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Hyderabad history

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									Hyderabad, India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

                                 Hyderabad


                           — Metropolitan city —




                    Charminar, the iconic monument of Hyderabad



                          Nickname(s): City of Pearls




  Hyderabad

                           Location of Hyderabad in India

      Coordinates: 17.366°N 78.476°ECoordinates: 17.366°N 78.476°E


        Country
          State              Andhra Pradesh
         Region              Deccan
        Districts            Hyderabad, Rangareddyand Medak

        Founded              1591 AD
   Government
            • Type             Mayor–Council
            • Body             GHMC, HMDA
           • Mayor             Mohammad Majid Hussain
           • Police            Anurag Sharma
      commissioner

   Area
    • Metropolitan city        650 km2 (250 sq mi)

   Elevation                   536 m (1,759 ft)

   Population (2011)
    • Metropolitan city        6,809,970
           • Rank              4th
   • Density                   18,480/km2(47,900/sq mi)
   • Metro                     7,749,334
      • Metro rank             6th

   Demonym                     Hyderabadi

          Time zone            IST (UTC+5:30)

          Pincode(s)           500 xxx, 501 xxx, 502 xxx, 508 xxx, 509 xxx
      Area code(s)             +91–40, 8413, 8414, 8415, 8417, 8418, 8453,
                               8455
   Vehicle registration        AP 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 28 & 29
    Official language          Telugu and Urdu

           Website             www.ghmc.gov.in

Hyderabad (       i
                      /ˈ haɪ dərəbæd/) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It
occupies 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) on the banks of the Musi River on the Deccan
Plateau in southern India. The population of the city is 6.8 million and that of its metropolitan area is 7.75
million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. The
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation was expanded in 2007 to form the Greater Hyderabad Municipal
Corporation. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Hyderabad experiences substantial
pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.

Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. It remained under the rule of the
Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city
became part of the Deccan province of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared
his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams
ruled theprincely state of Hyderabad for more than two centuries, in a subsidiary alliance with the British
Raj. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument
of Accession with the Indian Union at the conclusion of Operation Polo. The 1956 States Reorganisation
Act created the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital. Since 1969, Hyderabad
has been a major center of the Telangana movement, which demands that the Telangana region of Andhra
Pradesh should be made a separate state.

Situated at the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad is noted for its unique culture. As the
former capital of the largest and richestprincely state, and with the patronage of the Nizams, Hyderabad
established local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. The city is a tourist destination and
has many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several
museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sports venues and other cultural institutions. Hyderabad has
emerged as a global hub for the information technology, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. It is
home to the Telugu film industry and a major centre for higher education and research, with 13 universities
and business schools.

History
Main article: History of Hyderabad, India

[edit]Etymology
The origin of the name Hyderabad is the subject of many myths. According to one of them, when
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah founded the city he named it Bhaganagar after Bhagmathi, a
localnautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love. When they married, she converted
to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal, and in her honour the city was renamed Hyderabad,
                                                  [1]
meaning "Hyder's abode" in Persian and Urdu. Yet another theory claims that Hyderabad was
                                                                                [2]
named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder. Andrew Petersen, a
                                                                                                         [3]
scholar of Islamic architecture, states that the city was originally called Baghnagar (city of gardens).

[edit]Early    and medieval history
                                                                                                     [4]
Near the city, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE. The
region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda (shepherd's
      [5]                                                          [6]
hill). It was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 731 CE to 966 CE. Following the dissolution of the
Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of theKakatiya
                       [7]
dynasty (1000–1310), whose headquarters was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern
            [8]
Hyderabad.




The Golkonda fort, was the seat of power of several rulers of the Deccan.
When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate took over Warangal, the region came under
the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321). Alauddin Khilji took theKoh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have
                                                 [9]
been mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda, to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the
Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347. Ala-ud-
Din Bahman Shah, a governor under Muhammad bin Tughluq, rebelled against the sultanate and
established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan, with Gulbarga, 200 km (124 mi) west of
Hyderabad, as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first
                                          [8]
independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.

In 1518, Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established
                         [8]
the Qutb Shahi dynasty. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of this dynasty, established
                                                    [10]
Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 to avoid the water shortages experienced at
                                  [11]
Golkonda, the sultanate's capital. He built the Charminar, the Purana Pul (old bridge) and Mecca
                   [12]
Masjid in the city. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the
                                                                       [13][14]
Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.          The annexed area was
renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province), and the capital was moved from Golkonda to Aurangabad,
                                                [13][15]
about 550 km (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad.

[edit]Nizam   period
In 1712, Farrukhsiyar, the sixth of Aurangzeb's successors, appointed Asif Jah I to be Viceroy of the
Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Realm). In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated
Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, starting what came to be known as the
Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the region Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the
                                                                                        [13][15]
title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad.            When Asif
Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who
were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. Asif Jah II, who reigned
from 1862 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty ofMasulipatnam, surrendering
                                                                                [16]
the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.
                                                                    [13][15]
In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams.       In response to regular threats
from Hyder Ali, Dalwai of Mysore, Baji Rao I, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, and Basalath Jung (Asif
Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed
a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to
occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's borders, for which the Nizams paid an
                                      [16]
annual maintenance to the British. From the late nineteenth century on, Hyderabad was
transformed into a modern city by the establishment of railways, transport services, underground
drainage, running water, electricity, Begumpet Airport, telecommunications, universities and
industries. The Nizams ruled the state from Hyderabad until 17 September 1948, a year after India's
                             [13][15]
independence from Britain.

[edit]Post-independence
Main articles: Operation Polo and Hyderabad State (1948—1956)
Hyderabad state in 1909

Following the independence of India from British rule, the Nizam declared his intention not to become
                                                       [16]
part of the Indian Union but to remain independent. In 1948, the Hyderabad State Congress began
agitating against Nizam VII, with the support of the Indian National Congress and the Communist
Party of India. On 17 September 1948 the Indian Army took control of Hyderabad State
through Operation Polo, and Nizam VII joined the Union by signing the "Instrument of Accession",
                                                                     [15][17]
which made him the Rajpramukh (Princely Governor) of the state.               Between 1946 and 1951, the
Communist Party of India led a peasant rebellion called the Telangana uprising against
thefeudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely
                     [18]
state of Hyderabad. The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made
Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India, and Hyderabad city continued to be its capital. In
his 1955 report Thoughts on Linguistic States, B. R. Ambedkar, then chairman of the Drafting
Committee of the Indian Constitution, proposed that the city should be designated the second
                                                                               [19]
capital of India because of its strategic central location and its amenities.

Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad has been the second official residence and
                                          [20]
business office of the President of India. On 1 November 1956, the states of India were
reorganised by language group. Hyderabad State ceased to exist; it was split into three parts, which
were included in the modern Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The nine Telugu-
and Urdu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State that make up the Telangana region were merged with
                                                              [21]
the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital. Several
protests, known collectively as the Telangana movement, attempted to invalidate the merger and
demanded the creation of a new Telangana state. Major actions took place in 1969, 1972 and from
      [22]
2010. In 2007, terrorist groups detonated a series of bombs in the city in May and in August,
                                                 [23]
leading to temporary communal tension and riots. Telangana people went on strike for more than
40 days in 2011, and in 2012 there were threats of further protests against discrimination in
             [24]
employment.

[edit]Geography

Main article: Geography of Hyderabad, India
Hussain Sagar lake, built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was once the source of drinking water for
Hyderabad.

[edit]Topography

Hyderabad is located in the north-western part of Andhra Pradesh and lies on the banks of the Musi
                                                                        [25][26]
River in the northern part of the Deccan plateau in South India.                 The city is spread over
        2                                                                                [25]
650 km (250 sq mi), making it one of the largest metropolitan areas in India. Its predominant
topography is sloping rocky terrain of grey and pink granites. Several small hillocks are scattered
throughout the area. Hyderabad has an average altitude of 1,778 feet (542 m) above mean sea level.
                                                          [26][27]
Its highest point is Banjara Hills at 2,206 feet (672 m).          In 1996 the city had 140 lakes and
                                                                      [28]
counted 834 water tanks smaller than 10 hectares (25 acres). The city's lakes are often
called sagar (sea). Hussain Sagar, built in 1562, is near the city center. Osman Sagar and Himayat
                                                           [26][29]
Sagar are artificial lakes created by dams on the Musi.

[edit]Neighbourhood              and landmarks




Street map of the central area of the city

The historic city established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the southern side of the Musi River
forms the "Old City", while the "New City" encompasses the urbanised area on the northern banks.
The two are connected by many bridges across the river, of which Purana Pul is the
       [30]
oldest. Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring Secunderabad, from which it is separated by
Hussain Sagar.

In the southern part of central Hyderabad are many historical and touristic sites, such as the
Charminar, the Mecca Masjid, the Salar Jung Museum, theNizam's museum, the Falaknuma
Palace and the traditional retail corridor comprising Laad Bazaar, Pearls Market and Madina circle.
North of the river are hospitals, colleges, major railway stations and business areas such as Begum
Bazaar, Koti, Abids, Sultan Bazaar and Moazzam Jahi Market, along with administrative and
recreational establishments such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat,
the Hyderabad Mint, theAndhra Pradesh Legislature, the Public Garden, the Nizam Club,
                                                                                        [31][32][33]
the Ravindra Bharathi, the state museum, the Birla Temple and the Birla Planetarium.

Towards the north of central Hyderabad lie Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road, Rani Gunj and
                                        [31]
the Secunderabad Railway Station. The majority of the city's parks and recreation centres are
here: Sanjeevaiah Park, Indira Park, Lumbini Park, NTR Gardens, the Buddha statue and Tankbund
       [34]
Park. In the northwest part of the city there are upscale residential areas such as Banjara
Hills, Jubilee Hills, Begumpet and Khairatabad. The northern end contains industrial areas such
as Sanathnagar, Moosapet, Balanagar, Pathan Cheru and Chanda Nagar. The northeast end is
                                  [31][32][33]
dotted with residential colonies.              The "Cyberabad" area in the southwest and west parts of the
city has grown rapidly since the 1990s. It is home to information technology and bio-pharmaceutical
companies and to landmarks such as Hyderabad Airport, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar and KBR
National Park. In the eastern part of the city lie many defence research centres and Ramoji Film City.

[edit]Climate
Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) bordering on a hot semi-arid
                       [35]
climate (Köppen BSh). The annual mean temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F); monthly mean
                                        [36]
temperatures are 21–32 °C (70–90 °F). Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with average
                             [37]
highs in the mid 30s Celsius; maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) between April
           [36]                             1
and June. Winter lasts for only about 2 ⁄2 months, during which the lowest temperature
                                                           [36]
occasionally dips to 10 °C (50 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily
temperatures range from 26 to 38.8 °C (79 to 102 °F); January, the coldest, has temperatures varying
                                   [37]
from 14.7 to 28.6 °C (58 to 83 °F). Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler
because of the city's moderate elevation.

Rains brought by the south-west summer monsoon lash Hyderabad between June and
            [38]                                                             [37]
September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 812.5 mm (32 in). The highest total
                                                       [37]
monthly rainfall, 181.5 mm (7 in), occurs in September. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour
period was 241 mm (9 in) on 24 August 2000. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5
°C(114 °F) on 2 June 1966, and the lowest was 8 °C (46 °F) on 8 January 1946. The city receives
                                                                                      [38][39]
2,731 hours of sunshine per year; maximum daily sunlight exposure occurs in February.

