Hyderabad, India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hyderabad — Metropolitan city — Charminar, the iconic monument of Hyderabad Nickname(s): City of Pearls Hyderabad Location of Hyderabad in India Coordinates: 17.366°N 78.476°ECoordinates: 17.366°N 78.476°E Country State Andhra Pradesh Region Deccan Districts Hyderabad, Rangareddyand Medak Founded 1591 AD Government • Type Mayor–Council • Body GHMC, HMDA • Mayor Mohammad Majid Hussain • Police Anurag Sharma commissioner Area • Metropolitan city 650 km2 (250 sq mi) Elevation 536 m (1,759 ft) Population (2011) • Metropolitan city 6,809,970 • Rank 4th • Density 18,480/km2(47,900/sq mi) • Metro 7,749,334 • Metro rank 6th Demonym Hyderabadi Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) Pincode(s) 500 xxx, 501 xxx, 502 xxx, 508 xxx, 509 xxx Area code(s) +91–40, 8413, 8414, 8415, 8417, 8418, 8453, 8455 Vehicle registration AP 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 28 & 29 Official language Telugu and Urdu Website www.ghmc.gov.in Hyderabad ( i /ˈ haɪ dərəbæd/) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) on the banks of the Musi River on the Deccan Plateau in southern India. The population of the city is 6.8 million and that of its metropolitan area is 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. The Hyderabad Municipal Corporation was expanded in 2007 to form the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Hyderabad experiences substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. It remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city became part of the Deccan province of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled theprincely state of Hyderabad for more than two centuries, in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union at the conclusion of Operation Polo. The 1956 States Reorganisation Act created the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital. Since 1969, Hyderabad has been a major center of the Telangana movement, which demands that the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh should be made a separate state. Situated at the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad is noted for its unique culture. As the former capital of the largest and richestprincely state, and with the patronage of the Nizams, Hyderabad established local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. The city is a tourist destination and has many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sports venues and other cultural institutions. Hyderabad has emerged as a global hub for the information technology, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. It is home to the Telugu film industry and a major centre for higher education and research, with 13 universities and business schools. History Main article: History of Hyderabad, India Etymology The origin of the name Hyderabad is the subject of many myths. According to one of them, when Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah founded the city he named it Bhaganagar after Bhagmathi, a localnautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love. When they married, she converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal, and in her honour the city was renamed Hyderabad,  meaning "Hyder's abode" in Persian and Urdu. Yet another theory claims that Hyderabad was  named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder. Andrew Petersen, a  scholar of Islamic architecture, states that the city was originally called Baghnagar (city of gardens). Early and medieval history  Near the city, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE. The region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda (shepherd's   hill). It was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 731 CE to 966 CE. Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of theKakatiya  dynasty (1000–1310), whose headquarters was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern  Hyderabad. The Golkonda fort, was the seat of power of several rulers of the Deccan. When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate took over Warangal, the region came under the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321). Alauddin Khilji took theKoh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have  been mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda, to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347. Ala-ud- Din Bahman Shah, a governor under Muhammad bin Tughluq, rebelled against the sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan, with Gulbarga, 200 km (124 mi) west of Hyderabad, as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first  independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan. In 1518, Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established  the Qutb Shahi dynasty. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of this dynasty, established  Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 to avoid the water shortages experienced at  Golkonda, the sultanate's capital. He built the Charminar, the Purana Pul (old bridge) and Mecca  Masjid in the city. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the  Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort. The annexed area was renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province), and the capital was moved from Golkonda to Aurangabad,  about 550 km (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad. Nizam period In 1712, Farrukhsiyar, the sixth of Aurangzeb's successors, appointed Asif Jah I to be Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Realm). In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the region Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the  title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1862 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty ofMasulipatnam, surrendering  the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.  In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. In response to regular threats from Hyder Ali, Dalwai of Mysore, Baji Rao I, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, and Basalath Jung (Asif Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's borders, for which the Nizams paid an  annual maintenance to the British. From the late nineteenth century on, Hyderabad was transformed into a modern city by the establishment of railways, transport services, underground drainage, running water, electricity, Begumpet Airport, telecommunications, universities and industries. The Nizams ruled the state from Hyderabad until 17 September 1948, a year after India's  independence from Britain. Post-independence Main articles: Operation Polo and Hyderabad State (1948—1956) Hyderabad state in 1909 Following the independence of India from British rule, the Nizam declared his intention not to become  part of the Indian Union but to remain independent. In 1948, the Hyderabad State Congress began agitating against Nizam VII, with the support of the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India. On 17 September 1948 the Indian Army took control of Hyderabad State through Operation Polo, and Nizam VII joined the Union by signing the "Instrument of Accession",  which made him the Rajpramukh (Princely Governor) of the state. Between 1946 and 1951, the Communist Party of India led a peasant rebellion called the Telangana uprising against thefeudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely  state of Hyderabad. The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India, and Hyderabad city continued to be its capital. In his 1955 report Thoughts on Linguistic States, B. R. Ambedkar, then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, proposed that the city should be designated the second  capital of India because of its strategic central location and its amenities. Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad has been the second official residence and  business office of the President of India. On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganised by language group. Hyderabad State ceased to exist; it was split into three parts, which were included in the modern Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The nine Telugu- and Urdu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State that make up the Telangana region were merged with  the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital. Several protests, known collectively as the Telangana movement, attempted to invalidate the merger and demanded the creation of a new Telangana state. Major actions took place in 1969, 1972 and from  2010. In 2007, terrorist groups detonated a series of bombs in the city in May and in August,  leading to temporary communal tension and riots. Telangana people went on strike for more than 40 days in 2011, and in 2012 there were threats of further protests against discrimination in  employment. Geography Main article: Geography of Hyderabad, India Hussain Sagar lake, built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was once the source of drinking water for Hyderabad. Topography Hyderabad is located in the north-western part of Andhra Pradesh and lies on the banks of the Musi  River in the northern part of the Deccan plateau in South India. The city is spread over 2  650 km (250 sq mi), making it one of the largest metropolitan areas in India. Its predominant topography is sloping rocky terrain of grey and pink granites. Several small hillocks are scattered throughout the area. Hyderabad has an average altitude of 1,778 feet (542 m) above mean sea level.  Its highest point is Banjara Hills at 2,206 feet (672 m). In 1996 the city had 140 lakes and  counted 834 water tanks smaller than 10 hectares (25 acres). The city's lakes are often called sagar (sea). Hussain Sagar, built in 1562, is near the city center. Osman Sagar and Himayat  Sagar are artificial lakes created by dams on the Musi. Neighbourhood and landmarks Street map of the central area of the city The historic city established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the southern side of the Musi River forms the "Old City", while the "New City" encompasses the urbanised area on the northern banks. The two are connected by many bridges across the river, of which Purana Pul is the  oldest. Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring Secunderabad, from which it is separated by Hussain Sagar. In the southern part of central Hyderabad are many historical and touristic sites, such as the Charminar, the Mecca Masjid, the Salar Jung Museum, theNizam's museum, the Falaknuma Palace and the traditional retail corridor comprising Laad Bazaar, Pearls Market and Madina circle. North of the river are hospitals, colleges, major railway stations and business areas such as Begum Bazaar, Koti, Abids, Sultan Bazaar and Moazzam Jahi Market, along with administrative and recreational establishments such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, the Hyderabad Mint, theAndhra Pradesh Legislature, the Public Garden, the Nizam Club,  the Ravindra Bharathi, the state museum, the Birla Temple and the Birla Planetarium. Towards the north of central Hyderabad lie Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road, Rani Gunj and  the Secunderabad Railway Station. The majority of the city's parks and recreation centres are here: Sanjeevaiah Park, Indira Park, Lumbini Park, NTR Gardens, the Buddha statue and Tankbund  Park. In the northwest part of the city there are upscale residential areas such as Banjara Hills, Jubilee Hills, Begumpet and Khairatabad. The northern end contains industrial areas such as Sanathnagar, Moosapet, Balanagar, Pathan Cheru and Chanda Nagar. The northeast end is  dotted with residential colonies. The "Cyberabad" area in the southwest and west parts of the city has grown rapidly since the 1990s. It is home to information technology and bio-pharmaceutical companies and to landmarks such as Hyderabad Airport, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar and KBR National Park. In the eastern part of the city lie many defence research centres and Ramoji Film City. Climate Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) bordering on a hot semi-arid  climate (Köppen BSh). The annual mean temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F); monthly mean  temperatures are 21–32 °C (70–90 °F). Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with average  highs in the mid 30s Celsius; maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) between April  1 and June. Winter lasts for only about 2 ⁄2 months, during which the lowest temperature  occasionally dips to 10 °C (50 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 26 to 38.8 °C (79 to 102 °F); January, the coldest, has temperatures varying  from 14.7 to 28.6 °C (58 to 83 °F). Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler because of the city's moderate elevation. Rains brought by the south-west summer monsoon lash Hyderabad between June and   September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 812.5 mm (32 in). The highest total  monthly rainfall, 181.5 mm (7 in), occurs in September. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 241 mm (9 in) on 24 August 2000. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5 °C(114 °F) on 2 June 1966, and the lowest was 8 °C (46 °F) on 8 January 1946. The city receives  2,731 hours of sunshine per year; maximum daily sunlight exposure occurs in February. [hide]Climate data for Hyderabad Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug 28.6 31.8 35.2 37.6 38.8 34.4 30.5 29.6 Average high °C (°F) (83.5) (89.2) (95.4) (99.7) (101.8) (93.9) (86.9) (85.3) 14.7 17.0 20.3 24.1 26.0 23.9 22.5 22.0 Average low °C (°F) (58.5) (62.6) (68.5) (75.4) (78.8) (75.0) (72.5) (71.6) 3.2 5.2 12.0 21.0 37.3 96.1 163.9 171.1 Rainfall mm (inches) (0.126) (0.205) (0.472) (0.827) (1.469) (3.783) (6.453) (6.736) Avg. rainy days .3 .4 .9 1.8 2.7 7.6 10.6 10.1 Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 271.2 263.5 273.0 282.1 180.0 142.6 136.4 Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980)  Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990)  Administration Main article: Administration of Hyderabad, India The Andhra Pradesh State Assembly building houses the bicameral Andhra Pradesh Legislature. Local government Hyderabad is administered by several government agencies. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 18 "circles", which together encompass 150 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor, who is the titular head of GHMC; executive powers rest with the Municipal Commissioner, appointed by theGovernment of Andhra Pradesh. The GHMC carries out the city's infrastructural work such as building and maintenance of roads and drains; town planning including construction regulation; maintenance of municipal markets and parks; solid waste management; the issuing of birth and death certificates; the issuing of trade licences; collection of property tax; and community welfare services such as mother and child healthcare service, pre-school  education, and non-formal education. It was formed in April 2007 by merging the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with 12 municipalities of the Hyderabad, Ranga 2 [better source needed] Reddy and Medak districts covering a total area of 650 km (250 sq mi). In the 2009 municipal election, an alliance of the Indian National Congress and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen formed  the majority. The Secunderabad Cantonment Board is a civic administration agency overseeing an 2 :5 :2 area of 40.1 km (15.5 sq mi) where there are several military camps. The Osmania :6 University campus is administered independently by the university authority. Hyderabad's administrative agencies have jurisdiction over areas of different sizes. The Hyderabad Police area is the smallest, followed in ascending order by Hyderabad district, the GHMC area ("Hyderabad city") and the area under the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). The HMDA is the apolitical urban planning agency that encompasses the GHMC area and the 2  suburbs, extending to 54 mandals in five districts occupying an area of 7,100 km (2,700 sq mi). It coordinates the development activities of GHMC and suburban municipalities and manages the administration of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB), the Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation, the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport :13 Corporation (APSRTC) and other bodies. The jurisdiction of the Hyderabad Police Commissionerate is divided into five police zones, each  headed by a deputy commissioner. The Hyderabad Traffic Police is headed by a deputy  commissioner who reports to the commissioner. The area under the jurisdiction of the Hyderabad City Police is only part of the GHMC area; other parts fall under the jurisdiction of the Cyberabad Police Commissionerate. In 2012 the Andhra Pradesh Government announced its intention to merge the Hyderabad and Cyberabad Police Commissionerates into a single Greater Hyderabad Police  Commissionerate. As the seat of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is home to the Andhra Pradesh Legislature, the state secretariat and the Andhra Pradesh High Court, as well as to various local government agencies. The Lower City Civil Court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court are under the [not in citation given] jurisdiction of the High Court. The GHMC area contains 24 State Legislative Assembly constituencies, which come under five constituencies of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of [not in citation given] the Parliament of India). Utility services  The HMWSSB regulates rainwater harvesting, water supply and sewerage services. It sources  water from several dams located in the suburbs, and in 2005 it started operating a 150-kilometre- long (93 mi) water supply pipeline from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to meet increasing  demands. The Andhra Pradesh Central Power Distribution Company manages electricity  supply. Firefighting services are provided by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services department. As of  March 2012, the city has 13 fire stations. The state-owned Indian Postal Service has five head post offices and many sub-post offices in Hyderabad, and privately run courier services are also  available. In 1999, the state government launched eSeva, an electronic facility that supports  several citizen services, including utility bill payment. Pollution control Every day Hyderabad produces around 4,500 metric tonnes of solid waste, which is transported from  collection units in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the dumpsite inJawaharnagar. The GHMC started the Integrated Solid Waste Management project in 2010 to manage waste  disposal. The Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) is the regulatory and screening authority for pollution. Rapid urbanisation and increased economic activity encouraged population migration to Hyderabad, which led to increased air pollution, industrial waste, noise  pollution and water pollution. The contribution of different sources to air pollution in 2006 was: 20– 50% from vehicles, 40–70% from a combination of vehicle discharge and road dust, 10–30% from  industrial discharges and 3–10% from the burning of household rubbish. Deaths from atmospheric  particulate matter are estimated at 1,700–3,000 each year. The ground water in Hyderabad has  a hardness of up to 1000 ppm, around three times higher than is desirable. The region's ground water levels are shrinking, and dams are facing water shortage due to burgeoning population and the  consequent increase in demand. Inadequately treated effluents from industrial treatment plants  are polluting the drinking water sources of the city. APPCB and local authorities have designed and [further explanation needed] implemented multiple actions to control pollution. Healthcare See also: Healthcare in Hyderabad, India The Nizamia Unani Hospital provides medical care in both Unani and Allopathic medicine systems. The Andhra Pradesh Vaidya Vidhana Parishad, a department of the state government, administers   healthcare in Hyderabad. In 2010–11 the city had 50 government hospitals, 300 private and charity hospitals and 194 nursing homes; together these facilities provide approximately 12,000  hospital beds, less than half of the required 25,000. For every 10,000 people in the city, there are   17.6 hospital beds, 9 specialist doctors, 14 nurses and 6 physicians. The city also has about   4,000 individual clinics and 500 medical diagnostic centres. Most residents prefer treatment at private facilities, and only 28% use government facilities, because of their distance, poor quality of :60–61 care and long waiting times. As of 2012, many new hospitals of all sizes have opened or are  being built. Hyderabad also has outpatient and inpatient facilities that  use Unani, homeopathicand Ayurvedic treatments. According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, 24% of Hyderabad's households were covered by government health schemes or health insurance—the highest proportion among the cities :4 :47 surveyed. The city's total fertility rate is 1.8, Only 61% of children had been provided with all basicvaccines (BCG, measles and full courses of polio and DPT), fewer than in all other surveyed :98 cities except Meerut. The infant mortality rate was 35 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate :97 for children under five was 41 per 1,000 live births. According to the survey, about a third of women and a quarter of men were overweight or obese, about 49% of children below 5 years :44, 55–56 are anaemic, and up to 20% of children are underweight. More than 2% of women and 3% of :57 men suffer from diabetes in Hyderabad. Demographics Main article: Demographics of Hyderabad, India [hide]Hyderabad Population Census Pop. %± 1971 1,796,000 — 1981 2,546,000 41.8% 1991 3,059,262 20.2% 2001 3,637,483 18.9% 2011 6,809,970 87.2% World Gazetteer Hyderabad underwent very sudden growth in the first decade of the 21st century. When the GHMC 2 was created in 2007, the area occupied by the municipality increased from 170 km (66 sq mi) to 2  650 km (250 sq mi). As a consequence, the population increased by over 87%, from 3,637,483 in the 2001 census to 6,809,970 in the 2011 census, making Hyderabad the fourth most populous city in  :2 India. Migrants from elsewhere in India constitute 24% of the city population. The population 2  density is 18,480 /km (47,900 /sq mi). The Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration has a population of  7,749,334, making it the sixth most populous urban agglomeration in the country. There are 3,500,802 male and 3,309,168 female citizens—a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000   males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. Among children aged 0–6 years,  373,794 are boys and 352,022 are girls—a ratio of 942 per 1000. Literacy stands at 82.96% (male  85.96%; female 79.79%), higher than the national average of 74.04%. Ethnic groups, language and religion Residents of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadi. The majority of them are Telugu people, followed by Urdu-speaking and Marathi people, and there are minority Kannada (including Nawayathi),Marwari, Bengali, Tamil, Malayali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Uttar Pradeshi communities. Among the communities of foreign origin, Yemeni Arabs form the majority, and African Arabs, Armenians,Abyssinians, Iranians, Pathans and Turkish people are also present.  The foreign population declined after Hyderabad State became part of the Indian Union. Religion in Hyderabad district—2001 Religion Percent Hinduism 55% Islam 42% Christianity 2% Others 1%  Telugu is the official language of Hyderabad and Urdu is its second language; English is also used,  particularly among white-collar workers. The Telugu spoken in Hyderabad is a dialect called [not in citation given] [not in citation given] Telangana, and the Urdu spoken there is called Deccani Urdu. A  significant minority speaks other languages, including Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada and Tamil. Hindus form the majority of Hyderabad's population. Muslims are present throughout the city and predominate in and around the Old City. There are also Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi communities, and iconic temples, mosques and churches  can be seen. According to the 2001 census, Hyderabad district's religious make-up was: Hindus (55%), Muslims (42%), Christians (2.4%), Jains (0.4%), Sikhs (0.28%) and Buddhists (0.02%); 0.22%  did not state any religion. Slums According to a 2012 report submitted by GHMC to the World Bank, Hyderabad has 1,476 slums with a total population of 1.7 million, of whom 66% live in 985 slums in the "core" of the city (the part that formed Hyderabad before the April 2007 expansion) and the remaining 34% live in 491 in suburban  tenements. About 22% of the slum-dwelling households had migrated from different parts of India in the last decade of the 20th century, and 63% claimed to have lived in the slums for over 10 :55 years. Overall literacy in the slums is 60–80% and female literacy is 52–73%. A third of the slums have basic service connections and 90% have water supply lines. There are 405 government schools, :70 267 government aided schools, 175 private schools and 528 community halls in the slum areas. According to a 2008 survey by the Centre for Good Governance, 87.6% of the slum-dwelling households are nuclear families, 18% are very poor, with an income of 20,000 (US$364) per annum, 73% live below the poverty line (a standard poverty line recognised by the Andhra Pradesh Government is 24,000 (US$436.8) per annum), 27% of the chief wage earners (CWE) are casual labourand 38% of the CWE are illiterate. About 3.72% of the slum children aged 5–14 do not go to school and 3.17% work as child labour, of whom 64% are boys and 36% are girls. The largest employers of child labour are street shops and construction sites. Among the working children, 35% :59 are engaged in hazardous jobs. Economy Main article: Economy of Hyderabad, India See also: Industries in Hyderabad, India, Biopharmaceutical industry of Hyderabad, India, List of companies based in Hyderabad, India, List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad, and Software industry in Andhra Pradesh A jewellery and pearl shop in Laad Bazaar, near the Charminar Of all the cities of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's GDP, tax and   other revenues. Its per capita annual income in 2011 was 44,300 (US$806.26). As of 2006, the largest employers in the city are the governments of Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and of  India (85,155). In 2009 the World Bank Group ranked the city as the second best Indian city for  doing business. In 2010, the economic analysis group GaWC ranked Hyderabad in its third tier  (Gamma+) of world cities. The city and its suburbs contain the highest number of special economic  zones of any Indian city. Hyderabad's $74 billion gross domestic product makes it the fifth-largest  contributor to India's overall GDP. Hyderabad is known as the "City of Pearls" on account of its role in the pearl trade. Until the 18th  century the city was the only global trading center forlarge diamonds. Many traditional and  historical bazaars are located in the city. The Laad Bazaar and nearby markets have shops that  sell pearls, diamonds and other traditional ware and cultural antiques. Hyderabad's commercial markets are divided into four sectors: central business districts, sub-central business centres,  neighbourhood business centres and local business centres. Several central business districts are  spread across the city. According to a survey by Cushman & Wakefield, Hyderabad's retail industry  and traditional markets were growing in 2007. Industrialisation began under the Nizams in the late 19th century, helped by railway expansion that  connected the city with major ports. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Indian enterprises were  established in the city, such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC), Bharat Electronics (BE), Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Andhra Bank (AB) and State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH). Thus Hyderabad evolved from  a traditional manufacturing city to a cosmopolitan industrial service centre. Since the 1990s, the growth of information technology (IT), IT-enabled services, insurance and financial institutions has expanded the service sector, and these primary economic activities have boosted the ancillary  sectors of trade and commerce, transport, storage, communication, real estate and retail. The service industry remains dominant in the city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this  sector. According to a government survey, 77% of males and 19% of females in the city were  employed in 2005. HITEC city, the hub of information technology companies Hyderabad is known as "India's pharmaceutical capital" and as the "Genome Valley of India" because  of its many pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. It is a global centre of information  technology, for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City). During 2008–09, Hyderabad's IT  exports reached US$ 4.7 billion, and 22% of the NASSCOM's total membership is from the  city. The development of HITEC City, a township with extensive technological infrastructure,  prompted multinational companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad. The city is home to more than 1300 IT firms, including global conglomerates such as Microsoft (operating its largest R&D :3 campus outside the US), Google, IBM, Yahoo!, Dell,Facebook, and major Indian firms :3 including Mahindra Satyam, Infosys, TCS, Genpact and Wipro. Like the rest of India, Hyderabad has a large informal economy that employs 30% of the labour :71 force. According to a survey published in 2007, it had 40–50,000 street vendors, and their :9 :12 numbers were increasing. Among the street vendors, 84% are male and 16% female, and :15–16 four fifths are "stationary vendors" operating from a fixed pitch, often with their own stall. Most :19 are financed through personal savings; only 8% borrow from moneylenders. Vendor earnings  vary from 50 (US$0.91) to 800 (US$14.56) per day. Other unorganised economic sectors include dairy, poultry farming, brick manufacturing, casual labour and domestic help. Those involved :71 in the informal economy constitute a major portion of urban poor. Transport Main article: Transport in Hyderabad, India A congested road near Charminar showing pedestrians, auto-rickshaws and street vendors Public modes of transport such as buses, auto rickshaws and light railways are the most commonly  used in Hyderabad. As of 2007, its vehicle distribution is 75% two-wheelers, 14% cars, 1% taxis, :28 4% goods vehicles, 2% buses and 4% other vehicles. As of 2012, there are 77,035 auto  rickshaws and 3,800 RTC buses. In some parts of the city cycle rickshaws are hired to travel :32 smaller distances. As of 2001, two-wheelers and cars are involved in 50% of road accidents, public transport buses and trucks in 10% and auto-rickshaws in 15%. Altogether, 12% of the accidents are fatal and 88% result in injury (including the 40% of accidents that are caused by non- [clarification needed] :32 availability of pedestrian facilities). As of 2010, maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h (31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto rickshaws and  40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial vehicles and buses.  Three National Highways pass through the city: NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202. Five state :1 highways, SH-1, SH-2, SH-4, SH-5 and SH-6, either begin at or pass through Hyderabad, and :2-3 traffic congestion is widespread. Like many other Indian metropolitan cities, Hyderabad faces :3 parking problems, particularly in the city centre. Roads occupy 6% of the total city area. The Inner Ring Road, the Outer Ring Road and variousinterchanges, overpasses and underpasses have been developed to ease the congestion. As of 2008, the Hyderabad Elevated Expressway is the longest  flyover in India. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, completed in 2008, was the second public–private partnership among Indian airports. The bus service provided by the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the  most frequently used means of public transport within the city. According to Guinness World Records 2005, APSRTC operates the world's largest fleet of buses in terms of number of commuters,  estimated to carry 13 million passengers a day. The Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station in the city  centre is the main bus station. Setwin (Society for Employment Promotion & Training in Twin  Cities) operates minibuses in the city. Hired transport includes taxis and the widely used auto  rickshaws. The Secunderabad Railway Station is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways, and the largest station in Hyderabad. Other major railway stations are Hyderabad Deccan  Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station. Hyderabad's light rail transportation system, known as the Multi-Modal Transport System, is used by over 150,000  passengers daily. Hyderabad Metro, a rapid transitsystem, is under construction and is scheduled  to operate three lines by 2014. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGAI)  (IATA: HYD, ICAO: VOHS) was opened in 2008, replacing Begumpet Airport. In 2011, Airports Council International, an autonomous body representing the world's airports, judged RGAI the world's best airport in the 5–15 million passenger category and the world's fifth best airport for Airport service  quality. Culture A Bull decorated during Sadar carnival, celebrated by Yadav community. Main article: Culture of Hyderabad, India See also: Muslim culture of Hyderabad Hyderabad is noted for its mingling of North and South Indian linguistic and cultural traits and for the :viii coexistence of Hindu and Muslim traditions there. Telugu and Urdu are the languages most  commonly spoken. Traditional Hyderabadi garb is Sherwani and Kurta–Paijama for men  and Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez for women. Muslim women commonly   wear burqas and hijabs in public. Most youths wearwestern clothing. Festivals celebrated in Hyderabad include Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Bonalu, Bathukamma, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Literature Hyderabad received royal patronage for arts, literature and architecture from its former rulers; this attracted artists and men of letters from different parts of the world. The resulting multi-ethnic  settlements popularised cultural events such as mushairas (poetic symposia). The Qutb Shahi dynasty patronised the growth of Deccani Urdu literature; the Deccani Masnavi and Diwan (collection  of poems) composed during this period are among the earliest available manuscripts in Urdu. The reign of the Nizams saw many literary reforms and the introduction of Urdu as a language of court,  administration and education. In 1824, a collection of Urdu Ghazals (a specific poetic form) named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, penned by Mah Laqa Bai—the first female Urdu poet—was published in  Hyderabad. The Hyderabad Literary Festival, held since 2010, is an annual event that showcases  the city's literary and cultural creativity. Organisations engaged in research into and promotion of literature include the Sahitya Akademi, the Urdu Academy, the Telugu Academy, the National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, the Comparative Literature Association of India, and Andhra Saraswata Parishad. The State Central Library, established in 1891, is the largest public library in the  state. Other major libraries are the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British  Library and the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram. Music, performing arts and films [clarification needed (see In princely Hyderabad, the nobles had a tradition of courtesan dance and poetry, talk)] which led to the development of certain styles of court music and dance. Taramati in the early [citation 16th century and Mah Laqa Bai in the 18th are two courtesans who popularised Kathak dance. needed] Besides western and Indian popular music genres such as filmi music, the residents of Hyderabad play city-based marfa music, especially at weddings, festivals and other celebratory  events. The state government organises the Golconda Music and Dance Festival, the Taramati  Music Festival and the Premavathi Dance Festival. Though the city is not particularly noted for  theatre and drama, the state government promotes theatre with multiple programmes and [not in citation given] festivals. The Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam are auditoria for theatre and performing arts in the city. Numaish is a popular annual exhibition of local  and national consumer products. The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known  as Tollywood. As of 2012, Tollywood is second only to Bollywoodin producing the most films in   India. Since 2005, films in local Hyderabadi dialect have gained in popularity. The city hosts the  annual International Children's Film Festival and theHyderabad International Film Festival. In  2005, Guinness World Records declared Ramoji Film City to be the world's largest film studio. Art and handicraft 18th century bidriware, displayed at theMusée du Louvre  The Golconda and Hyderabad styles are branches of Deccani painting. Developed during the 16th century, the Golconda style is a native style blending foreign techniques, bearing some similarity to the Vijayanagara paintings of neighbouring Mysore. A significant use of luminous gold and white  colours is generally found in the Golconda style. The Hyderabad style originated in the early 17th century under the Nizams. Highly influenced byMughal painting, this style makes use of bright colours  and mostly depicts regional landscape, culture, costumes and jewellery. A metalware handicraft known as Bidri ware was popularised in the region in the 18th century. Bidri  ware is a Geographical Indication (GI) tagged craft of India. Kalamkari, a hand-painted or  block-printed cotton textile, is popular in the city. Hyderabad's museums include the Salar Jung  Museum (housing "one of the largest one-man-collections in the world" ), the AP State Archaeology Museum, the Nizam Museum, the City Museumand the Birla Science Museum, which contains  a planetarium. Architecture A distinct style of Indo-Islamic architecture enriched with regional influences is reflected in the city's  [dubious – discuss] buildings. The Qutb Shahi architecture of the 15th century is manifest in colossal arches found in Golconda fort, the Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar, Mecca Masjid and Charkaman. The chief materials used in these constructions are granite and lime mortar. Asif Jahi architecture began to emerge in the 17th century. Some 20th-century structures such as Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital and the High Court are designed and constructed in the styles of medieval and Mughal architecture. The Nizams applied European styles in some of the  constructions such as the Falaknuma and King Kothi Palaces. Other historical sites include the Chowmahalla Palace, the Purani Haveli, and the Andhra Pradesh State Assembly  Building. Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, is called the maker of modern Hyderabad because of  his patronage of architecture in the city. In 2012, The government of India declared Hyderabad the  first "Best heritage city of India". Hyderabadi Biryani (on left), and other dishes Cuisine Main article: Hyderabadi cuisine  Hyderabadi cuisine became prominent with the Nizams. It comprises a broad repertoire of rice,  wheat and meat dishes and the skilled use of various spices. Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi  haleem, with their blend of Mughlai and Arab cuisines, have become iconic dishes of  India. Hyderabadi cuisine is highly influenced by Mughlai and to some extent   by French, Arabic, Turkish, Iranian and native Telugu andMarathwada cuisines. Other popular native dishes include nihari, chakna, baghara baingan and the desserts qubani ka  meetha, double ka meetha and kaddu ki kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd). Media Main article: Media in Hyderabad, India One of the earliest newspapers to be published in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times, which was  established in the 1780s. The major Telugu dailies published in Hyderabad are Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy, the major English papers are The Times of India, The  Hindu and The Deccan Chronicle, and the major Urdu papers include The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Etemaad. Many coffee table magazines, professional magazines and research  journals are regularly published there. The Secunderabad Cantonment Board established the first [clarification radio station in Hyderabad State around 1919. Deccan Radio was the first local general needed]  radio station, going on air on 3 February 1935. In 2000, radio stations were permitted to  broadcast in FM; the available channels included All India Radio, Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Big  FM. Television broadcasting in Hyderabad began in 1974 with the launch of Doordarshan, the  Government of India's public service broadcaster, which transmits two free-to-air terrestrial television channels and one satellite channel. Private satellite channels started in July 1992 with the  launch of Star TV. Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast  satellite services or internet-based television. Hyderabad's first dial-up Internet access became available in the early 1990s but was initially limited to computer software development  companies. The first public internet access service began in 1995, and in 1998 the first private  sector ISP started operating. Education Main article: Education in Hyderabad, India See also: Category:Research institutes in Hyderabad, India and List of Defense research centers in Hyderabad, India Osmania University College of Arts  Schools in Hyderabad may be affiliated to the CBSE, the SSC or the ICSE, and they may be run by government or by private entities such as local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other  agencies. Around two-thirds of pupils go to private schools. Languages of instruction include  [further explanation needed] English, Hindi, Urdu and Telugu. Schools follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools or junior colleges with a higher secondary facility. Admission to professional colleges in Hyderbad is through Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test. Most colleges are affiliated with either Jawaharlal  Nehru Technological University or Osmania University. There are 13 universities in Hyderabad: two private universities, two deemed universities, six state universities and three central universities. The central universities are the University of  Hyderabad, Maulana Azad National Urdu University and the English and Foreign Languages  University. Osmania University, established in 1918, was the first university in Hyderabad. As of  2012, it is India's second most popular destination for international students. The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open University, established in 1982, is the first distance-learning open university in  India. Indian School of Business campus  Notable business and management schools in Hyderabad are the Indian School of Business and  the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India. Institutes of national importance include the Institute of Public Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of India, and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy. Hyderabad has five major medical schools—Osmania Medical College (established in 1846), Gandhi Medical College,Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Deccan  College of Medical Sciences and Shadan Institute Of Medical Sciences —and many affiliated teaching hospitals. The Government Nizamia Tibbi College, established in 1810, is a college of unani  medicine. Hyderabad is also a major centre for biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceutical study and  research; the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research is located  here. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University are notable agricultural engineering institutes. Many of India's leading technical and engineering schools are in Hyderabad, including the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIITH), the Birla Institute of Technology & Science, and the Indian Institute Of Technology (IITH). Schools of fashion design in the city include Raffles Millennium International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College. Sports See also: List of stadiums in Hyderabad, India Indian Air Force HAL Dhruvhelicopters at the 2007 Military World Games  Cricket and association football are the most popular sports in Hyderabad. The city has hosted national and international sports events such as the 2002National Games of India, the 2003 Afro- Asian Games, the 2004 AP Tourism Hyderabad Open women's tennis tournament, the 2007 Military World Games, the 2009 World Badminton Championships and the 2009 IBSF World Snooker Championship. The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex is a venue for field hockey, and  the G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium in Gachibowli serves as a venue for athletics and football. The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and the Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium host cricket  matches; the latter serves as the home ground ofHyderabad Cricket Association. Hyderabad has been the venue of many international cricket matches, including matches in the 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket World Cups. The Hyderabad cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, a first- class cricket tournament among India's states and cities. TheDeccan Chargers, a cricket franchise in  the Indian Premier League, won the 2009 Indian Premier League held in South Africa. The city houses many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and the British, such as the Secunderabad Club, the Nizam Club and the Hyderabad Race Club, which is known for its horse   racing, especially the annual Deccan derby. The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises  [clarification needed (off- popular events such as the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag, TSD Rallies and 4x4 off-road. road what?)]  The Hyderabad Golf Club has an eighteen-hole golf course. Notable international sportspeople from Hyderabad include: cricketers Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman,Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub and Noel David;  football players Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Nayeemuddin and Shabbir Ali; tennis playerSania Mirza; badminton players S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, Jwala Gutta and Chetan Anand; hockey players Syed Mohammad Hadi andMukesh Kumar; and bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan. Place to visit The city of smiles, of lights, of a thousand faces, endearingly called the Pearl City, Hyderabad offers a variety of tourist attractions ranging from Heritage monuments, Lakes and Parks, Gardens and Resorts, Museums to delectable cuisine and a delightful shopping experience. To the traveller, Hyderabad offers a fascinating panorama of the past, with a richly mixed cultural and historical tradition spanning 400 colourful years. Some of the tourist attractions include... Charminar Ph: 23522990 Visiting Hours: 9 am – 5.30 pm The Charminar is as much the signature of Hyderabad as the Taj Mahal is of Agra or the Eiffel Tower is of Paris. Mohammed Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of Hyderabad, built Charminar in 1591 at the centre of the original city layout. It is said to be built as a charm to ward off a deadly epidemic raging at that time. Four graceful minarets soar to a height of 48.7 m above the ground. Charminar has 45 prayer spaces and a mosque in it. Visitors can view the architectural splendour inside the Charminar. The monument is illuminated in the evenings and a pedestrianisation project around the monument is under implementation. Mecca Masjid: A two hundred yards southwest of the Charminar is the Mecca Masjid, so named because the bricks were brought from Mecca to build the central arch. The Qutb Shahis never finished the building of the mosque, which was completed by Aurangzeb in 1694. Laad Baazar: This is famous, colourful shopping centre of the old city, tucked away in one of the streets leading off from Charminar. Bridal wear, Pearls and the traditional Hyderabadi glass and stone studded bangles are sold here. Golconda Fort Ph:23512401 Visiting Hours: Golconda is one of the famous forts of India. The name originates from the Telugu words “Golla Konda” meaning “Shepherd’s Hill”. The origins of the fort can be traced back to the Yadava dynasty of Deogiri and the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Golconda was originally a mud fort, which passed to the Bahmani dynasty and later to the Qutb Shahis, who held it from 1518 to 1687 A.D. The first three Qutb Shahi kings rebuilt Golconda, over a span of 62 years. The fort is famous for its acoustics, palaces, ingenious water supply system and the famous Fateh Rahben gun, one of the cannons used in the last siege of Golconda by Aurangzeb, to whom the fort ultimately fell. Sound & Light Show at Golconda Fort: Ph: 23512401 The glorious past of Golconda Fort is narrated effectively with matchless Sound and Light effects. The unique Sound & Light Show takes you right back in time, when Golconda was full of life, glory and grandeur. Qutb Shahi Tombs: The tombs of the legendary Qutb Shahi kings lie about a kilometre away from Banjara Darwaza of the Golconda Fort. Planned and built by the Qutb Shahis themselves, these tombs are said to be the oldest historical monuments in Hyderabad. They form a large group and stand on a raised platform. The tombs are built in Persian, Pathan and Hindu architectural styles using grey granite, with stucco ornamentation, the only one of its kind in the world where an entire dynasty has been buried at one place. Taramati Baradari Ph: 23520172 Visiting Hours: 8 am – 9.30 pm Taramati Baradari is located at Ibrahimbagh, on the Osman Sagar (Gandipet) Road, close to Golconda. The complex is spread over a sprawling 7-acre area amidst lush green environs with the backdrop of the famed Golconda Fort. The heritage monument built by the Seventh Sultan of Golconda is accessed from the complex. With two fully equipped theatres, Taramati Baradari Culture Village is the perfect venue for music concerts, performing arts, social events etc. The Baradari illuminated in dynamic lighting forms the backdrop of all activities. Birla Mandir (Venkateswara Temple) Ph: 23233259 Visiting Hours: This white marble temple of Lord Venkateshwara floats on the city skyline, on Kala Pahad. The idol in the temple is a replica of the one at Tirumala Tirupati. Birla Planetarium: Ph: 23241067 Birla Planetarium is India’s most modern planetarium and first of its kind in the country. It is equipped with advanced technology from Japan and is built on Naubat Pahad adjacent to Kala Pahad. And the Science Museum stands tribute to the advancement achieved by Science and Technology. Salar Jung Museum Ph: 24523211 Visiting Hours: 10 am – 5 pm (Friday Closed) This museum houses one of the biggest one-man collections of antiques of the world by Mir Yousuf Ali Khan, Salar Jung III. The objects d’art include Persian carpets, Moghal miniatures, Chinese porcelain, Japanese lacquerware, famous statues including the Veiled Rebecca and Marguerite and Mephistopheles, a superb collection of jade, daggers belonging to Queen Noor Jahan and the Emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb’s sword and many other fabulous items. Top AP State Archaeological Museum Ph: 23234942 Visiting Hours : 10.30 am – 5 pm (Friday Closed) A visit to the Andhra Pradesh State Archaeological Museum is a delight for art lovers. Located in the picturesque Public Gardens, the museum boasts of one of the richest repositories of antiques and art objects in the country. Built in 1920 by the Nizam VII, the museum building itself is a fine example of Indo-Saracenic architecture. The museum contains a Buddhist gallery, Brahmanical & Jain gallery, Bronze gallery, Arms & Armour gallery, Numismatics gallery, Ajanta gallery and more. Adjacent to the State Museum is the Contemporary Art Museum. Public Gardens: Hyderabad has several beautiful gardens, one of the most popular being the Public Gardens, which also encloses the State Legislature, State Archaeological Museum, Jubilee Hall, Jawahar Bal Bhavan and Telugu Lalita Kala Thoranam, an open-air theatre. Nehru Zoological Park Ph: 24477355 Visiting Hours: (Monday Closed) Spanning 300 lush green acres, the Nehru Zoological Park is a must for nature lovers. It has over 250 species of animals and birds, most of which are kept in conditions as close