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					•Identify vegetables and their uses.
•Explain the value of vegetables in the diet.
•Explain how to select and store vegetables.
•Describe and demonstrate methods for preparing,
cooking, and serving vegetables.
 Enjoyed raw or cooked
 Appetizers, side
  dishes, soups, salads,
  breads, and main
 Add flavor, color and
  texture to meals.
 Contribute
  significantly to health
   Many are rich in vitamin C
   Leafy green vegetables provide folic
    acid, vitamin K, calcium, and
   Important source of fiber, complex
    carbohydrates, and phytochemicals.
   No cholesterol
   Most are low in calories, fat and
   Many of them may lower your risk of
    some cancers and heart disease,
    because they contain antioxidants,
    including vitamin A and C and
   Vegetables are found in
    different parts of specific
    plants. What is edible on
    one plant might not be
    on another.
   Eat the entire plant –
   The other parts –
    flowers, fruits, seeds,
    stems, leaves, roots,
          • Tender and can be eaten raw
            or cooked
          • Examples – broccoli and
flowers     cauliflower

          • Most can be eaten raw
          • Examples – tomatoes,
            cucumbers, peppers,
 fruits     eggplant, squash

          • High in nutrients and require
            some cooking
          • Examples - Beans, sweet
seeds       corn, peas
   Seaweeds                      Carrageen (KAR-uh-
   Grow in water with             geen) is a sea vegetable
    filtered sunlight              that helps produce the
   Many are grown in Japan        consistency of such
   Classified as algae, not       products as ice cream,
    plants                         salad dressings, soups,
   Low in fat and rich in         and puddings
    vitamins and minerals         Other examples: arame,
   Higher in sodium than          kombu, laver, wakame,
    other vegetables               nori, dulse, hijiki, agar
   Fresh
     Can be bought locally
     Can be grown at home
   Canned
     Look for low sodium
   Frozen
   Dried
   Overall, the nutrients
    are the same
 Some are regular
  veggies picked while
 Others are full grown
  plant varieties
   Ripeness – best to use               Condition – wilted,
    within 2-5 days                       decayed or damaged
   Color and texture                     veggies have fewer
     Avoid color not normal to the       nutrients and won’t last
      plant, such as green                long. Best to buy without
      potatoes. This indicates            the tops. Avoid veggies
      solamine. It can be cut away.
                                          that are sprouting.
   Shape – look for normal
   Size – should feel heavy in
    relation to its size. Extra
    large may be overripe,
    tough and have poor
    flavor. Too small may have
    poor flavor
   Except for roots, tubers,        Potatoes – store in a cool
    and bulbs, veggies should         dry place, but don’t
    be refrigerated as soon as        refrigerate due to the
    possible.                         humidity. The dark helps
                                      keep them from turning
                                      green. A brown paper bag
                                      will work.
                                     Onions – cool dry place in a
                                      basket or loosely woven
                                      bag, so a can get air
   Don’t wash yet, as                circulation. Don’t store
    moisture speeds up                with the potatoes, as it will
    bacterial action and causes       speed up molding of the
    mold to grow.                     onion and sprouting of the
   Most veggies should be
    stored in the refrigerator
    in plastic bags, airtight
    containers or the
    refrigerator crisper
    section. Use perforated
    plastic bags to allow
    moisture to escape. Let
    tomatoes ripen before
    refrigerating them.
   Wash thoroughly even
    before peeling
   Wash tender veggies
    under cool, running
   Scrub thick skin veggies
    with a stiff brush.
   Don’t soak – causes
    nutrient loss
   Don’t use detergent –
    mixes with pesticides
    and waxes and forms
    harmful compounds
 Don’t peel if possible to
  retain more nutrients
 To keep cut up veggies
  crisp in frig,
     Add a few ice cubes to
      the covered container
      they are refrigerated in.