                                                                           [hide]Climate data for Hyderabad

                 Month                       Jan       Feb        Mar         Apr          May          Jun           Jul      Aug

                                             28.6      31.8       35.2         37.6         38.8         34.4         30.5      29.6
          Average high °C (°F)
                                            (83.5)     (89.2)    (95.4)       (99.7)      (101.8)       (93.9)       (86.9)    (85.3)

                                             14.7      17.0       20.3         24.1         26.0         23.9         22.5      22.0
          Average low °C (°F)
                                            (58.5)     (62.6)    (68.5)       (75.4)       (78.8)       (75.0)       (72.5)    (71.6)

                                             3.2        5.2       12.0         21.0         37.3         96.1        163.9     171.1
         Rainfall mm (inches)
                                            (0.126)   (0.205)    (0.472)     (0.827)      (1.469)      (3.783)      (6.453)    (6.736)

             Avg. rainy days                  .3         .4        .9          1.8          2.7          7.6          10.6      10.1

       Mean monthly sunshine hours          279.0      271.2     263.5        273.0        282.1        180.0        142.6     136.4

                                                                 Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980) [40]
                                                                     Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990) [41]




[edit]Administration

Main article: Administration of Hyderabad, India




The Andhra Pradesh State Assembly building houses the bicameral Andhra Pradesh Legislature.

[edit]Local    government
Hyderabad is administered by several government agencies. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal
Corporation (GHMC) oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 18 "circles", which
together encompass 150 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, elected by
popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor, who is the titular head of GHMC; executive powers
rest with the Municipal Commissioner, appointed by theGovernment of Andhra Pradesh. The GHMC
carries out the city's infrastructural work such as building and maintenance of roads and drains; town
planning including construction regulation; maintenance of municipal markets and parks; solid waste
management; the issuing of birth and death certificates; the issuing of trade licences; collection of
property tax; and community welfare services such as mother and child healthcare service, pre-school
                                          [42]
education, and non-formal education. It was formed in April 2007 by merging the Municipal
Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with 12 municipalities of the Hyderabad, Ranga
                                                               2             [43][better source needed]
Reddy and Medak districts covering a total area of 650 km (250 sq mi).                                  In the 2009
municipal election, an alliance of the Indian National Congress and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen formed
             [44]
the majority. The Secunderabad Cantonment Board is a civic administration agency overseeing an
                  2             [45]:5                                         [46]:2
area of 40.1 km (15.5 sq mi)           where there are several military camps.        The Osmania
                                                                                    [45]:6
University campus is administered independently by the university authority.

Hyderabad's administrative agencies have jurisdiction over areas of different sizes. The Hyderabad
Police area is the smallest, followed in ascending order by Hyderabad district, the GHMC area
("Hyderabad city") and the area under the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA).
The HMDA is the apolitical urban planning agency that encompasses the GHMC area and the
                                                                                  2            [47]
suburbs, extending to 54 mandals in five districts occupying an area of 7,100 km (2,700 sq mi). It
coordinates the development activities of GHMC and suburban municipalities and manages the
administration of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB),
the Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation, the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport
                                           [45]:13
Corporation (APSRTC) and other bodies.

The jurisdiction of the Hyderabad Police Commissionerate is divided into five police zones, each
                                   [48]
headed by a deputy commissioner. The Hyderabad Traffic Police is headed by a deputy
                                                     [49]
commissioner who reports to the commissioner. The area under the jurisdiction of the Hyderabad
City Police is only part of the GHMC area; other parts fall under the jurisdiction of the Cyberabad
Police Commissionerate. In 2012 the Andhra Pradesh Government announced its intention to merge
the Hyderabad and Cyberabad Police Commissionerates into a single Greater Hyderabad Police
                    [50]
Commissionerate.

As the seat of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is home to the Andhra Pradesh
Legislature, the state secretariat and the Andhra Pradesh High Court, as well as to various local
government agencies. The Lower City Civil Court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court are under the
                                  [51][not in citation given]
jurisdiction of the High Court.                               The GHMC area contains 24 State Legislative Assembly
constituencies, which come under five constituencies of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of
                          [52][not in citation given]
the Parliament of India).

[edit]Utility   services
                                                                                             [47]
The HMWSSB regulates rainwater harvesting, water supply and sewerage services. It sources
                                                     [53]
water from several dams located in the suburbs, and in 2005 it started operating a 150-kilometre-
long (93 mi) water supply pipeline from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to meet increasing
             [53]
demands. The Andhra Pradesh Central Power Distribution Company manages electricity
        [47]
supply. Firefighting services are provided by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services department. As of
                                             [54]
March 2012, the city has 13 fire stations. The state-owned Indian Postal Service has five head post
offices and many sub-post offices in Hyderabad, and privately run courier services are also
            [26]
available. In 1999, the state government launched eSeva, an electronic facility that supports
                                                          [55]
several citizen services, including utility bill payment.

[edit]Pollution     control
Every day Hyderabad produces around 4,500 metric tonnes of solid waste, which is transported from
                                                                                                       [56]
collection units in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the dumpsite inJawaharnagar. The
GHMC started the Integrated Solid Waste Management project in 2010 to manage waste
          [57]
disposal. The Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) is the regulatory and screening
authority for pollution. Rapid urbanisation and increased economic activity encouraged population
migration to Hyderabad, which led to increased air pollution, industrial waste, noise
                               [58]
pollution and water pollution. The contribution of different sources to air pollution in 2006 was: 20–
50% from vehicles, 40–70% from a combination of vehicle discharge and road dust, 10–30% from
                                                                                       [59]
industrial discharges and 3–10% from the burning of household rubbish. Deaths from atmospheric
                                                                      [60]
particulate matter are estimated at 1,700–3,000 each year. The ground water in Hyderabad has
                                                                                            [61]
a hardness of up to 1000 ppm, around three times higher than is desirable. The region's ground
water levels are shrinking, and dams are facing water shortage due to burgeoning population and the
                                    [53][62]
consequent increase in demand.               Inadequately treated effluents from industrial treatment plants
                                                         [63]
are polluting the drinking water sources of the city. APPCB and local authorities have designed and
                                                      [further explanation needed][60]
implemented multiple actions to control pollution.

[edit]Healthcare
See also: Healthcare in Hyderabad, India
The Nizamia Unani Hospital provides medical care in both Unani and Allopathic medicine systems.

The Andhra Pradesh Vaidya Vidhana Parishad, a department of the state government, administers
                                [64]                                                        [65]
healthcare in Hyderabad. In 2010–11 the city had 50 government hospitals, 300 private and
charity hospitals and 194 nursing homes; together these facilities provide approximately 12,000
                                                               [66][67]
hospital beds, less than half of the required 25,000.                   For every 10,000 people in the city, there are
                      [68]                                                           [67]
17.6 hospital beds, 9 specialist doctors, 14 nurses and 6 physicians. The city also has about
                           [69]                                              [66]
4,000 individual clinics and 500 medical diagnostic centres. Most residents prefer treatment at
private facilities, and only 28% use government facilities, because of their distance, poor quality of
                                     [70]:60–61
care and long waiting times.                    As of 2012, many new hospitals of all sizes have opened or are
            [69]
being built. Hyderabad also has outpatient and inpatient facilities that
                                                              [71]
use Unani, homeopathicand Ayurvedic treatments.

According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, 24% of Hyderabad's households were covered
by government health schemes or health insurance—the highest proportion among the cities
           [70]:4                                        [70]:47
surveyed.         The city's total fertility rate is 1.8,        Only 61% of children had been provided with all
basicvaccines (BCG, measles and full courses of polio and DPT), fewer than in all other surveyed
                         [70]:98
cities except Meerut.            The infant mortality rate was 35 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate
                                                               [70]:97
for children under five was 41 per 1,000 live births.                  According to the survey, about a third of
women and a quarter of men were overweight or obese, about 49% of children below 5 years
                                                                        [70]:44, 55–56
are anaemic, and up to 20% of children are underweight.                                More than 2% of women and 3% of
                                                 [70]:57
men suffer from diabetes in Hyderabad.

[edit]Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Hyderabad, India


   [hide]Hyderabad Population


   Census       Pop.         %±



    1971      1,796,000       —



    1981      2,546,000     41.8%
     1991        3,059,262      20.2%



     2001        3,637,483      18.9%



     2011        6,809,970      87.2%



   World Gazetteer[72]


Hyderabad underwent very sudden growth in the first decade of the 21st century. When the GHMC
                                                                                     2
was created in 2007, the area occupied by the municipality increased from 170 km (66 sq mi) to
         2           [73]
650 km (250 sq mi). As a consequence, the population increased by over 87%, from 3,637,483 in
the 2001 census to 6,809,970 in the 2011 census, making Hyderabad the fourth most populous city in
      [74]                                                                     [46]:2
India. Migrants from elsewhere in India constitute 24% of the city population.        The population
                      2               [75]
density is 18,480 /km (47,900 /sq mi). The Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration has a population of
                                                                                  [74]
7,749,334, making it the sixth most populous urban agglomeration in the country.

There are 3,500,802 male and 3,309,168 female citizens—a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000
      [76]                                                [77]
males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. Among children aged 0–6 years,
                                                               [76]
373,794 are boys and 352,022 are girls—a ratio of 942 per 1000. Literacy stands at 82.96% (male
                                                                    [78]
85.96%; female 79.79%), higher than the national average of 74.04%.

[edit]Ethnic           groups, language and religion
Residents of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadi. The majority of them are Telugu people, followed
by Urdu-speaking and Marathi people, and there are
minority Kannada (including Nawayathi),Marwari, Bengali, Tamil, Malayali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Uttar
Pradeshi communities. Among the communities of foreign origin, Yemeni Arabs form the majority,
and African Arabs, Armenians,Abyssinians, Iranians, Pathans and Turkish people are also present.
                                                                                       [79]
The foreign population declined after Hyderabad State became part of the Indian Union.
           Religion in Hyderabad district—2001[80]

Religion                                         Percent

 Hinduism                                            55%

 Islam                                               42%

 Christianity                                         2%

 Others                                               1%


                                                                                               [81]
Telugu is the official language of Hyderabad and Urdu is its second language; English is also used,
                                                    [82]
particularly among white-collar workers. The Telugu spoken in Hyderabad is a dialect called
             [83][not in citation given]                                                  [84][not in citation given]
Telangana,                               and the Urdu spoken there is called Deccani Urdu.                            A
                                                                                                                        [79]
significant minority speaks other languages, including Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada and Tamil.

Hindus form the majority of Hyderabad's population. Muslims are present throughout the city and
predominate in and around the Old City. There are also
Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi communities, and iconic temples, mosques and churches
              [85]
can be seen. According to the 2001 census, Hyderabad district's religious make-up was: Hindus
(55%), Muslims (42%), Christians (2.4%), Jains (0.4%), Sikhs (0.28%) and Buddhists (0.02%); 0.22%
                            [80][86]
did not state any religion.

[edit]Slums
According to a 2012 report submitted by GHMC to the World Bank, Hyderabad has 1,476 slums with
a total population of 1.7 million, of whom 66% live in 985 slums in the "core" of the city (the part that
formed Hyderabad before the April 2007 expansion) and the remaining 34% live in 491 in suburban
               [87]
tenements. About 22% of the slum-dwelling households had migrated from different parts of India in
the last decade of the 20th century, and 63% claimed to have lived in the slums for over 10
       [46]:55
years.         Overall literacy in the slums is 60–80% and female literacy is 52–73%. A third of the slums
have basic service connections and 90% have water supply lines. There are 405 government schools,
                                                                                                     [88]:70
267 government aided schools, 175 private schools and 528 community halls in the slum areas.

According to a 2008 survey by the Centre for Good Governance, 87.6% of the slum-dwelling
households are nuclear families, 18% are very poor, with an income of 20,000 (US$364) per annum,
73% live below the poverty line (a standard poverty line recognised by the Andhra Pradesh
Government is 24,000 (US$436.8) per annum), 27% of the chief wage earners (CWE) are casual
labourand 38% of the CWE are illiterate. About 3.72% of the slum children aged 5–14 do not go to
school and 3.17% work as child labour, of whom 64% are boys and 36% are girls. The largest
employers of child labour are street shops and construction sites. Among the working children, 35%
                                [46]:59
are engaged in hazardous jobs.

