle. The difference in wavelength is the speed you are traveling. This is a
    practical everyday application of this scientific principle - the …
         A. parallax effect
         B. spectrometer effect
         C. ripple effect
         D. doppler effect
44. A hazard for satellites in space is the Sun. Without adequate protection from a surge of
    electrically charged particles (a ‘coronal mass ejection’ – also called ‘solar flares’) this could occur
        A. misdirection of signals
        B. fried electrical circuits
        C. orbital failure
        D. system software glitches
45. A ‘coronal mass ejection’ can also harm astronauts by killing cells in vital organs and damaging
    bone marrow. They are protected when they …
        A. wear their space suits
        B. wear metallic vests
        C. use reflective vests
        D. use polyethelene shielding
46. One hazard to us on Earth is the re-entry of a satellite. Most of the satellite will burn up, but this
    type of debris can cause us great harm …
        A. reflective
        B. radioactive
        C. reactive
        D. re-entry
47. There are three main systems of the Canadarm 2 used on the International Space Station. The
    part that travels along a rail system to move into different positions on the station is called …
        A. Monorail Repair Unit
        B. Mobile Base System
        C. Remote Manipulator System
        D. Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator
48. Canada launched a satellite in 1972 making it the 1 st nation to use a satellite for …
        A. GPS locator beacons
        B. finding natural resources
        C. broadcasting television signals
        D. military use
49. The 1 module to land on the moon was aided by this, which was built in Canada …
        A. landing gear
        B. Canadarm L2
        C. retro rockets
        D. heat shield
50. The 1 Canadian to go into space was …
        A. Sir Edward Sabine
        B. Chris Hadfield
        C. Robert Thirsk
        D. Marc Garneau
51. Do you think there is oxygen on the Moon? Scientists believe they can produce it by heating this
        A. carbon
        B. carbon dioxide
        C. volcanic rock
        D. cosmic dust
52. One of the benefits to spending all that money on space exploration is the potential for ‘mining’
    natural resources. These natural resources hold the greatest promise on …
        A. Moon
        B. Mars
        C. Jupiter
        D. Asteroid Belt
53. Who owns space? In order to establish an answer to a question such as this, it must be
    discussed and reflected upon. This type of question is considered to be …
        A. a decision
        B. an issue
        C. rhetorical
        D. a solution

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