   Nutrients – vitamins, C and         Color – when properly
    B are easily dissolved in            cooked, vegetables remain
    cooking water                        colorful. Overcooking
   Texture – heat softens the           green vegetables, changes
    cellulose or fiver of the cell       the chlorophyll into an
    walls, making them tender.           unattractive olive green
    Overcooking creates
   Flavor – cooking releases
    flavors, improving the
    taste. When overcooked,
    loss of flavor or unpleasant
    flavor can result.
   Add small amount of water        If you plan to peel the
    to saucepan, cover and            veggie (potatoes) do it
    bring to boil                     after you cook them, to
                                      save nutrients.
                                     If you have hard water, it
                                      can cause red veggies (such
   Add the veggies, recover          as cabbage) to turn purple
    and bring to a boil again.         Add a little acid (vinegar or
    Then lower the heat until           lemon juice) to the cooking
    the water simmers. Cook             water
    covered, just until veggies      Don’t add salt, it hides the
    are tender. Drain                 natural flavors
   Some veggies will simmer         Try to use the cooking
    in the water that clings to       liquid
    them after washing.
 A nutritious method
 Place steamer basket
  in a saucepan with a
  tight fitting lid.
 Add water to a level
  below the basket
 Cover the pan and
  bring to a boil
 Add the veggies and
 Good for beets, whole
  carrots and potatoes
 Preserves nutrients
 Cut into large pieces
  and place in a heavy
  pan with a small
  amount of water or
 Season
 Cover tightly and bake
  in oven at 375 until
  veggies are tender and
  browned and the liquid
  is reduced to a sauce
 Sautéed, fried, stir
  fried or deep fried
 To speed cooking, add
  a small amount of
  water to pan and cover
   For baked potatoes
     Pierce skin
     Rub with oil if you want
      crispy skin
     Temperature can be
      between 300-450
     Done when fork easily
 Drizzle with oil and
  with seasonings and
  toss lightly to coat,
 Place on baking sheet
  in a single layer
 Roast at 425 until
  browed, tender and
  caramelized. Turn over
  ½ way during cooking
   Put long cooking veggies
    in center of grill. Good to
    wrap in foil
   Small pieces can be on a
    skewer or in a basket
   Brush grill with oil
   To shorten cook time,
    blanch less tender
    veggies first
   Marinate
   Brush with oil and herbs
   Group by cooking times
   Cook quickly and in little
    water = high nutrients
   Arrange strategically
     Tender parts in the center
   Cover
   Stir
   Pierce
   Follow directions for
    power levels, cooking
    and standing times
•Identify fruits and their uses
•Explain the value of fruits in the diet
•Explain how to select and store fruit
•Describe and demonstrate methods for preparing,
cooking, and serving fruits
   Important source of
       dietary fiber
       Carbohydrates
       Vitamin C
       Potassium
       Phytochemicals, such as beta carotene
   Low in calories
   Low in sodium
   Fat Free
   Some fruits have bonuses
     Oranges – folic acid
     Bananas – magnesium
     Raisins and other dried fruits - iron
 Fruits is the part of a
  plant that holds the
 There are six
  classifications of fruits
       Berries
       Melons
       Citrus fruits
       Drupes
       Pomes
       Tropical
 Thick rind or outer
 Juicy
 Usually have many
 Examples:
     Watermelons
     Cantaloupes
     Casaba (kuh-SAH-buh)
   Small
   Juicy
   Thin skin
   Examples –
 Thick rind with a thin
  membrane separating
  inner flesh segments
 Examples –
     Oranges
     Tangerines
     Grapefruits
     Lemons
     limes
 A single hard seed, pit or
 Inner flesh is soft and
  covered by tender, edible
 Examples –
   Cherries
   Apricots
   Peaches
   Nectarines
   Plum
 Thick, firm flesh
 Tender, edible skin
 The central core
  contains several small
 Examples-
     Apples
     pears
 Grown in tropical and
  subtropical climates
 Examples
     Bananas
     Guavas
     Papayas
     Mangos
Fruit             Category   Uses   I have tried this
Lemon and Limes
Fruit          Category   Uses   I have tried this
Peaches or
   Carambola
     “Star Fruit”
     Oval shape with four to
        six prominent ribs and
        edible skin
       When sliced horizontally,
        it forms star shape
       Doesn’t darken when cut
       Ripe – yellow gold with
        slight browning on the
       Flavor – a combination of
        plums, apples, and citrus
   Cherimoya
     “Custard Apple”
     To eat, spoon the
      custard texture from
      chilled fruit
     Heart shaped
     Green skin with
      imprinted petal shapes
     Tastes like a blend of
      pineapples and
   Feijoa (fay-YOH-uh)
     Small, egg shaped
     Thin, bright green skin
     Fragrant, cream colored
     Flavor – pineapples and
     Peel before eating
   Lychee (LEE-chee)
     Also spelled litchi
     Small with rough red
      shell and a single seed
     Flesh is creamy white,
      juicy and sweet.