[edit]Economy

Main article: Economy of Hyderabad, India

See also: Industries in Hyderabad, India, Biopharmaceutical industry of Hyderabad, India, List of
companies based in Hyderabad, India, List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad, and Software industry
in Andhra Pradesh




A jewellery and pearl shop in Laad Bazaar, near the Charminar

Of all the cities of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's GDP, tax and
                   [89]                                                               [90]
other revenues. Its per capita annual income in 2011 was 44,300 (US$806.26). As of 2006, the
largest employers in the city are the governments of Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and of
                 [91]
India (85,155). In 2009 the World Bank Group ranked the city as the second best Indian city for
                   [92]
doing business. In 2010, the economic analysis group GaWC ranked Hyderabad in its third tier
                            [93]
(Gamma+) of world cities. The city and its suburbs contain the highest number of special economic
                           [90]
zones of any Indian city. Hyderabad's $74 billion gross domestic product makes it the fifth-largest
                                    [94]
contributor to India's overall GDP.

Hyderabad is known as the "City of Pearls" on account of its role in the pearl trade. Until the 18th
                                                                          [14][95]
century the city was the only global trading center forlarge diamonds.             Many traditional and
                                            [96][97]
historical bazaars are located in the city.          The Laad Bazaar and nearby markets have shops that
                                                                           [96]
sell pearls, diamonds and other traditional ware and cultural antiques. Hyderabad's commercial
markets are divided into four sectors: central business districts, sub-central business centres,
                                                                  [98]
neighbourhood business centres and local business centres. Several central business districts are
                        [99]
spread across the city. According to a survey by Cushman & Wakefield, Hyderabad's retail industry
                                                     [100]
and traditional markets were growing in 2007.

Industrialisation began under the Nizams in the late 19th century, helped by railway expansion that
                                          [101][102]
connected the city with major ports.                 From the 1950s to the 1970s, Indian enterprises were
                           [103]
established in the city,         such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), National Mineral
Development Corporation (NMDC), Bharat Electronics (BE), Electronics Corporation of India
Limited (ECIL), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hindustan Aeronautics
Limited (HAL), Andhra Bank (AB) and State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH). Thus Hyderabad evolved from
                                                                                    [32]
a traditional manufacturing city to a cosmopolitan industrial service centre. Since the 1990s, the
growth of information technology (IT), IT-enabled services, insurance and financial institutions has
expanded the service sector, and these primary economic activities have boosted the ancillary
                                                                                                   [102]
sectors of trade and commerce, transport, storage, communication, real estate and retail.                The
service industry remains dominant in the city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this
        [104]
sector.       According to a government survey, 77% of males and 19% of females in the city were
                     [105]
employed in 2005.




HITEC city, the hub of information technology companies

Hyderabad is known as "India's pharmaceutical capital" and as the "Genome Valley of India" because
                                                          [106]
of its many pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.         It is a global centre of information
                                                                [107][108]
technology, for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City).                During 2008–09, Hyderabad's IT
                                 [109]
exports reached US$ 4.7 billion,       and 22% of the NASSCOM's total membership is from the
     [90]
city. The development of HITEC City, a township with extensive technological infrastructure,
                                                                                [107]
prompted multinational companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad.                The city is home to more
than 1300 IT firms, including global conglomerates such as Microsoft (operating its largest R&D
                                                                    [46]:3[110]
campus outside the US), Google, IBM, Yahoo!, Dell,Facebook,                      and major Indian firms
                                                                     [46]:3
including Mahindra Satyam, Infosys, TCS, Genpact and Wipro.
Like the rest of India, Hyderabad has a large informal economy that employs 30% of the labour
       [88]:71
force.         According to a survey published in 2007, it had 40–50,000 street vendors, and their
                              [111]:9                                                              [112]:12
numbers were increasing.              Among the street vendors, 84% are male and 16% female,                and
                                                                                                [112]:15–16
four fifths are "stationary vendors" operating from a fixed pitch, often with their own stall.              Most
                                                                                  [112]:19
are financed through personal savings; only 8% borrow from moneylenders.                   Vendor earnings
                                                            [111]
vary from 50 (US$0.91) to 800 (US$14.56) per day.                 Other unorganised economic sectors
include dairy, poultry farming, brick manufacturing, casual labour and domestic help. Those involved
                                                                        [88]:71
in the informal economy constitute a major portion of urban poor.

[edit]Transport

Main article: Transport in Hyderabad, India




A congested road near Charminar showing pedestrians, auto-rickshaws and street vendors

Public modes of transport such as buses, auto rickshaws and light railways are the most commonly
                            [113]
used in Hyderabad.                As of 2007, its vehicle distribution is 75% two-wheelers, 14% cars, 1% taxis,
                                                                       [45]:28
4% goods vehicles, 2% buses and 4% other vehicles.                              As of 2012, there are 77,035 auto
                                           [114]
rickshaws and 3,800 RTC buses.                   In some parts of the city cycle rickshaws are hired to travel
                          [45]:32
smaller distances.                As of 2001, two-wheelers and cars are involved in 50% of road accidents,
public transport buses and trucks in 10% and auto-rickshaws in 15%. Altogether, 12% of the
accidents are fatal and 88% result in injury (including the 40% of accidents that are caused by non-
            [clarification needed]                            [45]:32[113]
availability                       of pedestrian facilities).              As of 2010, maximum speed limits within the
city are 50 km/h (31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto rickshaws and
                                                                               [115]
40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial vehicles and buses.
                                                                                     [116]
Three National Highways pass through the city: NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202.              Five state
                                                                                                  [45]:1
highways, SH-1, SH-2, SH-4, SH-5 and SH-6, either begin at or pass through Hyderabad,                    and
                                  [117]:2-3
traffic congestion is widespread.           Like many other Indian metropolitan cities, Hyderabad faces
                                                                                              [45]:3
parking problems, particularly in the city centre. Roads occupy 6% of the total city area.           The Inner
Ring Road, the Outer Ring Road and variousinterchanges, overpasses and underpasses have been
developed to ease the congestion. As of 2008, the Hyderabad Elevated Expressway is the longest
                  [118]
flyover in India.
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, completed in 2008, was the second public–private partnership among Indian airports.

The bus service provided by the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the
                                                                    [119]
most frequently used means of public transport within the city.           According to Guinness World
Records 2005, APSRTC operates the world's largest fleet of buses in terms of number of commuters,
                                                     [120]
estimated to carry 13 million passengers a day.            The Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station in the city
                                [121]
centre is the main bus station.       Setwin (Society for Employment Promotion & Training in Twin
                                         [122]
Cities) operates minibuses in the city.        Hired transport includes taxis and the widely used auto
            [123]
rickshaws.

The Secunderabad Railway Station is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of Indian
Railways, and the largest station in Hyderabad. Other major railway stations are Hyderabad Deccan
                                                                        [124]
Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station.              Hyderabad's light rail
transportation system, known as the Multi-Modal Transport System, is used by over 150,000
                   [125]
passengers daily.        Hyderabad Metro, a rapid transitsystem, is under construction and is scheduled
                                 [126]
to operate three lines by 2014.        Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGAI)
                                                                                   [127]
(IATA: HYD, ICAO: VOHS) was opened in 2008, replacing Begumpet Airport.                  In 2011, Airports
Council International, an autonomous body representing the world's airports, judged RGAI the world's
best airport in the 5–15 million passenger category and the world's fifth best airport for Airport service
         [128]
quality.

[edit]Culture




A Bull decorated during Sadar carnival, celebrated by Yadav community.

Main article: Culture of Hyderabad, India

See also: Muslim culture of Hyderabad
Hyderabad is noted for its mingling of North and South Indian linguistic and cultural traits and for the
                                                    [129][130]:viii
coexistence of Hindu and Muslim traditions there.                   Telugu and Urdu are the languages most
                  [131]
commonly spoken.        Traditional Hyderabadi garb is Sherwani and Kurta–Paijama for men
                                                       [132][133][134]
and Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez for women.                         Muslim women commonly
                                  [135]                                         [136]
wear burqas and hijabs in public.       Most youths wearwestern clothing.             Festivals celebrated in
Hyderabad include Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Bonalu, Bathukamma, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

[edit]Literature
Hyderabad received royal patronage for arts, literature and architecture from its former rulers; this
attracted artists and men of letters from different parts of the world. The resulting multi-ethnic
                                                                                    [137]
settlements popularised cultural events such as mushairas (poetic symposia).              The Qutb Shahi
dynasty patronised the growth of Deccani Urdu literature; the Deccani Masnavi and Diwan (collection
                                                                                                     [138]
of poems) composed during this period are among the earliest available manuscripts in Urdu.                The
reign of the Nizams saw many literary reforms and the introduction of Urdu as a language of court,
                                  [139]
administration and education.           In 1824, a collection of Urdu Ghazals (a specific poetic form)
named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, penned by Mah Laqa Bai—the first female Urdu poet—was published in
               [140]
Hyderabad.           The Hyderabad Literary Festival, held since 2010, is an annual event that showcases
                                             [141]
the city's literary and cultural creativity.       Organisations engaged in research into and promotion of
literature include the Sahitya Akademi, the Urdu Academy, the Telugu Academy, the National Council
for Promotion of Urdu Language, the Comparative Literature Association of India, and Andhra
Saraswata Parishad. The State Central Library, established in 1891, is the largest public library in the
       [142]
state.       Other major libraries are the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British
                                                       [143]
Library and the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram.

[edit]Music,      performing arts and films
                                                                                                      [clarification needed (see
In princely Hyderabad, the nobles had a tradition of courtesan dance and poetry,
talk)]
       which led to the development of certain styles of court music and dance. Taramati in the early
                                                                                                                         [citation
16th century and Mah Laqa Bai in the 18th are two courtesans who popularised Kathak dance.
needed]
         Besides western and Indian popular music genres such as filmi music, the residents of
Hyderabad play city-based marfa music, especially at weddings, festivals and other celebratory
           [144]
events.          The state government organises the Golconda Music and Dance Festival, the Taramati
                                                                   [140][145]
Music Festival and the Premavathi Dance Festival.                             Though the city is not particularly noted for
                               [146]
theatre and drama,                   the state government promotes theatre with multiple programmes and
             [147][not in citation given]
festivals.                                The Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam are
auditoria for theatre and performing arts in the city. Numaish is a popular annual exhibition of local
                                               [148]
and national consumer products.                      The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known
                     [149]
as Tollywood.                As of 2012, Tollywood is second only to Bollywoodin producing the most films in
        [150]                                                                                        [151]
India.        Since 2005, films in local Hyderabadi dialect have gained in popularity.                     The city hosts the
                                                                                                                 [152]
annual International Children's Film Festival and theHyderabad International Film Festival.                             In
                                                                                                                       [153]
2005, Guinness World Records declared Ramoji Film City to be the world's largest film studio.
[edit]Art   and handicraft




18th century bidriware, displayed at theMusée du Louvre

                                                                           [154]
The Golconda and Hyderabad styles are branches of Deccani painting.            Developed during the 16th
century, the Golconda style is a native style blending foreign techniques, bearing some similarity to
the Vijayanagara paintings of neighbouring Mysore. A significant use of luminous gold and white
                                                  [155]
colours is generally found in the Golconda style.       The Hyderabad style originated in the early 17th
century under the Nizams. Highly influenced byMughal painting, this style makes use of bright colours
                                                                          [154]
and mostly depicts regional landscape, culture, costumes and jewellery.

A metalware handicraft known as Bidri ware was popularised in the region in the 18th century. Bidri
                                                                  [156][157]
ware is a Geographical Indication (GI) tagged craft of India.                Kalamkari, a hand-painted or
                                                      [158]
block-printed cotton textile, is popular in the city.       Hyderabad's museums include the Salar Jung
                                                                                 [159]
Museum (housing "one of the largest one-man-collections in the world" ), the AP State Archaeology
Museum, the Nizam Museum, the City Museumand the Birla Science Museum, which contains
               [160]
a planetarium.

