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					Stimulating Beverages
Secondary Plant Products

What are secondary products?

 Alkaloids
 EssentialOils
 Glycosides
Caffeine

 Alkaloid   with physiological effects on
  people
 Stimulates CNS
 Promotes alertness and endurance
 Constricts blood vessels
 Increase heart beat
Caffeine Content of Common Products

 Drip coffee...115 mg          Pepsi...............38 mg
 Tea..................40 mg    Surge...............51 mg
 Cocoa..............13 mg      Jolt Cola..........71 mg
 Coca Cola.......46 mg         Excedrin.........65 mg
 Diet Coke.......46 mg         Anacin............32 mg
 Dr. Pepper......40 mg         NoDoz...........100 mg
 Mr. Pibb..........41 mg       Vivarin..........200 mg
 Mt. Dew..........54 mg        Midol.............600 mg
Coffee - the beverage

 Made   from seeds of Coffea arabica
 Seeds occur in coffee berries (cherries)
 Fruit pulp is fermented to free seeds
 Roasting and grinding bring out
  essential oils
 Caffeine and essential oils contribute to
  properties and flavor
Flowers and berries of
Coffea arabica
Coffea arabica cherries ready
for picking
Coffee cherries are picked by hand
by worker in Columbia
Coffea arabica native to Ethiopia
History of coffee drinking

 Long  history of use in Arab world
 Introduced to Europe in 1615
 By 1700 coffee houses popular
  throughout Europe
 Especially popular in England - often
  called “penny universities” and
  “seminaries of sedition”
Coffea arabica Plantations

 Dutch  established plantations in East
  Indies late in 17th century
 Trees taken to Botanical Gardens in
  Amsterdam and Paris
 From here plantations started on
  Caribbean islands and S.A. early in 18th
  century
 Today Brazil and Columbia are world’s
  leading producers
Tea

 From    tip leaves of Camellia sinensis
 Shrub or small tree native to Tibet,
  India, China, and Burma.
 Still largely grown in this region of the
  world
 Caffeine, theophylline, tannins and
  theol contribute to flavors and
  stimulating properties
Botanical print
of tea plant,
Camellia sinensis
Workers at tea plantation in
the Darjeeling region of India
History

 Introduced  to Europe early in 17th
  century about same time as coffee
 Became very important in England
  before the end of the 17th century
 Important in history of US because of
  the Boston Tea Party and its
  involvement in Revolutionary War
 Two “inventions”in 1904
Chocolate and cocoa
 Seeds of Theobroma cacao
 Confection as well as a beverage
 Native to tropical Central and South
  America
 Today Ivory Coast and Brazil lead the
  world in cocoa bean production
 Other tropical countries in West Africa
  and South and Central America are also
  major contributors
Early History

 According   to Aztec mythology the god
  Quetzalcoatl that gave cacao beans to
  the Aztec people
 The cacao beans were offered as gifts to
  the gods and also used to make a
  beverage consumed by noblemen and
  priests on ceremonial occasions
Quetzalcoatl - Aztec god
Chocolatl - spicy bitter beverage

 From   roasted and coarsely ground
  beans
 Various spices including chili peppers
  and vanilla beans.
 Boiling water was added and the
  mixture was whipped to a foamy
  consistency
Ancient Chocolatl Vessels from
Central America
European discovery

 Columbus in 1502
  encountered cacao
  beans in Caribbean
  islands
 Natives used these
  beans as money and
  also for a spicy
  beverage
Mexican Conquest

 When   conquistador Cortes invaded
  Mexico in 1519, found Montezuma
  drinking chocolatl from a golden goblet
 Aztecs believed Cortes a reincarnation
  of Quetzalcoatl, Cortes was showered
  with riches and offered chocolatl
Cortes encounters Montezuma
    Introduction to Europe

 Cortes introduced beverage to Spain in 1528
 Spanish court added sugar
 Spanish had monopoly on cacao for many
  years
 By 1650 a recognizable cocoa was served
  throughout Europe
 Competing with coffee and tea but never
  equal because of high fat
Nineteenth century

 High  fat problems were solved in 1828
  when a Dutch chemist developed a
  process to remove some of the fat or
  cocoa butter
 In 1847 an English company, Fry and
  Sons, added cocoa butter and sugar to
  the ground beans to make chocolate
 This was the creation of the first
  chocolate bar
    Cacao trees

 Theobroma cacao is a
  small tree
 Football-shaped pods
  that form directly on
  the main trunk
 Inside fruit are 20 to 40
  seeds or beans
  surrounded by a white
  sweet sticky pulp
Processing

                When pods are ripe the
                 pulpy seeds are
                 removed and allowed
                 to ferment
                The chocolate taste and
                 aroma develop as the
                 beans ferment
                Beans dried either in
                 the sun or mechanically
                 and shipped to
                 processing centers
                 where the beans are the
                 roasted
Further processing

 Seeds  are cracked open freeing the
  large cotyledons, or nibs
 Nibs are crushed to produce a dark
  brown oily paste, the chocolate liquor
 Liquor can be solidified into squares of
  baking chocolate
 Cocoa butter can be removed to
  produce cocoa powder
Uses of cocoa butter

 Added  to the chocolate liquor to
  produce chocolate candy
 Main ingredient for white chocolate
 Suntan lotions, soaps and cosmetics
    Recipe for chocolate candy

   Chocolate liquor; sugar,
    cocoa butter, vanilla, and
    often milk
   Conching process
    involves a mechanical
    kneading and stirring
    that gives chocolate its
    smoothness
   After conching liquid
    poured into molds
 Coca Cola
 From  seeds of the kola tree Cola nitida
 Native to west Africa
 Relative of the cacao tree, bears pods with
  8 seeds
 In Africa the seeds used as stimulant and
  as an appetite depressant
 In addition to the caffeine, small
  quantities of kolanin, which act as a heart
  stimulant
Processing

 Fleshy seed coats are removed and the
  seeds are allowed to ferment
 Seeds dried and pulverized
Coca-Cola

 Developed   in 1886 by Dr. John Styth
  Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist
 Contained carbonated water, caramel
  coloring, an extract of coca leaves, an
  extract from the powdered kola seeds,
  sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, and lime juice
 Exact formula is a highly guarded secret
 Coca extracts are still used - since 1903
  the cocaine is removed
Other caffeine beverages

 Throughoutworld native populations
 consume other caffeine containing
 beverages
Summary

 Caffeine and caffeine-like alkaloids
  have a stimulating effect on the
  mammalian central nervous system
 Coffea arabica, Thea sinensis, and
  Theobroma cacao long use in stimulating
  beverages and historically have played
  an important role in human affairs
 Today coffee, tea, chocolate, and cola
  are consumed globally

				
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posted:11/17/2012
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