     To eat, remove the
      shell and seed.
     Lychee nuts are the
      dried fruit
   Prickly Pear
     Produced by cactus
     Sometimes called
      cactus pears
     Come in a variety of
     Peel, section, remove
      seeds, and serve cold
   Sapote (sah-POH-tay)
     Medium, pear shaped,
     Thin, olive-green skin
     Creamy, custard like
     Tastes like combination
      of peach and vanilla
     Peel and remove seeds
   Tamarillo
     (ta-muh-RIH-loh)
     Small, egg-shaped
     Tough, bitter,
      varicolored skin
     Flavorful, tart, pink
     Peel, remove seeds,
      and add sugar before
   Ugli fruit
     About the size of
       Rough, thick, yellow-
        green skin
       Juicy, yellow – orange
       Divided into sections
       Eaten like grapefruit
   Some are available all year round and others are
     Seasonal
   Mature fruits have reached full size and color
   Ripe fruits are at their peak of flavor and are ready
    to eat. They are tender and have a pleasant aroma.
   Most fruits are picked when under ripe to prevent
    them from spoilage during shipping.
     Grapes, berries, cherries, citrus fruits, pineapples, and
      melons won’t ripen after harvest and must be picked when
      fully ripe.
   If a fruit is picked before it is mature, it never ripens
   To test fruits for ripeness, press
    very gently. Ripe fruits gives
    slightly under pressure. Don’t
    press too hard.
   Natural blemishes don’t affect
   Some oranges experience
    regreening. In warm weather,
    chlorophyll, returns to the skins
    of ripe oranges. Bright lights in
    the produce department can
    also cause regreening.
   Immature, overripe and damaged fruits
     Lost nutrients
     Poor flavor and texture
     Quick to rot
   Look for
     Condition
      ▪ No bruising or damaged spots
     Denseness
      ▪ Avoid dry, withered, very soft or very hard
     Color
     Aroma
     Size
      ▪ Heavier = juicier
     Shape
   Never wash fruits before storing
     Encouraging bacteria growth and mold

   Under ripe fruits – to speed ripening,
    put in brown paper bag. Adding an
    apple (produces harmless ethylene, a
    fruit ripening gas.) If you store fruit
    in a plastic bag, make holes to allow
    moisture to evaporate
   Store uncovered at
    room temperature.
    They can be
    refrigerated after
    ripening. The skin
    turns dark, but the
    bananas keep their
 Sort to remove bad
 Refrigerate in a
  perforated, plastic
  bag or container, in a
  covered, shallow
  container, or
  uncovered in the
  crisper drawer of the
   Store at room
    Refrigerate for longer
 Refrigerate in an airtight
 container or plastic bag
   Even if you plan to peel them, wash first under
    cool, running water. Thick skinned fruits can
    be brushed.
   Avoid soaking
   Some fruits have been waxed for better
    appearance and to prevent moisture loss. It
    cannot just wash off.
   Never use detergents. It can react with
    pesticides and waxes and create harmful
   If you want or need to pare – thinly because
    many nutrients are right under the skin.
   If you need to remove peach skins, you can
    lower the fruit into simmering water for 15
    seconds and then with a slotted spoon, switch
    to ice water for two minutes.
 To retain nutrients, keep the
  chunks fairly large and serve as
  soon as possible.