[edit]Architecture
A distinct style of Indo-Islamic architecture enriched with regional influences is reflected in the city's
            [3][161]                                         [dubious – discuss]
buildings.           The Qutb Shahi architecture of the 15th                     century is manifest in
colossal arches found in Golconda fort, the Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar, Mecca Masjid
and Charkaman. The chief materials used in these constructions are granite and lime mortar. Asif
Jahi architecture began to emerge in the 17th century. Some 20th-century structures such as
Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital and the High Court are designed and constructed in
the styles of medieval and Mughal architecture. The Nizams applied European styles in some of the
                                                                        [162]
constructions such as the Falaknuma and King Kothi Palaces.                   Other historical sites include
the Chowmahalla Palace, the Purani Haveli, and the Andhra Pradesh State Assembly
          [156][163]
Building.             Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, is called the maker of modern Hyderabad because of
                                            [156]
his patronage of architecture in the city.        In 2012, The government of India declared Hyderabad the
                                     [164]
first "Best heritage city of India".
Hyderabadi Biryani (on left), and other dishes

[edit]Cuisine
Main article: Hyderabadi cuisine
                                                              [165]
Hyderabadi cuisine became prominent with the Nizams.              It comprises a broad repertoire of rice,
                                                                    [166]
wheat and meat dishes and the skilled use of various spices.              Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi
                                                           [167]
haleem, with their blend of Mughlai and Arab cuisines,           have become iconic dishes of
      [168]
India.      Hyderabadi cuisine is highly influenced by Mughlai and to some extent
             [165]                                                                         [134][167]
by French,         Arabic, Turkish, Iranian and native Telugu andMarathwada cuisines.                 Other
popular native dishes include nihari, chakna, baghara baingan and the desserts qubani ka
                                                                                                      [134][169]
meetha, double ka meetha and kaddu ki kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd).

[edit]Media

Main article: Media in Hyderabad, India

One of the earliest newspapers to be published in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times, which was
                              [170]
established in the 1780s.           The major Telugu dailies published in Hyderabad
are Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy, the major English papers are The Times of India, The
                                        [171]
Hindu and The Deccan Chronicle,               and the major Urdu papers include The Siasat Daily, The
Munsif Daily and Etemaad. Many coffee table magazines, professional magazines and research
                                              [172]
journals are regularly published there.             The Secunderabad Cantonment Board established the first
                                                                                                  [clarification
radio station in Hyderabad State around 1919. Deccan Radio was the first local general
needed]                                                      [173]
        radio station, going on air on 3 February 1935.            In 2000, radio stations were permitted to
                    [174]
broadcast in FM;          the available channels included All India Radio, Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Big
     [175]
FM.

Television broadcasting in Hyderabad began in 1974 with the launch of Doordarshan, the
                                                         [176]
Government of India's public service broadcaster,              which transmits two free-to-air terrestrial
television channels and one satellite channel. Private satellite channels started in July 1992 with the
                     [177]
launch of Star TV.         Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast
                                                  [174][178]
satellite services or internet-based television.             Hyderabad's first dial-up Internet access became
available in the early 1990s but was initially limited to computer software development
             [179]
companies.         The first public internet access service began in 1995, and in 1998 the first private
                                   [180]
sector ISP started operating.
[edit]Education

Main article: Education in Hyderabad, India

See also: Category:Research institutes in Hyderabad, India and List of Defense research centers in
Hyderabad, India




Osmania University College of Arts

                                                                   [181]
Schools in Hyderabad may be affiliated to the CBSE, the SSC            or the ICSE, and they may be run
by government or by private entities such as local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other
                                                               [182]
agencies. Around two-thirds of pupils go to private schools.         Languages of instruction include
                     [183]                                                  [further explanation needed]
English, Hindi, Urdu       and Telugu. Schools follow the "10+2+3" plan.                                 After
completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools or junior colleges with a
higher secondary facility. Admission to professional colleges in Hyderbad is through Engineering
Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test. Most colleges are affiliated with either Jawaharlal
                                                         [184]
Nehru Technological University or Osmania University.

There are 13 universities in Hyderabad: two private universities, two deemed universities, six state
universities and three central universities. The central universities are the University of
              [185]
Hyderabad,          Maulana Azad National Urdu University and the English and Foreign Languages
            [186]
University. Osmania University, established in 1918, was the first university in Hyderabad. As of
                                                                                [187]
2012, it is India's second most popular destination for international students.       The Dr. B. R.
Ambedkar Open University, established in 1982, is the first distance-learning open university in
      [188]
India.




Indian School of Business campus

                                                                                                    [189]
Notable business and management schools in Hyderabad are the Indian School of Business                 and
                                                       [190]
the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India.      Institutes of national importance include
the Institute of Public Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of India, and the Sardar Vallabhbhai
Patel National Police Academy. Hyderabad has five major medical schools—Osmania Medical
College (established in 1846), Gandhi Medical College,Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Deccan
                                                                           [191]
College of Medical Sciences and Shadan Institute Of Medical Sciences —and many affiliated
teaching hospitals. The Government Nizamia Tibbi College, established in 1810, is a college of unani
           [192]
medicine.

Hyderabad is also a major centre for biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceutical study and
            [193]
research;         the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research is located
      [194]
here.       The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Acharya N. G.
Ranga Agricultural University are notable agricultural engineering institutes. Many of India's leading
technical and engineering schools are in Hyderabad, including the International Institute of
Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIITH), the Birla Institute of Technology & Science, and
the Indian Institute Of Technology (IITH). Schools of fashion design in the city include Raffles
Millennium International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College.

[edit]Sports

See also: List of stadiums in Hyderabad, India




Indian Air Force HAL Dhruvhelicopters at the 2007 Military World Games

                                   [195]
Cricket and association football    are the most popular sports in Hyderabad. The city has hosted
national and international sports events such as the 2002National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-
Asian Games, the 2004 AP Tourism Hyderabad Open women's tennis tournament, the 2007 Military
World Games, the 2009 World Badminton Championships and the 2009 IBSF World Snooker
Championship. The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex is a venue for field hockey, and
                                                                                        [196]
the G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium in Gachibowli serves as a venue for athletics and football.

The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and the Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium host cricket
          [197]
matches;        the latter serves as the home ground ofHyderabad Cricket Association. Hyderabad has
been the venue of many international cricket matches, including matches in the 1987, 1996 and
2011 Cricket World Cups. The Hyderabad cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, a first-
class cricket tournament among India's states and cities. TheDeccan Chargers, a cricket franchise in
                                                                                       [198]
the Indian Premier League, won the 2009 Indian Premier League held in South Africa.

The city houses many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and the British, such as the Secunderabad
Club, the Nizam Club and the Hyderabad Race Club, which is known for its horse
       [199]                                          [200]
racing,       especially the annual Deccan derby.    The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises
                                                   [201]                                   [clarification needed (off-
popular events such as the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag,         TSD Rallies and 4x4 off-road.
road what?)]                                                           [202]
             The Hyderabad Golf Club has an eighteen-hole golf course. Notable international
sportspeople from Hyderabad include: cricketers Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed
Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman,Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub and Noel David;
                                                                             [203]
football players Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Nayeemuddin and Shabbir Ali;               tennis playerSania Mirza;
badminton players S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, Jwala Gutta and Chetan Anand;
hockey players Syed Mohammad Hadi andMukesh Kumar; and bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan.
Place to visit

The city of smiles, of lights, of a thousand faces, endearingly called the Pearl City, Hyderabad offers a
variety of tourist attractions ranging from Heritage monuments, Lakes and Parks, Gardens and Resorts,
Museums to delectable cuisine and a delightful shopping experience. To the traveller, Hyderabad offers a
fascinating panorama of the past, with a richly mixed cultural and historical tradition spanning 400
colourful years. Some of the tourist attractions include...


                    Charminar
                    Ph: 23522990
                    Visiting Hours: 9 am – 5.30 pm




The Charminar is as much the signature of Hyderabad as the Taj Mahal is of Agra or the Eiffel Tower is
of Paris. Mohammed Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of Hyderabad, built Charminar in 1591 at the centre of
the original city layout. It is said to be built as a charm to ward off a deadly epidemic raging at that
time. Four graceful minarets soar to a height of 48.7 m above the ground. Charminar has 45 prayer
spaces and a mosque in it. Visitors can view the architectural splendour inside the Charminar. The
monument is illuminated in the evenings and a pedestrianisation project around the monument is under
implementation.

Mecca Masjid: A two hundred yards southwest of the Charminar is the Mecca Masjid, so named
because the bricks were brought from Mecca to build the central arch. The Qutb Shahis never finished
the building of the mosque, which was completed by Aurangzeb in 1694.

Laad Baazar: This is famous, colourful shopping centre of the old city, tucked away in one of the
streets leading off from Charminar. Bridal wear, Pearls and the traditional Hyderabadi glass and stone
studded bangles are sold here.




                    Golconda Fort
                    Ph:23512401
                    Visiting Hours:




Golconda is one of the famous forts of India. The name originates from the Telugu words “Golla Konda”
meaning “Shepherd’s Hill”. The origins of the fort can be traced back to the Yadava dynasty of Deogiri
and the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Golconda was originally a mud fort, which passed to the Bahmani
dynasty and later to the Qutb Shahis, who held it from 1518 to 1687 A.D. The first three Qutb Shahi
kings rebuilt Golconda, over a span of 62 years. The fort is famous for its acoustics, palaces, ingenious
water supply system and the famous Fateh Rahben gun, one of the cannons used in the last siege of
Golconda by Aurangzeb, to whom the fort ultimately fell.

Sound & Light Show at Golconda Fort: Ph: 23512401
The glorious past of Golconda Fort is narrated effectively with matchless Sound and Light effects. The
unique Sound & Light Show takes you right back in time, when Golconda was full of life, glory and
grandeur.
Qutb Shahi Tombs: The tombs of the legendary Qutb Shahi kings lie about a kilometre away from
Banjara Darwaza of the Golconda Fort. Planned and built by the Qutb Shahis themselves, these tombs
are said to be the oldest historical monuments in Hyderabad. They form a large group and stand on a
raised platform. The tombs are built in Persian, Pathan and Hindu architectural styles using grey granite,
with stucco ornamentation, the only one of its kind in the world where an entire dynasty has been buried
at one place.


                  Taramati Baradari
                  Ph: 23520172
                  Visiting Hours: 8 am – 9.30 pm




Taramati Baradari is located at Ibrahimbagh, on the Osman Sagar (Gandipet) Road, close to Golconda.
The complex is spread over a sprawling 7-acre area amidst lush green environs with the backdrop of the
famed Golconda Fort. The heritage monument built by the Seventh Sultan of Golconda is accessed from
the complex.

With two fully equipped theatres, Taramati Baradari Culture Village is the perfect venue for music
concerts, performing arts, social events etc. The Baradari illuminated in dynamic lighting forms the
backdrop of all activities.


                  Birla Mandir (Venkateswara Temple)
                  Ph: 23233259
                  Visiting Hours:




This white marble temple of Lord Venkateshwara floats on the city skyline, on Kala Pahad. The idol in
the temple is a replica of the one at Tirumala Tirupati.
Birla Planetarium: Ph: 23241067
Birla Planetarium is India’s most modern planetarium and first of its kind in the country. It is equipped
with advanced technology from Japan and is built on Naubat Pahad adjacent to Kala Pahad. And the
Science Museum stands tribute to the advancement achieved by Science and Technology.


                  Salar Jung Museum
                  Ph: 24523211 Visiting Hours: 10 am – 5 pm
                  (Friday Closed)




This museum houses one of the biggest one-man collections of antiques of the world by Mir Yousuf Ali
Khan, Salar Jung III. The objects d’art include Persian carpets, Moghal miniatures, Chinese porcelain,
Japanese lacquerware, famous statues including the Veiled Rebecca and Marguerite and Mephistopheles,
a superb collection of jade, daggers belonging to Queen Noor Jahan and the Emperors Jahangir and
Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb’s sword and many other fabulous items.


