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Prokaryotes, Bacteria, and Archaea Study Guide

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                                        Biology Study Guide
                                   Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea

Prokaryotic Cell Anatomy
Be able to label each of the following structures commonly found on prokaryotic cells: nucleoid, cytoplasm,
cell wall, capsule, cell membrane, pili, ribosomes, flagella.




Give the function of each part of the bacteria anatomy:

       Nucleoid –

       Cell Membrane –

       Cell Wall –

       Capsule –

       Pili –

       Ribosomes –

       Flagella -




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Vocabulary
Understand and be able to apply each of these terms.

   1. Prokaryotes –

   2. Bacterial shapes:

           a. Coccus –

           b. Bacillus –

           c. Spirilla –

   3. Binary fission –

   4. Obligate Aerobe –

   5. Facultative Anaerobe –

   6. Obligate Anaerobe -

   7. Archaea –

   8. Symbiotic relationships:

           a. Mutualism –

           b. Commensalism –

           c. Parasitism –

   9. Pathogenic -

   10. Exotoxins –

   11. Endotoxins -

Critical Thinking
Be able to read, analyze, and give complete answers to questions like these.

   1. What three conditions on Earth were simulated by
      the Miller-Urey Apparatus?
   2. Complete the table below:

                                   Energy Source?                    Carbon Source?
                                  (Light or chemicals)          (CO2 or organic compounds)
Photoautotroph

Chemoautotroph

Photoheterotroph

Chemoheterotroph

   3. Where would you expect to find a halophile? Acidophile? Thermophile?




   4. Explain the difference between archaea and bacteria. Where are each found? Are they obligate aerobes,
      anaerobes, or facultative anerobes?



   5. Draw the bacterial growth curve. Label each phase.




   6. Describe what kind of bacterial growth occurs during each of these phases:

          a. Lag Phase –

          b. Exponential Phase –

          c. Stationary Phase –

          d. Death Phase –


   7. How does the presence of a cell wall aid in the survival of bacteria?



   8. Bacteria reproduce asexually, yet are still able to evolve. Explain how mutations, pili, and plasmids help
      them in doing so.


   9. Bacteria, such as the one that causes tetanus, can infect living hosts even after laying dormant in the soil
      for years. How are they able to do this?
10. Two new prokaryotic species are discovered. One is found in an underwater volcanic vent, the other is
    found in the small intestine of humans. Which is probably a bacteria, and which is probably an archaea?



11. How are bacterial diseases usually treated?



12. Which antibiotics on this petri dish are working against the bacteria? (Circle them)




13. Give an example of something people do that increases the likeliness of antibiotic resistance occuring.




14. Why are prokaryotes so important to the biosphere?



15. Deep-sea angler fish have a bioluminescent “lure” attached to their head. This lure helps them attract
    prey. The light is produced by bacteria. Explain what kind of symbiotic relationship this would be.

				
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Description: A end-of-unit study guide that matches my Powerpoint lecture on Prokaryotes, the origin of life, bacteria, and archaea.