The Gilded Age by xuyuzhu

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									The Gilded Age (1865-1900)




 “Give me your tired, your poor,
     your huddled masses
   yearning to breathe free…”
 The Growth of Cities
                         Reasons for City Growth:
                         Development of industry
                         (jobs)
                         Railroads
                         Immigration
                         By 1890, 4 of 5 New
                         Yorkers were born abroad
                         or were the children of
Ellis Island, New York   foreign parents.
       Old vs New Immigrants
                          “Oldcomers” blamed
                          problems on
Polish Immigrants- 1891   “Newcomers”
                          Old- English, German
                          (usually)
                          New- Irish, Italian,
                          Swedish, Russian,
                          Polish, Chinese many
                          more
                          Immigration Restriction
                          League (Warren, Ward,
                          Hall)
                          The literacy test
        Slummin’ It
Overcrowding
Tenement
houses (NYC):
6-7 stories,
overcrowded-
few windows
                NYC Tenement House

“firetraps”
    Slummin’ It (con’t)
“Dumbbell” Building-
supposed to improve
conditions for people in
slums
 They created more
overcrowding, little light,
horrible smells
Disease was rampant
          “Big Business”
Andrew Carnegie
•Bobbin boy…$1.20 a
week!
•Pennsylvania RR
secretary
•Invested in Shares
•Bessemer Process
•Vertical vs. Horizontal
Integration
      Politics in the Cities
Most major cities
were poorly run
(garbage, sewers,
streets)
William “Boss”
Tweed and other
“machines”
Frederick Jackson
Turner:
“Disappearance of
                    One of many Tweed-bashing cartoons
Frontier Theory”
Organized Labor
                     Samuel Gompers
                     American Federation of
                     Labor
                     Sought economic gain
                     for skilled workers
                     Strikes and boycotts,
                     maintained emergency
                     funds to help members
                     during strikes
    Samuel Gompers   Helped professional,
                     practical organization
Railroads
  After Civil War, Railroad
  industry was booming
  May 10, 1869- “Golden Spike”
  unites Central Pacific with
  Union Pacific (East and West)
  Result: 1st transcontinental
  railroad
  By 1883- 4 transcontinental
  routes
  Significance: Faster movement
  of ideas, goods, people
Map of first transcontinental railroad- 1869
   Railroad Corruption
Midwestern farmers -extremely high rates
charged by railroad companies
Result: National Grange, to unite farmers
and demand for better rates
1870s, Grange had over 800,000 members
1887- Interstate Commerce Commission
gave the Fed. Gov’t power to regulate
railroad prices (ICC)
Significance: Gov’t intervention in private
industry (Populist Party)
         Reformers- Jane Addams
Settlement Houses
(based on models from
Europe) were set up to
help needy
Hull House (1889-
Chicago) welcomed
immigrants from all over
Europe                     Jane Addams
Became a pioneer in the
field of social work
Reformers- Frances Willard
   Frances Willard   Raised in Wisconsin,
                     became a teacher in
                     Illinois
                     1874- made president of
                     Women’s Christian
                     Temperance Movement
                     Fought for women’s right
                     to vote
Reformers- Ida B. Wells
               Born a slave in Miss,
               became news writer in
               Tennessee
               Wrote a graphic story
               about a lynching in
               Tennessee and was
               kicked out
               Moved to NYC, helped
               form NAACP and black
               settlement house.
Ida B. Wells
 Ed. Reform- Booker T. Washington
Born a slave, founded
Tuskegee Institute in
1881
Preached his “Atlanta
Compromise”
Trained blacks to be
farmers, mechanics,
tradesmen
Believed in job training
instead of academics
Self-respect would lead    Booker T. Washington
to opportunity
                    Studied in Germany,
W.E.B. DuBois       earned a Ph. D from
                    Harvard in 1895.
                    Brilliant poet-
                    immediate equal rights
                    for blacks.
                    Opposed any laws that
                    treated blacks
                    differently than whites.
                    (i.e. segregation)
    W.E.B. DuBois
                    Organized Niagara
                    movement- 1905
Ed. Reform- Morrill Act (1862)
 Initiated by Justin Morrill,
 a young Congressman
 from Vermont
 Granted land to the
 states to support new
 state colleges
 This helped lead to an
 explosion in the number
 of American colleges in
 1880s and 90s
            Bridge Building
                      James Buchanan
Brooklyn Bridge, NY
                      Eads (built 1st bridge
                      across the Mississippi
                      in 1874)
                      John Roebling (began
                      construction of
                      Brooklyn Bridge in
                      1867)
                      Washington Roebling
                      (finished job in 1883)
James Bogardus-
“skeleton”            Going Up!!!
construction out of
cast-iron
Henry Bessemer- 1st
to mass produce
steel to use for
skyscrapers
Elisha Graves Otis-
invented an
automatic brake for
elevators
          New Towns
“Company Towns” were towns created
exclusively for a particular business.
Example: Andrew Carnegie’s steel plant in
Homestead, PA (1881)
“Garden Cities” Ebenezer Howard
encouraged people to build smaller country
towns that were connected to larger cities by
railroad. These were the earliest suburbs.
Examples: Lake Forest (outside Chicago)

								
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