                                                                                                        Top


                  AP State Archaeological Museum
                  Ph: 23234942
                  Visiting Hours : 10.30 am – 5 pm
                  (Friday Closed)


A visit to the Andhra Pradesh State Archaeological Museum is a delight for art lovers. Located in the
picturesque Public Gardens, the museum boasts of one of the richest repositories of antiques and art
objects in the country. Built in 1920 by the Nizam VII, the museum building itself is a fine example of
Indo-Saracenic architecture. The museum contains a Buddhist gallery, Brahmanical & Jain gallery,
Bronze gallery, Arms & Armour gallery, Numismatics gallery, Ajanta gallery and more. Adjacent to the
State Museum is the Contemporary Art Museum.
Public Gardens: Hyderabad has several beautiful gardens, one of the most popular being the Public
Gardens, which also encloses the State Legislature, State Archaeological Museum, Jubilee Hall, Jawahar
Bal Bhavan and Telugu Lalita Kala Thoranam, an open-air theatre.



                  Nehru Zoological Park
                  Ph: 24477355
                  Visiting Hours:
                  (Monday Closed)


Spanning 300 lush green acres, the Nehru Zoological Park is a must for nature lovers. It has over 250
species of animals and birds, most of which are kept in conditions as close to their natural habitats as
possible. This is the first zoo to create moated enclosures for animals. The Lion Safari Park, Natural
History Museum and Children’s Train are the added attractions.
Mir Alam Tank: Mir Alam Tank is a large lake adjacent to Nehru Zoological Park. AP Tourism operates
boats on the lake, for which one has to enter through the Zoo.



                  Shilparamam (The Arts & Crafts Village)
                  Ph: 23100455
                  Visiting Hours:




Another attraction at Madhapur besides Hi-tec city in Hyderabad is the 30-acre village, which showcases
arts and crafts of the country. India is an ocean of various arts and crafts but the talent of most of the
artisans and artists goes unrecognized. To encourage them and give the necessary boost to their art, the
crafts village hosts annual bazaars, where artists and artisans from all over the country exhibit their
talent.


                                                                                                          Top


                  Hitec City




One of the modern monuments of trade and technology, it embodies the newfound attitude of
Hyderabad and today finds a place of pride. Situated on the outskirts of the city, it is the nucleus of
Cyberabad, the IT destination in this part of the world. Cyber Towers is the main building here.



                  Hussainsagar Lake




Excavated in 1562 A.D. by Hussain Shah Wali during the time of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah, the lake has a
promenade that is a busy thoroughfare today. Boating and water sports are a regular feature in the
Hussainsagar. One of the World’s tallest monolithic statues of the Buddha stands on the ‘Rock of
Gibraltar’, in the middle of the lake. Added to all these, AP Tourism has additional boating facilities like
speed boats, motor boats, 48 seater launch etc. Starlit dinner on-board and private parties also can be
arranged on the Launch.

Surroundings of Hussainsagar Lake provide marvellous entertainment options like NTR Gardens,
Necklace Road, Tank Bund, Prasads Multiplex, Lumbini Park, Sanjeevaiah Park etc.,
                  The Nizam‘S Silver Jubilee Museum
                  Ph: 23555072




The stately Purani Haveli, the palace acquired around the year 1750 by the second Nizam, is now
converted into a museum with a fascinating collection. The museum exhibits the gifts and mementos
presented to the last Nizam on the occasion of the silver jubilee celebrations in 1937. A 1930 Rolls
Royce, Packard and a Mark V Jaguar are among the vintage cars displayed. There is an interesting
collection of models made in silver of all the prominent buildings of the city and citations in Urdu about
H.E.H. Mir Osman Ali Khan, gold burnished wooden throne used for the silver jubilee celebrations, gold
tiffin box inlaid with diamonds, and a gold model of Jubilee Pavilion.



                  Chow Mohalla Palace
                  Ph:
                  Visiting Hours:




Built in several phases by the Nizams between 1857-1869, this is now one of the heritage buildings. The
complex comprises four palaces in Moghal and European styles, of which the main palace is double
storeyed with the others being single-storeyed blocks.



                  Durgam Cheruvu
                  Ph:23110523
                  Visiting Hours:9 am – 8.30 pm




The ‘Secret Lake’ is situated close to Shilparamam Crafts Village and Hitec City, behind Jubilee Hills. AP
Tourism organizes boating in the lake. ‘Something Fishy’, a bar at Secret Lake (Durgam Cheruvu)


                  Chilkur Balaji Temple




The Balaji Temple is located at Chilkur in the Hyderabad district. It is 33 Kms away from Mehdipatnam.
Approximately 75,000 to 1,00,000 devotees visit in a week. Generally temple gets heavy rush on
Saturdays and Sundays. Set in sylvan surroundings, the temple attracts thousands of pilgrims every
year and is an ideal place for sequestered retreat and meditation.


                                                                                                         Top


                  KBR National Park
                  Ph: 23607663
                  Visiting Hours:




One of the largest parks within the city KBR National Park is a Southern tropical deciduous forest and
the last vestigial representative of the endemic flora of Hyderabad region, with over 100 species of
birds, 20 species of reptiles and 15 species of butterflies.
                  Mrugavani National Park




Located at Chilkur, 25 km. from Hyderabad, the park contains the endemic flora of Hyderabad and is an
urban refuge for small mammals like wildboar, jungle cat etc. and birds.



                  Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park




Located 15 Km. from Hyderabad, the park has more than 350 black bucks, 400 cheetals and a number
of wild boars, small mammals, reptiles and over 100 species of birds.



                  Hyderabad Botanical Gardens




The first Botanical Gardens in Andhra Pradesh, spread over 120 acres. Already open to public is the first
phase, with the completion of some sections. The sections include medicinal plants, timber trees, fruit
trees, ornamental plants, aquatic plants and bamboos. The Park has been designed to have large water
bodies, Rolling Meadows, natural forests, rich grasslands and exquisite rock formations.



                  Osmansagar Lake




Osmansagar, better known as Gandipet, on the outskirts of Hyderabad is an excellent picnic spot.
Osmansagar is one of the two lakes on the city’s periphery that supplies drinking water to the great
metropolis. The lake is a reservoir created by a dam across the Isa, a tributary of the River Musi.
Abutting the lake and the bund are lush gardens that provide the ideal ambience for an outing.
Overlooking the lake is the heritage building, Sagar Mahal, built as a resort by the Nizam of Hyderabad
and converted now into a lake resort managed by AP Tourism.



                  Shamirpet




Located 24 km to the north of Secunderabad, Shamirpet has a beautiful lake and a deer park. Its
peaceful environs make it a great picnic spot. AP Tourism offers comfortable cottage facilities for
accommodation, while the forest lodges can be booked with the AP Forest Department office at
Saifabad.
Hyderabad is the capital of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and the fifth largest city of India. While AP is known as
the most IT savvy state in India, Hyderabad is emerging as a major center for IT exports. It’s share in
Indian IT exports is about 12%. The city is galloping towards its dream of becoming the Silicon Valley of
India. Today, it is home to many international companies and global IT majors including Microsoft, CA,
Oracle, IBM, Dell, Infosys, Wipro, TCS, Satyam and others. Apart from IT, Hyderabad is also emerging
as a leader in the pharma, insurance and tourism sectors. In addition, it also houses the state ministries,
defense undertakings and research and development organizations.

The city has become a constant fixture of the itinerary of global leaders and business delegates, and has
played host to distinguished personalities such as George W Bush, Bill Gates, Bill Clinton, and Tony Blair.

The city's cosmopolitan way of life that envelops in its wake, the ancient and the contemporary,
upcoming and thriving discothèques, pubs, theme villages, snow park and Go-Karting is sure to leave
everyone charmed.

Hyderabad has an international airport with direct flights from major international carriers to many
destinations around the globe. During the early part of July the average daytime temperature is
approximately 35 degrees Centigrade, with frequent monsoon showers.

Birla Mandir
The temple, built on a hillock called Kala Pahad, one of the Naubat Pahad twins, lords over its equally
celebrated surroundings comprising the imposing Secretariat buildings, the azure-blue waters of Hussain
Sagar, the serene and halcyon Lumbini Park, the luxurious Public Gardens dominated by the Asafjahi-
style Legislative Assembly complex and the Reserve Bank of India. From the highest level of the temple,
the spectacle around is breath-taking.

Charminar
Charminar is always on the top of the mind of any tourist visiting Hyderabad. To say that Charminar is a
major landmark in the city is to state the obvious, to repeat a cliché. Built by Mohammed Quli Qutub
Shah in 1591, shortly after he had shifted his capital from Golkonda to what now is known as
Hyderabad, this beautiful colossus in granite, lime, mortar and, some say, pulverised marble, was at one
time the heart of the city.

Chow Mohalla Complex
Built in several phases by the Nizams between 1857-1869, this is now one of the heritage buildings. The
complex comprises four palaces in Moghal and European styles, of which the main palace is double
storeyed with the others being single-storeyed blocks. Located near Charminar - Himmatpura.

Golconda Fort
Golconda is one of the famous forts of India. The name originates from the Telugu words “Golla Konda”
meaning “Shepherd’s Hill”. The origins of the fort can be traced back to the Yadava dynasty of Deogiri
and the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Golconda was originally a mud fort, which passed to the Bahmani
dynasty and later to the Qutb Shahis, who held it from 1518 to 1687 A.D. The first three Qutb Shahi
kings rebuilt Golconda, over a span of 62 years.




Qutub Shahi Tombs
These stately domes form an umbrella over the tombs underneath which rest the majestic kings of the
Qutub Shahi dynasty in peace. The tombs, which have been silent spectators to the many developments


History of Hyderabad, India
Ancient history
The area around Hyderabad was ruled by the Mauryan Empire in the third century B.C during the
reign of Ashoka the Great. After the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to
weaken and decline, the Sātavāhanas who started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty,
declared independence and established their empire in this region. The Sātavāhana Empire or
Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra
Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the
empire covered much of the Deccan plateau & central India for 450 years,i.e., from 230 BCE onward
until around 220 CE. After the decline of the Satavahana Empire in 220 AD, the region came under
the rule of the Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the
eastern Deccan. The capital of Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty was the town of Nagarjunakonda in modern
day Nalgonda district and named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana
Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century AD, who is believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist
activity in the area.

[edit]Medieval history
Various Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms ruled the area during the subsequent centuries. The area was
ruled by the Kalyani branch of the Chalukya kings. When the Chalukya kingdom became
weaker, Kakatiyas, who were feudal chieftains of Chalukya, declared independence and setup their
kingdom around Warangal.

The fall of Warangal to Muhammad bin Tughluq's forces from the Delhi Sultanate in 1321 AD brought
anarchy to the region. For the next few decades, the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan fought the
Musunuri Nayakas on the north and the Vijayanagara Rayas on the south for control of the region. By
the middle of the 15th century, the region was under the firm control of the Bahmani Sultanate which
controlled the Deccan north of the Krishna River from coast to coast.

[edit]Founding

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was the founder of Hyderabad City. In
the year 1591, when the Moon was in the constellation of Leo, Jupiter in its own abode and all
celestial planets favourably placed, he laid the foundation of a new city which he called Bhagyanagar
after his beloved queen ‘Bhagmati’. Bhagmati embraced Islam and took the name Hyder Mahal and
consequently Bhagynagar was renamed Hyderabad after her.

[edit]The   Qutb Shahis
Main article: Qutb Shahi dynasty




Portrait of Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah
[edit]The Golconda Sultanate
In 1463, Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to
the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as
the administrator of the region. He established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he
strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the
Subedar of Andhra lands. Quli enjoyed virtual independence fromBidar, where the Bahmani sultanate
was then based. In 1518, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the
Golconda Sultanate under the title Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. This was the start of the Qutb
Shahi Dynasty. The Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated into five different kingdoms, with the others
based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar and Bijapur.

