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Key Terms_ The Treaty of Versailles


									Key Terms, The Treaty of Versailles
Fourteen Points- at the end of World War I, a 14-part plan for peace
presented by President Woodrow Wilson to Congress on January 9, 1918.

League of Nations- an international organization established by the Allied
powers at the close of World War I to promote international peace and

Big Four- at the Paris peace conference, the nickname for the leaders of
the four largest victorious nations of the World War I, including U.S
president Woodrow Wilson, British prime minister David Lloyd George,
French prime minister Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister
Vittorio Orlando.

War-guilt clause- a clause included in the Treaty of Versailles that help
Germany responsible for World War I and required it to make reparations to
the Allied nations to pay for losses and damage they suffered during the

Treaty of Versailles- a peace treaty signed by the Allied powers and
Germany on June 18, 1919, at the Paris peace conference at the Palace of
Versailles in France; it assigned Germany responsibility for the war,
required Germany to pay reparations to the Allied countries, reduced
Germany’s territory, and included the covenant for the League of Nations.
Reservationist- at the close of World War I, one of the Republican
senators who agreed to approve the Treaty of Versailles only if changes
were made in response to their concerns about the document.

Irreconcilable- at the close of World War I, one of 16 Republican senators
who opposed the Treaty of Versailles.

Internationalist- at the close of World War I, one of the Democratic
senators who strongly supported the Treaty of Versailles.
Mastering the Content
1. Which of the following was not a contributing factor to the outbreak of war in Europe
in 1914?
A. a policy of militarism
B. a complex system of alliances
C. a growing sense of nationalism
D. a shift in public opinion toward isolationism

2. Read the quotation below from President Wood -row Wilson’s message to Congress
in 1914.
The United States must, . . . during these
days that are to try men’s souls, . . . be
impartial in thought, as well as action, must
put a curb upon our sentiments, as well as
upon every transaction that might be construed
as a preference of one party to the
struggle before another.
What was the president asking the nation to do?
A. adopt a policy of neutrality
B. make the world safe for democracy
C. offer loans and sell supplies to our allies
D. compete for trade and territory with our Enemies

3. How did Germany’s U-boats violate international law?
A. by disguising themselves with flags of neutral nations
B. by stopping vital supplies from reaching the front lines
C. by attacking merchant ships without letting passengers flee to safety
D. by conducting surprise searches of merchant ships in neutral waters

4. How did President Wilson respond to the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915?
A. by demanding that Germany stop unrestricted submarine warfare
B. by calling on Congress to approve a declaration of war against Germany
C. by sending navy ships to patrol Atlantic waters and sink any U-boats they found
D. by warning American citizens that they traveled on foreign ships at their own risk

5. In the Zimmermann note, what did Germany promise Mexico in return for its support
during World War I?
A. Germany would cede territory in Africa to Mexico.
B. Germany would not attack Mexican merchant ships.
C. Germany would help Mexico regain territory in the United States.
D. Germany would loan Mexico money to jumpstart its economy.
6. How did the U.S. government build the large fighting force it would need to enter
World War I?
A. It encouraged women to enlist as well as men.
B. It allowed blacks to train and fight alongside whites.
C. It offered high wages to anyone who volunteered to fight.
D. It established a national draft for young men aged 21 to 30.

7. Why was the timing of the arrival of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe
crucial to the Allies?
A. The Germans had recently enlisted Italy as an ally in the war.
B. The British had recently lost all their battleships in a large sea battle.
C. The French had just retreated from the battlefront after heavy losses.
D. The Russians had just signed a peace treaty with Germany and left the war.

8. Which of these statements best explains the development of French warfare in World
War I?
A. U-boats cut off supplies to the troops.
B. Airplanes made it easier to spot enemy positions.
C. The invention of tanks made ground assault impossible.
D. New long-range weapons turned battlefields into death traps.

9. Why was the Meuse-Argonne Offensive a significant battle of World War I?
A. Nearly 1 million Americans died in this battle.
B. Germans agreed to a truce shortly after this battle.
C. The city of Paris was destroyed as a result of this battle.
D. The Allied victory in this battle convinced Russia to leave the war.

10. Examine the table below. Which of these statements supports the data in
the table?
A. World War I lasted longer than most earlier European wars.
B. Leaders of the Central powers were incompetent military planners.
C. The Americans arrived too late to be of any help to the Allied powers.
D. The costs of World War I included immense suffering and loss of human life.

11. Look at the photograph below of people marching through New York City in 1917.
What were the people in this photograph marching for or against?
A. world peace
B. racial justice
C. prohibition of alcohol
D. women’s right to vote

12. Which of these was neither a push factor nor a pull factor in the Great Migration?
A. increased job opportunities in the North
B. growing racial tension in cities in the North
C. widespread poverty among sharecroppers in the South
D. fear of lynching and violence against blacks in the South
13. What power did the Sedition Act give the federal government during World War I?
A. the power to spy on new immigrants
B. the power to draft young men into the military
C. the power to fight dissent that could damage the war effort
D. the power to control what and how much factories produced

14. Examine the bar graph below.Which of these statements best explains the
data in this graph?
A. Women took over government jobs previously held by men.
B. New government agencies were created to organize the war effort.
C. Labor unions readily cooperated with the government in the war effort.
D. Industrial production was controlled by the government to meet military needs.

15. On what grounds was Charles Schenck’s conviction for promoting draft resistance
upheld as constitutional in Schenck v. United States?
A. Free speech does not include all forms of symbolic speech.
B. Free speech does not exist during a time of national emergency.
C. Free speech can be limited to protect the safety of the speaker.
D. Free speech can be denied when a clear and present danger exists.

16. Which of the following was not part of President Wilson’s Fourteen Points?
A. requiring reparations from defeated nations
B. protecting freedom of the seas in both war and peace
C. establishing a League of Nations to ensure world peace
D. encouraging European nations to reduce their armaments

17. What was the fate of Germany’s colonies at the end of World War I?
A. They were given to the Allied nations as part of reparations.
B. They were allowed to exercise their right to self-determination.
C. They were granted independence by the Treaty of Versailles.
D. They were given as mandates to Allied nations to prepare them for self-rule.

18. Which of the following statements best describes the immediate effect of the Treaty
of Versailles on Europe?
A. Germany ceased to exist.
B. The population of Europe decreased.
C. Italy and France lost most of their territory.
D. The number of nations in Europe increased.

19. According to President Wilson, how would the League of Nations maintain peace?
A. by excluding from its membership any country that started a war
B. by requiring all member countries to eliminate their armaments
C. by providing collective security to handle any threats as they arose
D. by outlawing war and requiring all nations to help create a world police force
20. What was the ultimate fate of the Treaty of Versailles in the United States?
A. It was vetoed by President Wilson.
B. It was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
C. It was rejected by Congress in its original form, but was ratified with reservations.
D. It was rejected by Congress, which then signed a separate peace treaty with

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