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					Chapter 14
A New Spirit of Change, 1820-1860
Immigrants settle in the United States, American literature and art develop, and
reform movements have a major impact on the nation.

Section 1: The Hopes of Immigrants
Why People Migrated
• Emigrants—_________________________________________
• Immigrants—________________________________________
• Most immigrants make voyage to America in steerage
• _______________________—cheapest deck on ship, cramped conditions, filthy
• During mid-1800s, most immigrants come from Europe
• People immigrate because of ____________________________________
• Push factors—conditions that push people out of their native lands
• Pull factors—conditions that pull people toward a new place
• Push factors include:
- _____________________, landlords force tenants off land
- ________________, farmers unable to pay debts, families go hungry
- Industrial Revolution puts many artisans out of work
- _______________, political turmoil causes religious persecution
• Pull factors include __________, ________________, _____________________

Germans Pursue Economic Opportunity
• Germans largest immigrant group of 1800s, influence U.S. culture

The Irish Flee Hunger
• Most Irish immigrants are Catholic
• Immigrate in early 1800s to escape poverty, British mistreatment
• In 1845, disease attacks Ireland’s potato crop
• Causes ___________________—a severe food shortage, forces many to emigrate
• In U.S., Irish become city-dwellers, few skills, take low-paying jobs
• Compete with free blacks for backbreaking work that no one else wants

U.S. Cities Face Overcrowding
• Immigrants, native-born Americans flock to cities
• Rapid urban growth causes housing shortage
• Many people live in cramped, filthy apartment buildings
• Immigrant groups set up aid societies to help newcomers
• Politicians set up organizations to help arrivals find housing, jobs

Some Americans Oppose Immigration
• Some native-born Americans fear immigrants will not learn American ways
• Others fear that immigrants will outnumber natives
• As a result, immigrants face anger, prejudice
• __________________—negative opinion not based on facts
• _____________________—native-born Americans who want to stop foreign influence

• Refuse to hire immigrants, vote for Catholics, immigrants running for office
• Start political party, Know-Nothing Party, in 1850s
• Want to ban Catholics, foreign-born from holding office
• Want to cut immigration, have 21-year wait period for U.S. citizenship
• Elects 6 governors, then party quickly dies out

Section 3: Reforming American Society
A Spirit of Revival
• _______________________________—renewal of religious faith, 1790s, early 1800s
• Preachers speak at ___________________—meetings to reawaken religious faith
• Revivalist preachers claim that anyone can choose salvation
• Claim sin is selfishness, religious faith leads people to help others
• Such teachings awaken a spirit of reform
• Americans believe they can make things better

Temperance Societies
• __________________________________—campaign to stop alcohol consumption
• Heavy drinking is common in the early 1800s
• Temperance workers hand out pamphlets, produce plays
• Temperance speakers get a million people to promise to give up alcohol
• Business owners support temperance, want sober workers
• By 1855, 13 states pass laws to ban alcohol, most are repealed

Fighting for Workers’ Rights
• Factory work is noisy, boring, unsafe
• Women mill workers start labor union
• ______________________—workers who ban together, get better working conditions
• Women go on ________________—stop work to get better working conditions (1836)
• Many other strikes follow; depression hits (1837), jobs are scarce
• Labor movement falls apart, achieves a few goals

Improving Education
• _________________________ heads first state board of education in the U.S. (1837)
• A few Northern cities start public high schools
• Churches, other groups start many colleges; women cannot attend most
• Illegal to teach enslaved person to read in the South
• Few colleges accept African Americans

Caring for the Needy
• ______________________________ pushes reforms for the care of mentally ill
• Thomas H. Gallaudet starts first American school for the deaf (1817)
• Samuel G. Howe starts Perkins School for the Blind (1830s)
• Reformers improve prisons:
- separate children from main jails
- call for rehabilitation of adult prisoners

Spreading Ideas Through Print
• Cheaper newsprint, steam-driven press lowers price of newspapers
• Average Americans can afford to buy “penny papers”
• Contain serious news, gripping stories of fires and crimes
• Hundreds of new magazines appear
• Ladies’ Magazine advocates education for women

Creating Ideal Communities
• Some people attempt to build an ideal society—utopia
• New Harmony, Brook Farm are two famous utopias
• Experience conflicts, financial difficulties last only a few years
• Shakers set up a utopia, follow teachings of Ann Lee:
- lead holy lives in communities
- communities show God’s love
- share, not fight
• Depend on converts, adopting children to keep communities going

Section 4: Abolition and Women’s Rights
Abolitionists Call for Ending Slavery
• ______________________—movement to end slavery, begins in the late 1700s
• Abolitionists demand a law ending slavery in the South
• Free African American David Walker urges slaves to revolt
• William Lloyd Garrison publishes an abolitionist newspaper
• Sisters Sarah, Angelina Grimké lecture against slavery
• John Quincy Adams introduces anti-slavery amendment

Eyewitnesses to Slavery
• _____________________________ speaks about his own experience of slavery
• Publishes autobiography (1845), does lecture tour, buys his freedom
• Sojourner Truth flees enslavement, lives with Quakers who free her
• Wins court battle to recover her son, speaks for abolition

The Underground Railroad
• ________________________—aboveground escape routes from South to North
• Runaway slaves travel on foot, also take wagons, boats, trains
• Henry Brown escapes slavery by being packed in a box, shipped North
• Runaways usually travel by night, hide by day in places called stations

Harriet Tubman
• People who lead runaways to freedom are called conductors
• ______________________________ is a famous conductor
• Escapes slavery (1849), makes 19 journeys to free enslaved persons
• Enemies offer reward for her capture, is never caught

Women Reformers Face Barriers
• Lucretia Mott, ____________________________ attend anti-slavery convention
• Are not allowed to speak in public because they are women
• William Lloyd Garrison supports women’s right to speak
• In 1800s, women have few legal, political rights
• Stanton, Mott decide to demand equality for women

The Seneca Falls Convention
• Stanton, Mott hold ______________________________ for women’s rights (1848)
• Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions states men, women are equal
• Lists resolutions for women’s rights including ________________—the right to vote
• Women’s rights movement is ridiculed

Continued Calls for Women’s Rights
• Sojourner Truth speaks for women’s rights
• Susan B. Anthony builds women’s movement into a national organization
• Supports laws that give married women rights to own property, earn wages
• By 1865, 29 states have laws that give women property, wage rights


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