The Founding of a New City Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah of the Qutub Shahi dynasty built the city of
Hyderabad on the Musi River five miles (8 km) east of Golconda in 1589. The Purana Pul ("old
bridge") spanning the Musi was built a few years earlier, enabling quick travel between Golconda and
Hyderabad. Hyderabad was named as the City of Hyder after the title of the Fourth Caliph Ali. Many
people though, commonly believe that the city of "Hyderabad" was named after the people as their
residence as "City of the Brave" from the Persian words "Hyder/Haider" (Persian and Urdu meaning
lion or brave and "Abad/Abaad" (Persian and Urdu meaning abode or populated) after surviving the
plaque epidemic that ravaged Golkonda. There is another urban myth and folklore which may be an
apocryphal that the Sultan named it after his wife Hyder Mahal (not likely he gave her a male name or
title). Lack of space for expansion in Golconda fort city made the Sultan called up his best of advisers
to search for a new virgin wooded elevated land site near a river void of any man-made structures or
monuments. The city concept was planned on grid-iron pattern reflective of well related precincts with
an iconic monument as the main foci. He also ordered the construction of the Char Minar in 1591 a
tall structure to oversee the urban development and to keep watch of the river banks flooding the
nearby areas causing epidemics of grave nature.

[edit]The New City Flourishes
The early history of Hyderabad is inextricably intertwined and fortune rose during the 16th and early
17th centuries, Hyderabad became a center of a vibrant diamond trade. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans
were patrons of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development
of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. Some of the sultans were known
as patrons of local Telugu culture as well. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the
leading markets in the world for diamonds, pearls, steel, arms, and also printed fabric. In the 16th
century the city grew to accommodate the surplus population of Golconda and eventually became the
capital of the Qutb Shahi rulers. Hyderabad became known for its gardens (called baghs) and its
comfortable climate. Visitors from other lands compared the city most to the beautiful city
of Isfahan in Iran.

[edit]Mughal    conquest and rule
By the mid-17th century, politics in the Deccan were ready for yet another tectonic
shift. Mughal prince Aurangzeb spent most of his time in the Deccan fighting local Hindu and Muslim
kingdoms to establish and enforce Mughal Sovereignty. After the death of Shah Jahan in 1666,
Aurangzeb consolidated his power in Delhi as Emperor and returned to the south. He spent most of
his imperial reign in military camps in the Deccan, in an almost desperate campaign to expand the
empire beyond the greatest extent it had reached under Akbar. The biggest prize in his eyes was the
rich city of Hyderabad, protected by the reportedly impregnable fort of Golconda.
[edit]Hyderabad Falls to the Mughals
Aurangzeb with his brave commanders Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) s/o Shaikh Mir Ismail
Siddiqi and Qaziuddin Siddiqi (Feroze Jung) father and son laid siege to Golconda in 1686.
Golconda held fast under months of siege, and Aurangzeb had to retreat in frustration. Aurangzeb
returned in 1687 and laid siege for 9 months camping in the Fateh Maidan ("victory field," now the Lal
Bahadur Stadium). Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) died in these war and was buried at
Kismatpur near Attapur Hyderabad. Local legend has it that the fortress held on, but the gates were
opened at night by a saboteur Abdullah Khan Pani who was bribed by Aurangzeb. Sultan Abul
Hassan Tana Shah, the seventh king of the dynasty, was taken prisoner. Hyderabad's independence
was eclipsed. Aurangzeb's efforts would turn out largely in vain, with Hyderabad remaining in Mughal
hands for less than four decades.

For a few decades, Hyderabad declined, and its vibrant diamond trade was all but destroyed.
Aurangzeb's attention moved away quickly to other parts of the Deccan, with the Marathas slowly but
steadily gaining ground against the Mughals.

[edit]The   Asaf Jahis
Main article: Hyderabad State




Qamaruddin Khan,Asaf Jah I

[edit]Viceroys Become Kings
With the emaciation of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mughal-appointed
governors of Hyderabad gained more autonomy from Delhi. In 1724,Chin Qulich Khan Asaf Jah I Mir
Qamaruddin Siddiqi son of Qaziuddin Siddiqi and grandson of Khwaja Abid siddiqi (Qulich
Khan), who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (governor of the country) by the Mughal emperor,
defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that
would rule Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain.
[edit]Hyderabad Starts Growing Again
Asaf Jah's successors ruled as Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth
of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom
and Golconda, the former capital, was all but abandoned. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also
begun during this time.

[edit]A Delicate Balancing Game
When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, successive Nizams won their
friendship without bequeathing their power. The Nizams allied themselves with each side at different
times, playing a significant role in the wars involving Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the British and the
French. During the reign of the third Nizam, Sikandar Jah, the city of Secunderabad was founded to
station French troops and subsequently, British troops. The British stationed a Resident at Hyderabad
and their own troops at Secunderabad, but the state continued to be ruled by the Nizam. Maintenance
of British forces, which was part of subsidiary alliance with British, has put heavy burden on
                                                            [1]
Hyderabad state and bankrupted it in early 19th century. Hyderabad, under the Nizams, was the
largest princely state in India, with an area larger than England, Scotland and Wales combined. It was
considered the "senior-most" princely-state, and within the elaborate protocols of the Raj, its ruler the
Nizam was accorded a 21-gun salute. Development of modern facilities and industrialization in
                                              [2]
Hyderabad city started in late 19th century. The State had its own currency, mint, railways,
and postal system. There was no income tax.

[edit]Industrialisation
Various industries emerged in pre-independence Hyderabad, the major industries that were
                                                        [3][4][5]
established in various parts of Hyderabad/Telengana are:


          Industries in pre-Independence Hyderabad



                          Company                             Year



Singareni Collieries                                          1921



Nizam Sugar Factory                                           1937



Allwyn Metal Works                                            1942



Praga Tools                                                   1943



Sirsilk                                                       1946
Hyderabad Asbestos                                              1947



Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company,Charminar cigarette factory 1930



Karkhana Zinda Tilismat                                         1920


[edit]Integration      into Indian Union
Main articles: Operation Polo and Telengana Rebellion

When India gained independence in 1947, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent,
either as a sovereign ruler or by acquiring Dominion status within the British Empire. In order to keep
essential trade and supplies flowing, he signed a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which
surrounded him on all sides. The law and order situation soon deteriorated, with escalating violence
between the private Razakar army fighting for continuation of the Nizam's rule and the people with the
support of the Congress leaders like Swami Ramanand Tirtha and the communists ofTelangana, were
fighting for joining in the Indian Union. As the violence spiraled out of control with refugees flowing
into the coastal Andhra region of the Madras state of India, the Indian Government under Home
Minister Sardar Patel initiated a police action titled Operation Polo.

On September 16, 1948, Indian Army moved in to Hyderabad State from five fronts. Four days later,
                                                                               [citation needed]
the Hyderabad forces surrendered. The number of dead was a little over 800                      . The Police
Action achieved success within a matter of days. The Nizam finally surrendered and signed
the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union and Hyderabad was integrated into the Indian
Union as a state. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, the then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian
Constitution, expressed in his report that the city should be designated as the second capitalof India
after Delhi. He expressed:

"Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better city than Delhi. It has all the
grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far
superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government
                              [6]
of India can easily build."

[edit]Hyderabad        State
Ancient history
The area around Hyderabad was ruled by the Mauryan Empire in the third century B.C during the
reign of Ashoka the Great. After the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to
weaken and decline, the Sātavāhanas who started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty,
declared independence and established their empire in this region. The Sātavāhana Empire or
Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra
Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the
empire covered much of the Deccan plateau & central India for 450 years,i.e., from 230 BCE onward
until around 220 CE. After the decline of the Satavahana Empire in 220 AD, the region came under
the rule of the Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the
eastern Deccan. The capital of Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty was the town of Nagarjunakonda in modern
day Nalgonda district and named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana
Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century AD, who is believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist
activity in the area.

[edit]Medieval history
Various Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms ruled the area during the subsequent centuries. The area was
ruled by the Kalyani branch of the Chalukya kings. When the Chalukya kingdom became
weaker, Kakatiyas, who were feudal chieftains of Chalukya, declared independence and setup their
kingdom around Warangal.

The fall of Warangal to Muhammad bin Tughluq's forces from the Delhi Sultanate in 1321 AD brought
anarchy to the region. For the next few decades, the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan fought the
Musunuri Nayakas on the north and the Vijayanagara Rayas on the south for control of the region. By
the middle of the 15th century, the region was under the firm control of the Bahmani Sultanate which
controlled the Deccan north of the Krishna River from coast to coast.

[edit]Founding

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was the founder of Hyderabad City. In
the year 1591, when the Moon was in the constellation of Leo, Jupiter in its own abode and all
celestial planets favourably placed, he laid the foundation of a new city which he called Bhagyanagar
after his beloved queen ‘Bhagmati’. Bhagmati embraced Islam and took the name Hyder Mahal and
consequently Bhagynagar was renamed Hyderabad after her.

[edit]The   Qutb Shahis
Main article: Qutb Shahi dynasty




Portrait of Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah

[edit]The Golconda Sultanate
In 1463, Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to
the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as
the administrator of the region. He established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he
strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the
Subedar of Andhra lands. Quli enjoyed virtual independence fromBidar, where the Bahmani sultanate
was then based. In 1518, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the
Golconda Sultanate under the title Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. This was the start of the Qutb
Shahi Dynasty. The Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated into five different kingdoms, with the others
based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar and Bijapur.

The Founding of a New City Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah of the Qutub Shahi dynasty built the city of
Hyderabad on the Musi River five miles (8 km) east of Golconda in 1589. The Purana Pul ("old
bridge") spanning the Musi was built a few years earlier, enabling quick travel between Golconda and
Hyderabad. Hyderabad was named as the City of Hyder after the title of the Fourth Caliph Ali. Many
people though, commonly believe that the city of "Hyderabad" was named after the people as their
residence as "City of the Brave" from the Persian words "Hyder/Haider" (Persian and Urdu meaning
lion or brave and "Abad/Abaad" (Persian and Urdu meaning abode or populated) after surviving the
plaque epidemic that ravaged Golkonda. There is another urban myth and folklore which may be an
apocryphal that the Sultan named it after his wife Hyder Mahal (not likely he gave her a male name or
title). Lack of space for expansion in Golconda fort city made the Sultan called up his best of advisers
to search for a new virgin wooded elevated land site near a river void of any man-made structures or
monuments. The city concept was planned on grid-iron pattern reflective of well related precincts with
an iconic monument as the main foci. He also ordered the construction of the Char Minar in 1591 a
tall structure to oversee the urban development and to keep watch of the river banks flooding the
nearby areas causing epidemics of grave nature.

[edit]The New City Flourishes
The early history of Hyderabad is inextricably intertwined and fortune rose during the 16th and early
17th centuries, Hyderabad became a center of a vibrant diamond trade. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans
were patrons of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development
of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. Some of the sultans were known
as patrons of local Telugu culture as well. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the
leading markets in the world for diamonds, pearls, steel, arms, and also printed fabric. In the 16th
century the city grew to accommodate the surplus population of Golconda and eventually became the
capital of the Qutb Shahi rulers. Hyderabad became known for its gardens (called baghs) and its
comfortable climate. Visitors from other lands compared the city most to the beautiful city
of Isfahan in Iran.

[edit]Mughal    conquest and rule
By the mid-17th century, politics in the Deccan were ready for yet another tectonic
shift. Mughal prince Aurangzeb spent most of his time in the Deccan fighting local Hindu and Muslim
kingdoms to establish and enforce Mughal Sovereignty. After the death of Shah Jahan in 1666,
Aurangzeb consolidated his power in Delhi as Emperor and returned to the south. He spent most of
his imperial reign in military camps in the Deccan, in an almost desperate campaign to expand the
empire beyond the greatest extent it had reached under Akbar. The biggest prize in his eyes was the
rich city of Hyderabad, protected by the reportedly impregnable fort of Golconda.