to their natural habitats as possible. This is the first zoo to create moated enclosures for animals. The Lion Safari Park, Natural History Museum and Children’s Train are the added attractions. Mir Alam Tank: Mir Alam Tank is a large lake adjacent to Nehru Zoological Park. AP Tourism operates boats on the lake, for which one has to enter through the Zoo. Shilparamam (The Arts & Crafts Village) Ph: 23100455 Visiting Hours: Another attraction at Madhapur besides Hi-tec city in Hyderabad is the 30-acre village, which showcases arts and crafts of the country. India is an ocean of various arts and crafts but the talent of most of the artisans and artists goes unrecognized. To encourage them and give the necessary boost to their art, the crafts village hosts annual bazaars, where artists and artisans from all over the country exhibit their talent. Top Hitec City One of the modern monuments of trade and technology, it embodies the newfound attitude of Hyderabad and today finds a place of pride. Situated on the outskirts of the city, it is the nucleus of Cyberabad, the IT destination in this part of the world. Cyber Towers is the main building here. Hussainsagar Lake Excavated in 1562 A.D. by Hussain Shah Wali during the time of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah, the lake has a promenade that is a busy thoroughfare today. Boating and water sports are a regular feature in the Hussainsagar. One of the World’s tallest monolithic statues of the Buddha stands on the ‘Rock of Gibraltar’, in the middle of the lake. Added to all these, AP Tourism has additional boating facilities like speed boats, motor boats, 48 seater launch etc. Starlit dinner on-board and private parties also can be arranged on the Launch. Surroundings of Hussainsagar Lake provide marvellous entertainment options like NTR Gardens, Necklace Road, Tank Bund, Prasads Multiplex, Lumbini Park, Sanjeevaiah Park etc., The Nizam‘S Silver Jubilee Museum Ph: 23555072 The stately Purani Haveli, the palace acquired around the year 1750 by the second Nizam, is now converted into a museum with a fascinating collection. The museum exhibits the gifts and mementos presented to the last Nizam on the occasion of the silver jubilee celebrations in 1937. A 1930 Rolls Royce, Packard and a Mark V Jaguar are among the vintage cars displayed. There is an interesting collection of models made in silver of all the prominent buildings of the city and citations in Urdu about H.E.H. Mir Osman Ali Khan, gold burnished wooden throne used for the silver jubilee celebrations, gold tiffin box inlaid with diamonds, and a gold model of Jubilee Pavilion. Chow Mohalla Palace Ph: Visiting Hours: Built in several phases by the Nizams between 1857-1869, this is now one of the heritage buildings. The complex comprises four palaces in Moghal and European styles, of which the main palace is double storeyed with the others being single-storeyed blocks. Durgam Cheruvu Ph:23110523 Visiting Hours:9 am – 8.30 pm The ‘Secret Lake’ is situated close to Shilparamam Crafts Village and Hitec City, behind Jubilee Hills. AP Tourism organizes boating in the lake. ‘Something Fishy’, a bar at Secret Lake (Durgam Cheruvu) Chilkur Balaji Temple The Balaji Temple is located at Chilkur in the Hyderabad district. It is 33 Kms away from Mehdipatnam. Approximately 75,000 to 1,00,000 devotees visit in a week. Generally temple gets heavy rush on Saturdays and Sundays. Set in sylvan surroundings, the temple attracts thousands of pilgrims every year and is an ideal place for sequestered retreat and meditation. Top KBR National Park Ph: 23607663 Visiting Hours: One of the largest parks within the city KBR National Park is a Southern tropical deciduous forest and the last vestigial representative of the endemic flora of Hyderabad region, with over 100 species of birds, 20 species of reptiles and 15 species of butterflies. Mrugavani National Park Located at Chilkur, 25 km. from Hyderabad, the park contains the endemic flora of Hyderabad and is an urban refuge for small mammals like wildboar, jungle cat etc. and birds. Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park Located 15 Km. from Hyderabad, the park has more than 350 black bucks, 400 cheetals and a number of wild boars, small mammals, reptiles and over 100 species of birds. Hyderabad Botanical Gardens The first Botanical Gardens in Andhra Pradesh, spread over 120 acres. Already open to public is the first phase, with the completion of some sections. The sections include medicinal plants, timber trees, fruit trees, ornamental plants, aquatic plants and bamboos. The Park has been designed to have large water bodies, Rolling Meadows, natural forests, rich grasslands and exquisite rock formations. Osmansagar Lake Osmansagar, better known as Gandipet, on the outskirts of Hyderabad is an excellent picnic spot. Osmansagar is one of the two lakes on the city’s periphery that supplies drinking water to the great metropolis. The lake is a reservoir created by a dam across the Isa, a tributary of the River Musi. Abutting the lake and the bund are lush gardens that provide the ideal ambience for an outing. Overlooking the lake is the heritage building, Sagar Mahal, built as a resort by the Nizam of Hyderabad and converted now into a lake resort managed by AP Tourism. Shamirpet Located 24 km to the north of Secunderabad, Shamirpet has a beautiful lake and a deer park. Its peaceful environs make it a great picnic spot. AP Tourism offers comfortable cottage facilities for accommodation, while the forest lodges can be booked with the AP Forest Department office at Saifabad. Hyderabad is the capital of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and the fifth largest city of India. While AP is known as the most IT savvy state in India, Hyderabad is emerging as a major center for IT exports. It’s share in Indian IT exports is about 12%. The city is galloping towards its dream of becoming the Silicon Valley of India. Today, it is home to many international companies and global IT majors including Microsoft, CA, Oracle, IBM, Dell, Infosys, Wipro, TCS, Satyam and others. Apart from IT, Hyderabad is also emerging as a leader in the pharma, insurance and tourism sectors. In addition, it also houses the state ministries, defense undertakings and research and development organizations. The city has become a constant fixture of the itinerary of global leaders and business delegates, and has played host to distinguished personalities such as George W Bush, Bill Gates, Bill Clinton, and Tony Blair. The city's cosmopolitan way of life that envelops in its wake, the ancient and the contemporary, upcoming and thriving discothèques, pubs, theme villages, snow park and Go-Karting is sure to leave everyone charmed. Hyderabad has an international airport with direct flights from major international carriers to many destinations around the globe. During the early part of July the average daytime temperature is approximately 35 degrees Centigrade, with frequent monsoon showers. Birla Mandir The temple, built on a hillock called Kala Pahad, one of the Naubat Pahad twins, lords over its equally celebrated surroundings comprising the imposing Secretariat buildings, the azure-blue waters of Hussain Sagar, the serene and halcyon Lumbini Park, the luxurious Public Gardens dominated by the Asafjahi- style Legislative Assembly complex and the Reserve Bank of India. From the highest level of the temple, the spectacle around is breath-taking. Charminar Charminar is always on the top of the mind of any tourist visiting Hyderabad. To say that Charminar is a major landmark in the city is to state the obvious, to repeat a cliché. Built by Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah in 1591, shortly after he had shifted his capital from Golkonda to what now is known as Hyderabad, this beautiful colossus in granite, lime, mortar and, some say, pulverised marble, was at one time the heart of the city. Chow Mohalla Complex Built in several phases by the Nizams between 1857-1869, this is now one of the heritage buildings. The complex comprises four palaces in Moghal and European styles, of which the main palace is double storeyed with the others being single-storeyed blocks. Located near Charminar - Himmatpura. Golconda Fort Golconda is one of the famous forts of India. The name originates from the Telugu words “Golla Konda” meaning “Shepherd’s Hill”. The origins of the fort can be traced back to the Yadava dynasty of Deogiri and the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Golconda was originally a mud fort, which passed to the Bahmani dynasty and later to the Qutb Shahis, who held it from 1518 to 1687 A.D. The first three Qutb Shahi kings rebuilt Golconda, over a span of 62 years. Qutub Shahi Tombs These stately domes form an umbrella over the tombs underneath which rest the majestic kings of the Qutub Shahi dynasty in peace. The tombs, which have been silent spectators to the many developments History of Hyderabad, India Ancient history The area around Hyderabad was ruled by the Mauryan Empire in the third century B.C during the reign of Ashoka the Great. After the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to weaken and decline, the Sātavāhanas who started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, declared independence and established their empire in this region. The Sātavāhana Empire or Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of the Deccan plateau & central India for 450 years,i.e., from 230 BCE onward until around 220 CE. After the decline of the Satavahana Empire in 220 AD, the region came under the rule of the Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the eastern Deccan. The capital of Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty was the town of Nagarjunakonda in modern day Nalgonda district and named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century AD, who is believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. Medieval history Various Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms ruled the area during the subsequent centuries. The area was ruled by the Kalyani branch of the Chalukya kings. When the Chalukya kingdom became weaker, Kakatiyas, who were feudal chieftains of Chalukya, declared independence and setup their kingdom around Warangal. The fall of Warangal to Muhammad bin Tughluq's forces from the Delhi Sultanate in 1321 AD brought anarchy to the region. For the next few decades, the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan fought the Musunuri Nayakas on the north and the Vijayanagara Rayas on the south for control of the region. By the middle of the 15th century, the region was under the firm control of the Bahmani Sultanate which controlled the Deccan north of the Krishna River from coast to coast. Founding Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was the founder of Hyderabad City. In the year 1591, when the Moon was in the constellation of Leo, Jupiter in its own abode and all celestial planets favourably placed, he laid the foundation of a new city which he called Bhagyanagar after his beloved queen ‘Bhagmati’. Bhagmati embraced Islam and took the name Hyder Mahal and consequently Bhagynagar was renamed Hyderabad after her. The Qutb Shahis Main article: Qutb Shahi dynasty Portrait of Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah The Golconda Sultanate In 1463, Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as the administrator of the region. He established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the Subedar of Andhra lands. Quli enjoyed virtual independence fromBidar, where the Bahmani sultanate was then based. In 1518, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Golconda Sultanate under the title Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. This was the start of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty. The Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated into five different kingdoms, with the others based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar and Bijapur. The Founding of a New City Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah of the Qutub Shahi dynasty built the city of Hyderabad on the Musi River five miles (8 km) east of Golconda in 1589. The Purana Pul ("old bridge") spanning the Musi was built a few years earlier, enabling quick travel between Golconda and Hyderabad. Hyderabad was named as the City of Hyder after the title of the Fourth Caliph Ali. Many people though, commonly believe that the city of "Hyderabad" was named after the people as their residence as "City of the Brave" from the Persian words "Hyder/Haider" (Persian and Urdu meaning lion or brave and "Abad/Abaad" (Persian and Urdu meaning abode or populated) after surviving the plaque epidemic that ravaged Golkonda. There is another urban myth and folklore which may be an apocryphal that the Sultan named it after his wife Hyder Mahal (not likely he gave her a male name or title). Lack of space for expansion in Golconda fort city made the Sultan called up his best of advisers to search for a new virgin wooded elevated land site near a river void of any man-made structures or monuments. The city concept was planned on grid-iron pattern reflective of well related precincts with an iconic monument as the main foci. He also ordered the construction of the Char Minar in 1591 a tall structure to oversee the urban development and to keep watch of the river banks flooding the nearby areas causing epidemics of grave nature. The New City Flourishes The early history of Hyderabad is inextricably intertwined and fortune rose during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hyderabad became a center of a vibrant diamond trade. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans were patrons of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. Some of the sultans were known as patrons of local Telugu culture as well. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the leading markets in the world for diamonds, pearls, steel, arms, and also printed fabric. In the 16th century the city grew to accommodate the surplus population of Golconda and eventually became the capital of the Qutb Shahi rulers. Hyderabad became known for its gardens (called baghs) and its comfortable climate. Visitors from other lands compared the city most to the beautiful city of Isfahan in Iran. Mughal conquest and rule By the mid-17th century, politics in the Deccan were ready for yet another tectonic shift. Mughal prince Aurangzeb spent most of his time in the Deccan fighting local Hindu and Muslim kingdoms to establish and enforce Mughal Sovereignty. After the death of Shah Jahan in 1666, Aurangzeb consolidated his power in Delhi as Emperor and returned to the south. He spent most of his imperial reign in military camps in the Deccan, in an almost desperate campaign to expand the empire beyond the greatest extent it had reached under Akbar. The biggest prize in his eyes was the rich city of Hyderabad, protected by the reportedly impregnable fort of Golconda. Hyderabad Falls to the Mughals Aurangzeb with his brave commanders Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) s/o Shaikh Mir Ismail Siddiqi and Qaziuddin Siddiqi (Feroze Jung) father and son laid siege to Golconda in 1686. Golconda held fast under months of siege, and Aurangzeb had to retreat in frustration. Aurangzeb returned in 1687 and laid siege for 9 months camping in the Fateh Maidan ("victory field," now the Lal Bahadur Stadium). Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) died in these war and was buried at Kismatpur near Attapur Hyderabad. Local legend has it that the fortress held on, but the gates were opened at night by a saboteur Abdullah Khan Pani who was bribed by Aurangzeb. Sultan Abul Hassan Tana Shah, the seventh king of the dynasty, was taken prisoner. Hyderabad's independence was eclipsed. Aurangzeb's efforts would turn out largely in vain, with Hyderabad remaining in Mughal hands for less than four decades. For a few decades, Hyderabad declined, and its vibrant diamond trade was all but destroyed. Aurangzeb's attention moved away quickly to other parts of the Deccan, with the Marathas slowly but steadily gaining ground against the Mughals. The Asaf Jahis Main article: Hyderabad State Qamaruddin Khan,Asaf Jah I Viceroys Become Kings With the emaciation of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mughal-appointed governors of Hyderabad gained more autonomy from Delhi. In 1724,Chin Qulich Khan Asaf Jah I Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi son of Qaziuddin Siddiqi and grandson of Khwaja Abid siddiqi (Qulich Khan), who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (governor of the country) by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that would rule Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain. Hyderabad Starts Growing Again Asaf Jah's successors ruled as Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom and Golconda, the former capital, was all but abandoned. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time. A Delicate Balancing Game When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, successive Nizams won their friendship without bequeathing their power. The Nizams allied themselves with each side at different times, playing a significant role in the wars involving Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the British and the French. During the reign of the third Nizam, Sikandar Jah, the city of Secunderabad was founded to station French troops and subsequently, British troops. The British stationed a Resident at Hyderabad and their own troops at Secunderabad, but the state continued to be ruled by the Nizam. Maintenance of British forces, which was part of subsidiary alliance with British, has put heavy burden on  Hyderabad state and bankrupted it in early 19th century. Hyderabad, under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India, with an area larger than England, Scotland and Wales combined. It was considered the "senior-most" princely-state, and within the elaborate protocols of the Raj, its ruler the Nizam was accorded a 21-gun salute. Development of modern facilities and industrialization in  Hyderabad city started in late 19th century. The State had its own currency, mint, railways, and postal system. There was no income tax. Industrialisation Various industries emerged in pre-independence Hyderabad, the major industries that were  established in various parts of Hyderabad/Telengana are: Industries in pre-Independence Hyderabad Company Year Singareni Collieries 1921 Nizam Sugar Factory 1937 Allwyn Metal Works 1942 Praga Tools 1943 Sirsilk 1946 Hyderabad Asbestos 1947 Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company,Charminar cigarette factory 1930 Karkhana Zinda Tilismat 1920 Integration into Indian Union Main articles: Operation Polo and Telengana Rebellion When India gained independence in 1947, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent, either as a sovereign ruler or by acquiring Dominion status within the British Empire. In order to keep essential trade and supplies flowing, he signed a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which surrounded him on all sides. The law and order situation soon deteriorated, with escalating violence between the private Razakar army fighting for continuation of the Nizam's rule and the people with the support of the Congress leaders like Swami Ramanand Tirtha and the communists ofTelangana, were fighting for joining in the Indian Union. As the violence spiraled out of control with refugees flowing into the coastal Andhra region of the Madras state of India, the Indian Government under Home Minister Sardar Patel initiated a police action titled Operation Polo. On September 16, 1948, Indian Army moved in to Hyderabad State from five fronts. Four days later,  the Hyderabad forces surrendered. The number of dead was a little over 800 . The Police Action achieved success within a matter of days. The Nizam finally surrendered and signed the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union and Hyderabad was integrated into the Indian Union as a state. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, the then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, expressed in his report that the city should be designated as the second capitalof India after Delhi. He expressed: "Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better city than Delhi. It has all the grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government  of India can easily build." Hyderabad State Ancient history The area around Hyderabad was ruled by the Mauryan Empire in the third century B.C during the reign of Ashoka the Great. After the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to weaken and decline, the Sātavāhanas who started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, declared independence and established their empire in this region. The Sātavāhana Empire or Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of the Deccan plateau & central India for 450 years,i.e., from 230 BCE onward until around 220 CE. After the decline of the Satavahana Empire in 220 AD, the region came under the rule of the Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the eastern Deccan. The capital of Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty was the town of Nagarjunakonda in modern day Nalgonda district and named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century AD, who is believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. Medieval history Various Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms ruled the area during the subsequent centuries. The area was ruled by the Kalyani branch of the Chalukya kings. When the Chalukya kingdom became weaker, Kakatiyas, who were feudal chieftains of Chalukya, declared independence and setup their kingdom around Warangal. The fall of Warangal to Muhammad bin Tughluq's forces from the Delhi Sultanate in 1321 AD brought anarchy to the region. For the next few decades, the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan fought the Musunuri Nayakas on the north and the Vijayanagara Rayas on the south for control of the region. By the middle of the 15th century, the region was under the firm control of the Bahmani Sultanate which controlled the Deccan north of the Krishna River from coast to coast. Founding Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was the founder of Hyderabad City. In the year 1591, when the Moon was in the constellation of Leo, Jupiter in its own abode and all celestial planets favourably placed, he laid the foundation of a new city which he called Bhagyanagar after his beloved queen ‘Bhagmati’. Bhagmati embraced Islam and took the name Hyder Mahal and consequently Bhagynagar was renamed Hyderabad after her. The Qutb Shahis Main article: Qutb Shahi dynasty Portrait of Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah The Golconda Sultanate In 1463, Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as the administrator of the region. He established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the Subedar of Andhra lands. Quli enjoyed virtual independence fromBidar, where the Bahmani sultanate was then based. In 1518, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Golconda Sultanate under the title Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. This was the start of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty. The Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated into five different kingdoms, with the others based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar and Bijapur. The Founding of a New City Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah of the Qutub Shahi dynasty built the city of Hyderabad on the Musi River five miles (8 km) east of Golconda in 1589. The Purana Pul ("old bridge") spanning the Musi was built a few years earlier, enabling quick travel between Golconda and Hyderabad. Hyderabad was named as the City of Hyder after the title of the Fourth Caliph Ali. Many people though, commonly believe that the city of "Hyderabad" was named after the people as their residence as "City of the Brave" from the Persian words "Hyder/Haider" (Persian and Urdu meaning lion or brave and "Abad/Abaad" (Persian and Urdu meaning abode or populated) after surviving the plaque epidemic that ravaged Golkonda. There is another urban myth and folklore which may be an apocryphal that the Sultan named it after his wife Hyder Mahal (not likely he gave her a male name or title). Lack of space for expansion in Golconda fort city made the Sultan called up his best of advisers to search for a new virgin wooded elevated land site near a river void of any man-made structures or monuments. The city concept was planned on grid-iron pattern reflective of well related precincts with an iconic monument as the main foci. He also ordered the construction of the Char Minar in 1591 a tall structure to oversee the urban development and to keep watch of the river banks flooding the nearby areas causing epidemics of grave nature. The New City Flourishes The early history of Hyderabad is inextricably intertwined and fortune rose during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hyderabad became a center of a vibrant diamond trade. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans were patrons of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. Some of the sultans were known as patrons of local Telugu culture as well. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the leading markets in the world for diamonds, pearls, steel, arms, and also printed fabric. In the 16th century the city grew to accommodate the surplus population of Golconda and eventually became the capital of the Qutb Shahi rulers. Hyderabad became known for its gardens (called baghs) and its comfortable climate. Visitors from other lands compared the city most to the beautiful city of Isfahan in Iran. Mughal conquest and rule By the mid-17th century, politics in the Deccan were ready for yet another tectonic shift. Mughal prince Aurangzeb spent most of his time in the Deccan fighting local Hindu and Muslim kingdoms to establish and enforce Mughal Sovereignty. After the death of Shah Jahan in 1666, Aurangzeb consolidated his power in Delhi as Emperor and returned to the south. He spent most of his imperial reign in military camps in the Deccan, in an almost desperate campaign to expand the empire beyond the greatest extent it had reached under Akbar. The biggest prize in his eyes was the rich city of Hyderabad, protected by the reportedly impregnable fort of Golconda. Hyderabad Falls to the Mughals Aurangzeb with his brave commanders Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) s/o Shaikh Mir Ismail Siddiqi and Qaziuddin Siddiqi (Feroze Jung) father and son laid siege to Golconda in 1686. Golconda held fast under months of siege, and Aurangzeb had to retreat in frustration. Aurangzeb returned in 1687 and laid siege for 9 months camping in the Fateh Maidan ("victory field," now the Lal Bahadur Stadium). Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) died in these war and was buried at Kismatpur near Attapur Hyderabad. Local legend has it that the fortress held on, but the gates were opened at night by a saboteur Abdullah Khan Pani who was bribed by Aurangzeb. Sultan Abul Hassan Tana Shah, the seventh king of the dynasty, was taken prisoner. Hyderabad's independence was eclipsed. Aurangzeb's efforts would turn out largely in vain, with Hyderabad remaining in Mughal hands for less than four decades. For a few decades, Hyderabad declined, and its vibrant diamond trade was all but destroyed. Aurangzeb's attention moved away quickly to other parts of the Deccan, with the Marathas slowly but steadily gaining ground against the Mughals. The Asaf Jahis Main article: Hyderabad State Qamaruddin Khan,Asaf Jah I Viceroys Become Kings With the emaciation of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mughal-appointed governors of Hyderabad gained more autonomy from Delhi. In 1724,Chin Qulich Khan Asaf Jah I Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi son of Qaziuddin Siddiqi and grandson of Khwaja Abid siddiqi (Qulich Khan), who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (governor of the country) by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that would rule Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain. Hyderabad Starts Growing Again Asaf Jah's successors ruled as Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom and Golconda, the former capital, was all but abandoned. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time. A Delicate Balancing Game When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, successive Nizams won their friendship without bequeathing their power. The Nizams allied themselves with each side at different times, playing a significant role in the wars involving Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the British and the French. During the reign of the third Nizam, Sikandar Jah, the city of Secunderabad was founded to station French troops and subsequently, British troops. The British stationed a Resident at Hyderabad and their own troops at Secunderabad, but the state continued to be ruled by the Nizam. Maintenance of British forces, which was part of subsidiary alliance with British, has put heavy burden on  Hyderabad state and bankrupted it in early 19th century. Hyderabad, under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India, with an area larger than England, Scotland and Wales combined. It was considered the "senior-most" princely-state, and within the elaborate protocols of the Raj, its ruler the Nizam was accorded a 21-gun salute. Development of modern facilities and industrialization in  Hyderabad city started in late 19th century. The State had its own currency, mint, railways, and postal system. There was no income tax. Industrialisation Various industries emerged in pre-independence Hyderabad, the major industries that were  established in various parts of Hyderabad/Telengana are: Industries in pre-Independence Hyderabad Company Year Singareni Collieries 1921 Nizam Sugar Factory 1937 Allwyn Metal Works 1942 Praga Tools 1943 Sirsilk 1946 Hyderabad Asbestos 1947 Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company,Charminar cigarette factory 1930 Karkhana Zinda Tilismat 1920 Integration into Indian Union Main articles: Operation Polo and Telengana Rebellion When India gained independence in 1947, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent, either as a sovereign ruler or by acquiring Dominion status within the British Empire. In order to keep essential trade and supplies flowing, he signed a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which surrounded him on all sides. The law and order situation soon deteriorated, with escalating violence between the private Razakar army fighting for continuation of the Nizam's rule and the people with the support of the Congress leaders like Swami Ramanand Tirtha and the communists ofTelangana, were fighting for joining in the Indian Union. As the violence spiraled out of control with refugees flowing into the coastal Andhra region of the Madras state of India, the Indian Government under Home Minister Sardar Patel initiated a police action titled Operation Polo. On September 16, 1948, Indian Army moved in to Hyderabad State from five fronts. Four days later,  the Hyderabad forces surrendered. The number of dead was a little over 800 . The Police Action achieved success within a matter of days. The Nizam finally surrendered and signed the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union and Hyderabad was integrated into the Indian Union as a state. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, the then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, expressed in his report that the city should be designated as the second capitalof India after Delhi. He expressed: "Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better city than Delhi. It has all the grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government  of India can easily build." Hyderabad State Hyderabad History Filed under Basics Among the cities of India, Hyderabad, the capital of the new state of Andhra Pradesh, has one of the richest and most colourful histories, accentuated by magnificent architecture and a rich culture. Several influences for the past 400 years has molded it into the A-1 status city it is today. Ancient History Before the city’s actual historical rise, the area where Hyderabad would ultimately be established was under the rule of several kingdoms, including those of Buddhist and Hindu royalty. It came under rule by the kings of the Chalukya kingdom, whose feudal chieftains, the Kakatiyas, splintered off to create their new kingdom and established it around Warangal. In 1321 AD, the Sultanate of Delhi under the command of Muhammad bin Tughluq brought Warangal to its knees, resulting in anarchy in the whole region. The next few decades saw the battles for supremacy for the region among the Bahmani Sultanate, the Masunuri Nayakas, and the Vijayanagara Rayas, which finally ended with the Bahmani Sultanate exerting control by the middle of the 15th century. Modern History The Qutub Shahi Dynasty The history of Hyderabad as a city began in 1518 when Sultan Quli Qut-ul-Mulk declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the fortress city of Golconda, calling himself the Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. Decades before, Sultan Mohammed Shah Bahmani instructed Quli Qut-ul-Mulk to quell insurgents and disturbance in the region, a job which the future ruler carried only too well. By the time he established the Golconda Sultanate under the title of Sultan Quli Qutub Shah and began the Qutub Shahi Dynasty, the Bahmani Sultanate had completely disintegrated, splintering into five different kingdoms. In 1589, the city of Hyderabad was finally built on the Musi River by the fifth sultan of the dynasty, a mere five miles east of Golconda. Muhammed Quli Qutub Shah dedicated it to his wife, Bhagyamathi, and also ordered the construction of the monument of the city, which eventually became its icon, the Charminar on 1591, reportedly as a way to thank the almighty for quelling a plague before it destroyed his newly-built city. During this time and well into the 17th century, Hyderabad’s power and fame rose as it became the center of a highly successful diamond trade. All the Qutub sultans, great thinkers and builders as they were, contributed hugely to the richness of Hyderabad’s culture and affluence, attracting countless visitors from other countries who compared it to Iran’s beautiful city, Isfahan. The Mughal Empire Hyderabad’s fame finally caught the attention of the Mughal prince Aurangzeb, who laid siege on Golconda in 1686. Aurangzeb had been spending most of his time in the Deccan establishing and enforcing the Mughal superiority and sovereignity. When Shah Jahan finally died in 1666, Aurangzeb consolidated his power as Emperor and he spent most of it trying to expand his empire beyond that of his predecessor, Akbar the Great. His target was Hyderabad, at that time one of the richest cities in the area, and was reportedly impregnable because of the protection of Golconda Fort. Aurangzeb’s initial sieges were failures and he had to leave in frustration. However, he came back and it wasn’t until a nine-month long intensive siege in 1687 when Golconda finally fell. Legend has it that the fortress would’ve held on if it wasn’t for a saboteur who was bribed by Aurangzeb to open the gates at night. Sultan Abul Hassan Tana Shah, the seventh and last king of the Qutub Shahi dynasty, was imprisoned soon after Golconda fell. Hyderabad’s importance declined, its flourishing diamond trade was destroyed, and the city fell into ruins. Aurangzeb’s attention, itself, was focused on the other parts of the Deccan shortly after, especially with the Marathas steadily gaining ground, albeit slowly, against the reigning Mughals. Rise of the Nizams In 1724, Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, was granted the title of Nizam-ul-Muk (meaning Administrator of the Realm) by the Mughal emperor as viceroy tasked to oversee parts of the Mughal empire in behalf of the emperor. He intermittently ruled under the title of Asaf Jah and defeated a rival official in order to establish control over Hyderabad. During this time, viceroys and governors of Hyderabad have gained a considerable autonomy from the seat of power at Delhi and, when the Mughal empire finally crumbled down in the mid 18th century, the young Asaf Jah declared himself independent and the dynasty of the Nizams was established. It would not take long before the Nizams quickly surpassed the Mughals in the domination of the southern parts of India, with their dominion hitting as high as 125 million acres (roughly 510,000 square kilometers). In the two centuries that the Nizams ruled over Hyderabad, there were a total of seven Nizams, excluding the 13 years where the three sons of Asaf Jah 1 ruled after him; the three sons were not officially recognized as rulers (and thus, did not get the title of Nizam). During these two centuries, Hyderabad saw immense growth again, both culturally and economically. It finally became the capital with the old one, Golconda, becoming all but abandoned. Hyderabad’s cultural glory was again established, especially since the Nizams themselves were great patrons of literature, art, architecture, and food. The Nizams themselves were counted as among the wealthiest people in the world; in fact, the last Nizam is ranked as the fifth wealthiest people in the history of the world today, with his fortune at its highest pinned at US$225 billion, adjusted to today’s value. Integration into the Nation When the British and French took hold over most of India, the Nizams played a delicate game of balance and subterfuge. They allied themselves with each side at different times, playing an important role in the wars involving Tipu Sultant, the French, and the British. The Nizams eventually won the friendship of the Western invaders without giving up their powers. As a result, Hyderabad was still ruled by a Nizam, and it became the largest princely state of India. As a princely state, Hyderabad had its own currency, railways, mint, and postal system. The citizens enjoyed no income tax. When India finally gained its independence in 1947, the Nizam at that time made known his intention to become independent, either by gaining dominion status by the British Empire or as a sovereign ruler. The Nizam signed a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which, by this time, had surrounded him on all sides. Breakdown in law and order soon followed, with fights between the supporters of the Nizam and the supporters of Congress. As the violence spiraled out of control, the newly established Indian government initiated a police action called Operation Polo. On September 16, 1948, the Indian army moved in to the state of Hyderabad in five fronts. Five days later, the Nizam’s army surrendered, and the Nizam signed the Instrument of Accession, integrating Hyderabad into the Indian Union as a state. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Hyderābād City (Haidarābād) (Sindhi: ,دابآردیحUrdu: اد ,) ح یدرآبheadquarters of the district  of Sindh province of Pakistan traces its early history to Neroon, a Hindu ruler of the area from whom the city derived its previous name, Neroon Kot. Its history dates back to pre-Islamic times, when Ganjo Takker (Barren Hill), a nearby hilly tract, was used as a place of worship. Lying on the most northern hill of the Ganjo Takker ridge, just east of the river Indus, it is the third largest city in the province and the eighth largest in the country with an expanse over three hillocks part of the most northerly hills of the Ganjo Takker range, 32 miles east of the Indus with which it is connected by various routes leading to Gidu Bandar. Hyderabad, as the historic capital of Sindh, is the centre of all the provincial communications: road, rail, waterways and air. From the date of its foundation (1768), its manufactures-ornamented silks, silver- and gold-work, and lacquered ware-have been the chief in the province, and during its heyday had gained prizes at the industrial exhibitions of Europe. Some noteworthy antiquities are the tombs' of the Kalhora and Talpur rulers. Contents [hide] 1 Early history o 1.1 The early Hindu settlement o 1.2 In the 7th century o 1.3 The Islamic conquest o 1.4 The Kalhora dynasty o 1.5 The Talpur kingdom o 1.6 The colonial rule 2 Modern times o 2.1 Independence and exodus of Sindhi Hindus o 2.2 City declared capital again 3 Post-modern age o 3.1 Diverse ethnic settlements o 3.2 Being a Muhajir and recognition o 3.3 The ethnic riots 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Early history The early Hindu settlement Under the rule of a Hindu ruler Neroon, this small fishing village thrived upon the banks of the mighty Sindhu river. A nearby hill tract called the Ganjo Takker or the bald (barren) hill, later attributed to as the Ganjo Range by British occupants, protected the town raising it above the level of the water and safe from flood calamities that were regular in neighbouring regions. Of popular tradition, the place .ڪ came to be known as Neroon Kot وٽ ن يرونNeroon Kot literally means the place where Neroon came from. The Ganjo Takker ridge lay on a low limestone range and was used as a place of worship by the most adherent religious priests that blessed the city believing their meditation may result in excellent trade networks the city was developing at the time. But these very particular popularity traits in the areas of trade led the city vulnerable to outside sieges. Equipped mostly with farming equipment, the locals were attacked by the conquest of Islamic armies circa 711 CE and surrendered. Neroon was dethroned. In the 7th century In the Chachnama we find frequent mention of a chief Agham Lohana who was ruler of Brahmanabad with their two terretorie lakha to the west of Lohana and Sama to the south of Lohana (Nerron) Narayankot, Hyderabad, Sindh in the time of Chach 636AD Main article: Agham Lohana The Islamic conquest Muhammad Bin Qasim leading his troops in battle circa 711 AD-712 CE In 711 C, Muhammad bin Qasim al-Sakafi (pictured right) conquered the town. By the mid-712, Muslims armies had conquered much of the Sindh. However, later in an agreement with local Hindu authorities of the Sindh the Arab forces halted their advances and ceased military activities in Sindh in return of peaceful conduct affairs. After a brief rule of Arabs and Hindu leaders Sindh came under the rule of local Somroos, who were local Sindhis converted to Islam. Somroo rule was followed by the great Samma dynasty rule. By the end of Samma dynasty rule Sindh was occupied by invading Afghan warlords who lost the empire to Mughal Empire after a brief period of rule. The Mughal empire thrived in the majority of the central parts of India and yet however never seated a ruler on the land of Neroon. The new Muslim invaders that had settled in the town mingled with the locals and wed Hindu girls and were pulled into the mysticism of the land. For decades Hyderabad did not seat a throne but things were to change when Nadir Shah Durrani or Iran invaded the Mughal capital in 1739. All throughout the late 17th century, the Mughal dynasty had grown weary and weak in the regions of the Sindhu territory or Sindh and the governor Yar Muhammad Khan Kalhora became the de facto, virtual ruler of Sindh around 1701 CE. Muhammad Khan Kalhora belonged to the most affluent tribe in the region namely the Kalhora .ک لہوڑا The Kalhora dynasty A sketch of the Pacco Qillo (c. 1845) drawn by Lieut. Edwards. The River Indus was changing course around 1757 due to Monsoons resulting into periodic floods and devastating the banks of the river. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora was admired as the saintly ruler of Sindh at the time his capital Khudabad near Dadu was repeatedly flooded. Being fed up, he decided  to move his capital to a better place. The present day city of Hyderabad was founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Neroon Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora of the Kalhora Dynastyit remained the chief town of Sindh until 1843, when, after the battle of Miani, it surrendered to the British, and the capital was transferred to  Karachi. It was named after the prophet Mohammed's son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar. Surviving as a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus, the city was suddenly called the heart of the Mehran. Thriving upon the fresh river water's banks, Hyderabad was much loved by Ghulam Shah. He admired the city so much that in 1766, he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The massive half-a-square kilometer (about 36 acres) garrison was completed by 1768. Since then, it stands in place and is called the Pacco Qillo پ ڪو ق ل ع وor the strong fort. The Kalhora rule lasted for two more decades until the demise of the great Ghulam Shah. The Talpur kingdom An artist's interpretation of his highness Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur, the last ruler of the fortified town. After the death of the great Kalhora, started the Talpur Rule. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro's period is considered to be the Golden period in the history of Sindh. Later the Kalhora behaved as incompetent  rulers and Sindh was ruined under Mian Abdun-Nabi Kalhoro. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. Great celebrations were held in 1792 CE to mark his formal entry in the Hyderabad fort. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers was responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their kingdom. The four were called Chār Yār, Sindhi for four friends. The rulers of Sindh were named Ameers, Arabic for leaders. A portion of the population of Khudabad migrated to the new capital, includingSonaras, Amils and Bhaibands. Those groups retained the term Khudabadi in the names of their communities as an identifier of origin. It remained the capital of Sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843, a rule lasting almost half-a-century when Talpurs faced a greater threat – the British. The last remaining rule of the Talpur kingdom was Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur (pictured right) was among the Talpur leaders to surrender to the British and was ported to Calcutta in what is now India. Many Talpur Mirs died there during many years of confinement in a small area near Calcutta. The bodies of the Talpur Mirs who died there were brought back to Hyderabad when all Mirs were allowed to return to Sindh. These Mirs were buried in the tombs located at the northern edge of the Ganjo Hill where the city was  born from. For these Mirs, they embraced the local culture and tried to proceed it with building literary institutions to restore the integrity of the Sindhi culture. In order to educate their people the mother of Mir Fateh  Ali Khan, Bibi Khairunnissa, established Jamia al-Khairi or al-Khairi University. The colonial rule The history of the British occupation is taken mostly from the Imperial Gazetteer of India,  written over a century ago during British rule. Hyderabad at the turn of the 20th century. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. It is said that even in rigor mortis the Ameers (Mirs) held their swords high fighting the British. The battle ended on 24 March where the Mirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The battle at Dabo landed an even greater part of Sindh in the laps of the British regime and the city surrendered to the British. Being the last stronghold in the way of the British, the city once conquered, completed the British Conquest of Sindh. The crown of being a capital of the emirate of Sindh was then transferred to Karachi when the British general Sir Charles Napier conquered Sindh in 1843, mainly because the East India Company had headquarters in Karachi. The residency, memorable for its defence by Sir James Outram against the Baluchis in 1843, which was situated 3 miles from Hyderabad, no longer exists. The municipality of Hyderabad was  established in 1853. In the Pacco Qillo the British kept the arsenal of the province, transferred from Karachi in 1861, and the palaces of the ex-Amirs of Sind that they had taken over. In 1857, when the Indian mutiny raged across the Indian sub-continent, the British held most of their regiments and ammunition in this city. The garrison at the fort composed of British and Native infantry, 2 batteries of artillery, and an ammunition column. The barracks were built in twelve blocks, with  hospitals, bazar and various amenities to the north-west of the city. The British demolished most of the buildings around the time of the mutiny to accommodate their troops and their military stores and fused the arsenal in the Pacco Qillo so that the people wouldn't use that against them. Evidently the city received the very first blow to its glorious name. No longer were the roads washed with sandalwood perfume and rose-water. The British however tallied the population statistics of the city in the years to come to keep an accurate record of the growth. Populations statistics dating back to 1872 compliment the tremendous growth the city achieved within a few decades. From 43,088 (1872), 48,153 (1881), 58,048 (1891) to 69,378 (1901), the city grew in thousands. At this point in time the Hinduism was the most dominant ethnic religion with 43,499 followers mostly linked to trade while 24,831 Muslims made up the largest ethnic minority. The 710 Christians were mostly new converts or the British soldiers in regiments around the town. The city ranked seventh in the Bombay  Presidency in terms of population. Also included in the census figures were income and expenditure, the average income during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 2.2 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure amounted to 2.7 and 2.8 lakhs respectively. The chief sources of income were octroi (Rs. 1,30,000) and water rate (Rs. 22,000); and the chief heads of expenditure were general administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 39,000), public safety (Rs. 7,400), water-supply and drainage (RS. 22,000), conservancy (Rs. 37,000), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 15,000), public works (Rs. 13,000), and education (Rs. 18,000). The income of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 43,000, and  the expenditure Rs. 33,800. The British devised a rail network throughout the western part of the then South Asia and purchased the private Scinde Railway (Sinds railway) to connect to the Kabul trade routes. The rail network would later be called the North-Western State Railway in 1886. Hyderabad was a major junction on the line linking distant trade locations like Lahore and still is to date. To facilitate the expansion of the former capital, the British deployed water pumping technologies that would pump water from the river bank at Gidu Bandar whence from the water was deposited into large reservoirs situated about 500 yards from the river bank capable of holding over 1,000,000 gallons of water, surely a first when it comes to state-of-the-art constructions. Using a smart gravitational concept, the water was then supplied to the far most arid regions of the  town. Modern times Independence and exodus of Sindhi Hindus This section does not cite anyreferences or sources. (March 2009) Prior to the independence of Pakistanin 1947, Hyderabad had a large population of Hindu Sindhi who were mainly involved in trade and commerce. The community contributed significantly to the economy of Sindh. When independence of India occurred, the Hindu Sindhis expected to remain in Sindh. There was good communal relation between the Hindu and Muslims Sindhis; Hyderabad was seen as one of the cities least affected by Hindu-Muslim violence in British India. In other cities, the Hindus and Muslims were often not of the same ethnic group, however in Hyderabad, Sindhis, Muslim and Hindu alike, were the de facto ethnic group. This led to the peaceful communal relationship between the two religions in Hyderabad. But when waves of Muhajir who escaped from anti-Muslim pograms in India started to pour into Hyderabad, violence erupted on the streets. The Hindu Sindhis were forced to flee leaving everything behind. Many Hindu Sindhis wanted to return to their native Sindh, when the violence had settled down, but it was not possible. The Muhajir were given land in lieu of land they lost in India mostly in the town of Hirabad which belonged to the Hindus. While the population of the people grew with the migration in progress, the then-Government of Pakistan proposed the creation of two more towns, namely Latifabad (in honour of the famous poet of Sindh Shah Abdul Latif Bhita'i) and Qasimabad. City declared capital again With the influx of people from across the borders, the city saw its numbers increasing in population and was deemed to be the largest city according to population statistics at the time. Owing to the new-found glory, the city regained its title of being a capital of the Sindh province from 1947 to 1955 after which Karachi was made the capital of Sindh. Government institutions like theUniversity of Sindh, moved its campuses from the city of Karachi to settle in the new capital in 1951 along the banks of Indus. During this time, Hyderabad was incorporated as a municipality in 1953.
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