 If longer storage is needed, cover
  tightly with plastic wrap and
  squeeze out the air. refrigerate
   When apples, banana or peaches
    turn brown it is because the
    oxygen in the air reacts with an
    enzyme in the fruit, called
    enzymatic browning
   Ascorbic acid, vitamin C, destroys
    the enzyme. Since lemon,
    grapefruit, and orange juices
    contain vitamin C, you can dip the
    fruit into one of these juices.
   Or you can buy ascorbic acid
    powder to mix with water and
    sprinkle on the fruit.
 Shapes
 Kebabs
 Color
 Melon balls
 Baskets made from
 Fruit dips
 Frozen fruit bites
 Trifles – fruit layered
  with cakes, custards,
  nuts, etc
 Fresh and frozen have more
 Dried is high in natural sugar
 Canned
     Whole, halved, sliced or pieces
     May be packed in syrup.
     For a quick healthy desert, puree
      canned fruit in a blender and serve
      over angel food cake.
 Come with or without sugar.
 Freezing damages cell walls,
  allowing water to run out as fruit
  thaws, and creating a softer
 Thaw only partially
   Most common
       Raisins
       Prunes
       Dates
       Peaches
       Apples
       Apricots
       Cranberries
   Look for good color
   Look for soft and pliable
   After opening, cover in an
    airtight container and
   Nutrients – some           Texture – heat causes
    nutrients, especially       the cells to lose water
    vitamin C, are heat         and soften, making
    sensitive                   them tender and easy
   Color – some become         to digest.
    lighter, some deeper       Shape – to keep the
   Flavor – become             shape, add sugar to the
    mellow and less sharp       cooking water, which
    and acidic.                 draws some water back
    Overcooking produces        into a fruit’s cells,
    loss of flavor or           strengthening them.
    unpleasant change.
   Use a saucepan with a
    tight fitting lid
   If you want them to
    retain their shape,
    poach them.
     Use firm fruits, such as
      apples, peaches, plums or
     Whole or large pieces
     Place in saucepan, add
      sugar and enough water
      to cover them. Cover and
      simmer gently just until
      ender. Rapid boiling
      breaks the fruit apart.
   Cut into small pieces or leave small
    berries whole.
   Add a small amount of water, just enough
    to cover the bottom of the pan. The cells
    walls break down and the juices are
    released. Do not add sugar yet. Simmer
    in a tightly covered pan, stirring
    occasionally to break the fruit apart. At
    the end of the cooking time, add sugar,
    honey or another sweetener if you wish.
   You can add lemon juice, lemon or
    orange rind, vanilla, cinnamon or other
   Side dishes
     Fruits should be firm and
      ▪ Apples, pineapples, banana
   May be sautéed in a
    small amount of butter
    or margarine until lightly
   Fritters
     Dip cut up fruit in a batter
      and deep fry until golden
   Alone or as part of a
     Pineapple or dried prunes
      are often baked with pork
     Pies, cakes, cobblers,
     Baked apples
      ▪ Core the apples, and cut a
        thin skin of skin from the
        middle, to allow the apple
        to expand as it cooks so it
        won’t burst. Fill the cavity
        with raisins, nuts, spices,
        and sugar. Set the apple in
        ¼ inch of hot water and
        bake until tender.
   Any tender fruits that holds its shape
     Bananas
     Peaches
     Grapefruit halves
     Pineapple slices
     Canned fruits
   Brush surface with melted butter or
    margarine or use a topping, such as
    brown sugar or seasoned crumbs to
    prevent them from drying out.
   Choose firm, ripe fruits
     Cantaloupes
     Apples
     Pears
     Peaches
     Bananas
   Can be put on a skewer
   Brush a little oil on the
    grate. Grill fruit until
    grill marks form. Turn
    to cook the other side.
 Watch the timing, as
  they easily overcook
 Cover, but leave a
  small opening for
  steam to escape.
 Pierce whole fruits in
  several places to
  prevent bursting.
 Pay attention to
  power levels and
  cooking times.

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