[edit]Hyderabad Falls to the Mughals
Aurangzeb with his brave commanders Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) s/o Shaikh Mir Ismail
Siddiqi and Qaziuddin Siddiqi (Feroze Jung) father and son laid siege to Golconda in 1686.
Golconda held fast under months of siege, and Aurangzeb had to retreat in frustration. Aurangzeb
returned in 1687 and laid siege for 9 months camping in the Fateh Maidan ("victory field," now the Lal
Bahadur Stadium). Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qulich Khan) died in these war and was buried at
Kismatpur near Attapur Hyderabad. Local legend has it that the fortress held on, but the gates were
opened at night by a saboteur Abdullah Khan Pani who was bribed by Aurangzeb. Sultan Abul
Hassan Tana Shah, the seventh king of the dynasty, was taken prisoner. Hyderabad's independence
was eclipsed. Aurangzeb's efforts would turn out largely in vain, with Hyderabad remaining in Mughal
hands for less than four decades.

For a few decades, Hyderabad declined, and its vibrant diamond trade was all but destroyed.
Aurangzeb's attention moved away quickly to other parts of the Deccan, with the Marathas slowly but
steadily gaining ground against the Mughals.

[edit]The   Asaf Jahis
Main article: Hyderabad State




Qamaruddin Khan,Asaf Jah I

[edit]Viceroys Become Kings
With the emaciation of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Mughal-appointed
governors of Hyderabad gained more autonomy from Delhi. In 1724,Chin Qulich Khan Asaf Jah I Mir
Qamaruddin Siddiqi son of Qaziuddin Siddiqi and grandson of Khwaja Abid siddiqi (Qulich
Khan), who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (governor of the country) by the Mughal emperor,
defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that
would rule Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain.

[edit]Hyderabad Starts Growing Again
Asaf Jah's successors ruled as Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth
of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom
and Golconda, the former capital, was all but abandoned. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also
begun during this time.
[edit]A Delicate Balancing Game
When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, successive Nizams won their
friendship without bequeathing their power. The Nizams allied themselves with each side at different
times, playing a significant role in the wars involving Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the British and the
French. During the reign of the third Nizam, Sikandar Jah, the city of Secunderabad was founded to
station French troops and subsequently, British troops. The British stationed a Resident at Hyderabad
and their own troops at Secunderabad, but the state continued to be ruled by the Nizam. Maintenance
of British forces, which was part of subsidiary alliance with British, has put heavy burden on
                                                            [1]
Hyderabad state and bankrupted it in early 19th century. Hyderabad, under the Nizams, was the
largest princely state in India, with an area larger than England, Scotland and Wales combined. It was
considered the "senior-most" princely-state, and within the elaborate protocols of the Raj, its ruler the
Nizam was accorded a 21-gun salute. Development of modern facilities and industrialization in
                                              [2]
Hyderabad city started in late 19th century. The State had its own currency, mint, railways,
and postal system. There was no income tax.

[edit]Industrialisation
Various industries emerged in pre-independence Hyderabad, the major industries that were
                                                        [3][4][5]
established in various parts of Hyderabad/Telengana are:


          Industries in pre-Independence Hyderabad



                          Company                             Year



Singareni Collieries                                          1921



Nizam Sugar Factory                                           1937



Allwyn Metal Works                                            1942



Praga Tools                                                   1943



Sirsilk                                                       1946



Hyderabad Asbestos                                            1947



Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company,Charminar cigarette factory 1930
Karkhana Zinda Tilismat                                         1920


[edit]Integration      into Indian Union
Main articles: Operation Polo and Telengana Rebellion

When India gained independence in 1947, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent,
either as a sovereign ruler or by acquiring Dominion status within the British Empire. In order to keep
essential trade and supplies flowing, he signed a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which
surrounded him on all sides. The law and order situation soon deteriorated, with escalating violence
between the private Razakar army fighting for continuation of the Nizam's rule and the people with the
support of the Congress leaders like Swami Ramanand Tirtha and the communists ofTelangana, were
fighting for joining in the Indian Union. As the violence spiraled out of control with refugees flowing
into the coastal Andhra region of the Madras state of India, the Indian Government under Home
Minister Sardar Patel initiated a police action titled Operation Polo.

On September 16, 1948, Indian Army moved in to Hyderabad State from five fronts. Four days later,
                                                                               [citation needed]
the Hyderabad forces surrendered. The number of dead was a little over 800                      . The Police
Action achieved success within a matter of days. The Nizam finally surrendered and signed
the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union and Hyderabad was integrated into the Indian
Union as a state. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, the then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian
Constitution, expressed in his report that the city should be designated as the second capitalof India
after Delhi. He expressed:

"Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better city than Delhi. It has all the
grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far
superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government
                              [6]
of India can easily build."

[edit]Hyderabad        State
Hyderabad History
Filed under Basics
Among the cities of India, Hyderabad, the capital of the new state of Andhra Pradesh, has one of the richest and
most colourful histories, accentuated by magnificent architecture and a rich culture. Several influences for the
past 400 years has molded it into the A-1 status city it is today.


Ancient History
Before the city’s actual historical rise, the area where Hyderabad would ultimately be established was under the
rule of several kingdoms, including those of Buddhist and Hindu royalty. It came under rule by the kings of the
Chalukya kingdom, whose feudal chieftains, the Kakatiyas, splintered off to create their new kingdom and
established it around Warangal. In 1321 AD, the Sultanate of Delhi under the command of Muhammad bin
Tughluq brought Warangal to its knees, resulting in anarchy in the whole region. The next few decades saw the
battles for supremacy for the region among the Bahmani Sultanate, the Masunuri Nayakas, and the Vijayanagara
Rayas, which finally ended with the Bahmani Sultanate exerting control by the middle of the 15th century.
Modern History
The Qutub Shahi Dynasty

The history of Hyderabad as a city began in 1518 when Sultan Quli Qut-ul-Mulk declared independence from the
Bahmani Sultanate and established the fortress city of Golconda, calling himself the Sultan Quli Qutub Shah.
Decades before, Sultan Mohammed Shah Bahmani instructed Quli Qut-ul-Mulk to quell insurgents and
disturbance in the region, a job which the future ruler carried only too well. By the time he established the
Golconda Sultanate under the title of Sultan Quli Qutub Shah and began the Qutub Shahi Dynasty, the Bahmani
Sultanate had completely disintegrated, splintering into five different kingdoms.
In 1589, the city of Hyderabad was finally built on the Musi River by the fifth sultan of the dynasty, a mere five
miles east of Golconda. Muhammed Quli Qutub Shah dedicated it to his wife, Bhagyamathi, and also ordered the
construction of the monument of the city, which eventually became its icon, the Charminar on 1591, reportedly as
a way to thank the almighty for quelling a plague before it destroyed his newly-built city. During this time and well
into the 17th century, Hyderabad’s power and fame rose as it became the center of a highly successful diamond
trade. All the Qutub sultans, great thinkers and builders as they were, contributed hugely to the richness of
Hyderabad’s culture and affluence, attracting countless visitors from other countries who compared it to Iran’s
beautiful city, Isfahan.
The Mughal Empire

Hyderabad’s fame finally caught the attention of the Mughal prince Aurangzeb, who laid siege on Golconda in
1686. Aurangzeb had been spending most of his time in the Deccan establishing and enforcing the Mughal
superiority and sovereignity. When Shah Jahan finally died in 1666, Aurangzeb consolidated his power as
Emperor and he spent most of it trying to expand his empire beyond that of his predecessor, Akbar the Great. His
target was Hyderabad, at that time one of the richest cities in the area, and was reportedly impregnable because
of the protection of Golconda Fort.
Aurangzeb’s initial sieges were failures and he had to leave in frustration. However, he came back and it wasn’t
until a nine-month long intensive siege in 1687 when Golconda finally fell. Legend has it that the fortress would’ve
held on if it wasn’t for a saboteur who was bribed by Aurangzeb to open the gates at night. Sultan Abul Hassan
Tana Shah, the seventh and last king of the Qutub Shahi dynasty, was imprisoned soon after Golconda fell.
Hyderabad’s importance declined, its flourishing diamond trade was destroyed, and the city fell into ruins.
Aurangzeb’s attention, itself, was focused on the other parts of the Deccan shortly after, especially with the
Marathas steadily gaining ground, albeit slowly, against the reigning Mughals.
Rise of the Nizams

In 1724, Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, was granted the title of Nizam-ul-Muk (meaning Administrator of the Realm)
by the Mughal emperor as viceroy tasked to oversee parts of the Mughal empire in behalf of the emperor. He
intermittently ruled under the title of Asaf Jah and defeated a rival official in order to establish control over
Hyderabad. During this time, viceroys and governors of Hyderabad have gained a considerable autonomy from
the seat of power at Delhi and, when the Mughal empire finally crumbled down in the mid 18th century, the young
Asaf Jah declared himself independent and the dynasty of the Nizams was established.
It would not take long before the Nizams quickly surpassed the Mughals in the domination of the southern parts
of India, with their dominion hitting as high as 125 million acres (roughly 510,000 square kilometers). In the two
centuries that the Nizams ruled over Hyderabad, there were a total of seven Nizams, excluding the 13 years
where the three sons of Asaf Jah 1 ruled after him; the three sons were not officially recognized as rulers (and
thus, did not get the title of Nizam). During these two centuries, Hyderabad saw immense growth again, both
culturally and economically. It finally became the capital with the old one, Golconda, becoming all but abandoned.
Hyderabad’s cultural glory was again established, especially since the Nizams themselves were great patrons of
literature, art, architecture, and food. The Nizams themselves were counted as among the wealthiest people in
the world; in fact, the last Nizam is ranked as the fifth wealthiest people in the history of the world today, with his
fortune at its highest pinned at US$225 billion, adjusted to today’s value.
Integration into the Nation

When the British and French took hold over most of India, the Nizams played a delicate game of balance and
subterfuge. They allied themselves with each side at different times, playing an important role in the wars
involving Tipu Sultant, the French, and the British. The Nizams eventually won the friendship of the Western
invaders without giving up their powers. As a result, Hyderabad was still ruled by a Nizam, and it became the
largest princely state of India. As a princely state, Hyderabad had its own currency, railways, mint, and postal
system. The citizens enjoyed no income tax.
When India finally gained its independence in 1947, the Nizam at that time made known his intention to become
independent, either by gaining dominion status by the British Empire or as a sovereign ruler. The Nizam signed a
Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which, by this time, had surrounded him on all sides. Breakdown in
law and order soon followed, with fights between the supporters of the Nizam and the supporters of Congress. As
the violence spiraled out of control, the newly established Indian government initiated a police action called
Operation Polo. On September 16, 1948, the Indian army moved in to the state of Hyderabad in five fronts. Five
days later, the Nizam’s army surrendered, and the Nizam signed the Instrument of Accession, integrating
Hyderabad into the Indian Union as a state.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


"Hyderābād City (Haidarābād) (Sindhi: ‫ ,دابآردیح‬Urdu: ‫اد‬             ‫ ,) ح یدرآب‬headquarters of the district
                                                                              [1][2]
of Sindh province of Pakistan traces its early history to Neroon,                      a Hindu ruler of the area from
whom the city derived its previous name, Neroon Kot. Its history dates back to pre-Islamic times,
when Ganjo Takker (Barren Hill), a nearby hilly tract, was used as a place of worship. Lying on the
most northern hill of the Ganjo Takker ridge, just east of the river Indus, it is the third largest city in the
province and the eighth largest in the country with an expanse over three hillocks part of the most
northerly hills of the Ganjo Takker range, 32 miles east of the Indus with which it is connected by
various routes leading to Gidu Bandar.

Hyderabad, as the historic capital of Sindh, is the centre of all the provincial communications: road,
rail, waterways and air. From the date of its foundation (1768), its manufactures-ornamented silks,
silver- and gold-work, and lacquered ware-have been the chief in the province, and during its heyday
had gained prizes at the industrial exhibitions of Europe. Some noteworthy antiquities are the tombs'
of the Kalhora and Talpur rulers.
                          Contents

                             [hide]


   1 Early history

     o    1.1 The early Hindu settlement

     o    1.2 In the 7th century

     o    1.3 The Islamic conquest

     o    1.4 The Kalhora dynasty

     o    1.5 The Talpur kingdom

     o    1.6 The colonial rule

   2 Modern times

     o    2.1 Independence and exodus of Sindhi Hindus

     o    2.2 City declared capital again

   3 Post-modern age

     o    3.1 Diverse ethnic settlements

     o    3.2 Being a Muhajir and recognition

     o    3.3 The ethnic riots

   4 See also

   5 References

   6 External links




    [edit]Early        history
    [edit]The      early Hindu settlement
    Under the rule of a Hindu ruler Neroon, this small fishing village thrived upon the banks of the mighty
    Sindhu river. A nearby hill tract called the Ganjo Takker or the bald (barren) hill, later attributed to as
    the Ganjo Range by British occupants, protected the town raising it above the level of the water and
    safe from flood calamities that were regular in neighbouring regions. Of popular tradition, the place
                                           ‫.ڪ‬
    came to be known as Neroon Kot ‫ وٽ ن يرون‬Neroon Kot literally means the place where Neroon
    came from.

    The Ganjo Takker ridge lay on a low limestone range and was used as a place of worship by the most
    adherent religious priests that blessed the city believing their meditation may result in excellent trade
    networks the city was developing at the time. But these very particular popularity traits in the areas of
    trade led the city vulnerable to outside sieges. Equipped mostly with farming equipment, the locals
    were attacked by the conquest of Islamic armies circa 711 CE and surrendered. Neroon was
    dethroned.
[edit]In   the 7th century
In   the Chachnama we       find   frequent    mention    of   a      chief Agham   Lohana who   was   ruler
of Brahmanabad with their two terretorie lakha to the west of Lohana and Sama to the south of
Lohana (Nerron) Narayankot, Hyderabad, Sindh in the time of Chach 636AD

Main article: Agham Lohana

[edit]The   Islamic conquest




Muhammad Bin Qasim leading his troops in battle circa 711 AD-712 CE


In 711 C, Muhammad bin Qasim al-Sakafi (pictured right) conquered the town. By the mid-712,
Muslims armies had conquered much of the Sindh. However, later in an agreement with local Hindu
authorities of the Sindh the Arab forces halted their advances and ceased military activities in Sindh in
return of peaceful conduct affairs. After a brief rule of Arabs and Hindu leaders Sindh came under the
rule of local Somroos, who were local Sindhis converted to Islam. Somroo rule was followed by the
great Samma dynasty rule. By the end of Samma dynasty rule Sindh was occupied by invading
Afghan warlords who lost the empire to Mughal Empire after a brief period of rule.

The Mughal empire thrived in the majority of the central parts of India and yet however never seated a
ruler on the land of Neroon. The new Muslim invaders that had settled in the town mingled with the
locals and wed Hindu girls and were pulled into the mysticism of the land. For decades Hyderabad did
not seat a throne but things were to change when Nadir Shah Durrani or Iran invaded
the Mughal capital in 1739.

All throughout the late 17th century, the Mughal dynasty had grown weary and weak in the regions of
the Sindhu territory or Sindh and the governor Yar Muhammad Khan Kalhora became the de facto,
virtual ruler of Sindh around 1701 CE. Muhammad Khan Kalhora belonged to the most affluent tribe in
the region namely the Kalhora ‫.ک لہوڑا‬

[edit]The      Kalhora dynasty




A sketch of the Pacco Qillo (c. 1845) drawn by Lieut. Edwards.


The River Indus was changing course around 1757 due to Monsoons resulting into periodic floods
and devastating the banks of the river. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora was admired as the saintly ruler of
Sindh at the time his capital Khudabad near Dadu was repeatedly flooded. Being fed up, he decided
                                          [3]
to move his capital to a better place.

The present day city of Hyderabad was founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Neroon
Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora of the Kalhora Dynastyit remained the chief town of Sindh until 1843,
when, after the battle of Miani, it surrendered to the British, and the capital was transferred to
         [4]
Karachi. It was named after the prophet Mohammed's son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar.

Surviving as a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus, the city was suddenly called the heart
of the Mehran. Thriving upon the fresh river water's banks, Hyderabad was much loved by Ghulam
Shah. He admired the city so much that in 1766, he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills
of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The massive half-a-square kilometer (about 36 acres)
garrison was completed by 1768. Since then, it stands in place and is called the Pacco Qillo ‫پ ڪو‬
‫ ق ل ع و‬or the strong fort. The Kalhora rule lasted for two more decades until the demise of the great
Ghulam Shah.
[edit]The     Talpur kingdom




An artist's interpretation of his highness Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur, the last ruler of the fortified town.


After the death of the great Kalhora, started the Talpur Rule. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro's period is
considered to be the Golden period in the history of Sindh. Later the Kalhora behaved as incompetent
                                                                             [3]
rulers and Sindh was ruined under Mian Abdun-Nabi Kalhoro.                         Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his
capital Khudabad, the land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. Great celebrations were
held in 1792 CE to mark his formal entry in the Hyderabad fort. He made the Pacco Qillo his
residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers
was responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their kingdom.
The four were called Chār Yār, Sindhi for four friends. The rulers of Sindh were named Ameers,
Arabic for leaders. A portion of the population of Khudabad migrated to the new capital,
includingSonaras, Amils and Bhaibands. Those groups retained the term Khudabadi in the names of
their communities as an identifier of origin.

It remained the capital of Sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843, a rule
lasting almost half-a-century when Talpurs faced a greater threat – the British. The last remaining rule
of the Talpur kingdom was Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur (pictured right) was among the Talpur
leaders to surrender to the British and was ported to Calcutta in what is now India. Many Talpur Mirs
died there during many years of confinement in a small area near Calcutta. The bodies of the Talpur
Mirs who died there were brought back to Hyderabad when all Mirs were allowed to return to Sindh.
These Mirs were buried in the tombs located at the northern edge of the Ganjo Hill where the city was
             [3]
born from.
For these Mirs, they embraced the local culture and tried to proceed it with building literary institutions
to restore the integrity of the Sindhi culture. In order to educate their people the mother of Mir Fateh
                                                                                    [3]
Ali Khan, Bibi Khairunnissa, established Jamia al-Khairi or al-Khairi University.

[edit]The   colonial rule
        The history of the British occupation is taken mostly from the Imperial Gazetteer of India,
                                                          [4]
        written over a century ago during British rule.




    Hyderabad at the turn of the 20th century.


    The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. It is
    said that even in rigor mortis the Ameers (Mirs) held their swords high fighting the British. The
    battle ended on 24 March where the Mirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The
    battle at Dabo landed an even greater part of Sindh in the laps of the British regime and the city
    surrendered to the British. Being the last stronghold in the way of the British, the city once
    conquered, completed the British Conquest of Sindh.

    The crown of being a capital of the emirate of Sindh was then transferred to Karachi when the
    British general Sir Charles Napier conquered Sindh in 1843, mainly because the East India
    Company had headquarters in Karachi.

    The residency, memorable for its defence by Sir James Outram against the Baluchis in 1843,
    which was situated 3 miles from Hyderabad, no longer exists. The municipality of Hyderabad was
                           [4]
    established in 1853.

    In the Pacco Qillo the British kept the arsenal of the province, transferred from Karachi in 1861,
    and the palaces of the ex-Amirs of Sind that they had taken over. In 1857, when the Indian
    mutiny raged across the Indian sub-continent, the British held most of their regiments and
    ammunition in this city. The garrison at the fort composed of British and Native infantry, 2
    batteries of artillery, and an ammunition column. The barracks were built in twelve blocks, with
                                                                            [4]
    hospitals, bazar and various amenities to the north-west of the city.

    The British demolished most of the buildings around the time of the mutiny to accommodate their
    troops and their military stores and fused the arsenal in the Pacco Qillo so that the people
wouldn't use that against them. Evidently the city received the very first blow to its glorious name.
No longer were the roads washed with sandalwood perfume and rose-water.

The British however tallied the population statistics of the city in the years to come to keep an
accurate record of the growth. Populations statistics dating back to 1872 compliment the
tremendous growth the city achieved within a few decades. From 43,088 (1872), 48,153 (1881),
58,048 (1891) to 69,378 (1901), the city grew in thousands. At this point in time the Hinduism was
the most dominant ethnic religion with 43,499 followers mostly linked to trade while 24,831
Muslims made up the largest ethnic minority. The 710 Christians were mostly new converts or the
British soldiers in regiments around the town. The city ranked seventh in the Bombay
                                          [4]
Presidency in terms of population.

Also included in the census figures were income and expenditure, the average income during the
decade ending 1901 was Rs. 2.2 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure amounted to 2.7
and 2.8 lakhs respectively. The chief sources of income were octroi (Rs. 1,30,000) and water rate
(Rs. 22,000); and the chief heads of expenditure were general administration and collection of
taxes (Rs. 39,000), public safety (Rs. 7,400), water-supply and drainage (RS. 22,000),
conservancy (Rs. 37,000), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 15,000), public works (Rs. 13,000),
and education (Rs. 18,000). The income of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 43,000, and
                                  [4]
the expenditure Rs. 33,800.

The British devised a rail network throughout the western part of the then South Asia and
purchased the private Scinde Railway (Sinds railway) to connect to the Kabul trade routes. The
rail network would later be called the North-Western State Railway in 1886. Hyderabad was a
major junction on the line linking distant trade locations like Lahore and still is to date.

To facilitate the expansion of the former capital, the British deployed water pumping technologies
that would pump water from the river bank at Gidu Bandar whence from the water was deposited
into large reservoirs situated about 500 yards from the river bank capable of holding over
1,000,000 gallons of water, surely a first when it comes to state-of-the-art constructions. Using a
smart gravitational concept, the water was then supplied to the far most arid regions of the
     [4]
town.

[edit]Modern      times
[edit]Independence           and exodus of Sindhi Hindus
              This section does
              not cite anyreferences or
              sources. (March 2009)


Prior to the independence of Pakistanin 1947, Hyderabad had a large population of Hindu Sindhi
who were mainly involved in trade and commerce. The community contributed significantly to the
economy of Sindh. When independence of India occurred, the Hindu Sindhis expected to remain
in Sindh. There was good communal relation between the Hindu and Muslims Sindhis;
Hyderabad was seen as one of the cities least affected by Hindu-Muslim violence in British India.
In other cities, the Hindus and Muslims were often not of the same ethnic group, however in
Hyderabad, Sindhis, Muslim and Hindu alike, were the de facto ethnic group. This led to the
peaceful communal relationship between the two religions in Hyderabad. But when waves
of Muhajir who escaped from anti-Muslim pograms in India started to pour into Hyderabad,
violence erupted on the streets. The Hindu Sindhis were forced to flee leaving everything behind.
Many Hindu Sindhis wanted to return to their native Sindh, when the violence had settled down,
but it was not possible. The Muhajir were given land in lieu of land they lost in India mostly in the
town of Hirabad which belonged to the Hindus. While the population of the people grew with the
migration in progress, the then-Government of Pakistan proposed the creation of two more towns,
namely Latifabad (in    honour   of   the   famous   poet   of   Sindh Shah   Abdul    Latif   Bhita'i)
and Qasimabad.

[edit]City   declared capital again
With the influx of people from across the borders, the city saw its numbers increasing in
population and was deemed to be the largest city according to population statistics at the time.
Owing to the new-found glory, the city regained its title of being a capital of the Sindh province
from 1947 to 1955 after which Karachi was made the capital of Sindh. Government institutions
like theUniversity of Sindh, moved its campuses from the city of Karachi to settle in the new
capital in 1951 along the banks of Indus. During this time, Hyderabad was incorporated as a
municipality in 1953.

								
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