OPTIMIZING THE UNEVENNESS IN PRODUCTION SCHEDULING THROUGH MATHEMATICAL APPROACH A CASE STUDY

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OPTIMIZING THE UNEVENNESS IN PRODUCTION SCHEDULING THROUGH MATHEMATICAL APPROACH A CASE STUDY Powered By Docstoc
					International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME
               RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJIERD)
ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online)
Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), pp. 74-91
                                                                          IJIERD
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijierd.html
Journal Impact Factor (2011): 0.8927 (Calculated by GISI)               ©IAEME
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   OPTIMIZING THE UNEVENNESS IN PRODUCTION SCHEDULING
     THROUGH MATHEMATICAL APPROACH: A CASE STUDY

          S. K. Gupta1, Dr. V. K. Mahna2, Dr. R. V. Singh3, Rajender Kumar4
     1
      Research Scholar & Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, FET, MRIU,
                                           Faridabad, India-121003
               2
                 Executive Director & Dean Academics, FET, MRIU, Faridabad, India-121003
   3
     Professor & Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, FET, MRIU, Faridabad, India-121003
        4
          Asst. Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering, FET, MRIU, Faridabad, India-121003
                       E-Mail: gupta.sarojkumar@gmail.com, rajender629@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

World over manufacturing has received a great deal of attention in the recent few years for
efficient utilization of resources, because of the market becoming customer oriented. There is
still no consensus on how best to measure and manage production within manufacturing
industries as there are numerous variables which change from industry to industry. In real world,
the global competition is forcing entrepreneur’s to cut corners on customer deliveries and input
production cost. Under the circumstances production scheduling is an important matter
especially in the organizations wherein the product consists of no. of models of the same
product. This case reveals that the production is either in the form of overproduction or
underproduction as and when compared with planned production. The situation of
underproduction isn’t that serious as is the case of overproduction since overproduction is
generation of unnecessary inventories either in the form of WIP or finished goods. Therefore,
this is nothing except generating a form of waste which is fundamentally against the principles of
Lean Manufacturing. The situation of unnecessary and undesirable inventories results in lockup
of funds, which could be otherwise utilized effectively. Mathematical modeling may be an
answer to remove such waviness and unbalances through application of averages, variance and
deviation. The study was conducted and data collected for the purpose of optimization in XYZ
Company manufacturing Shock Absorbers with 203 different varieties catering to need of OE
suppliers and replacement market. The most advantageous manufacturing priorities for a given
competitive situation are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Quality, Overproduction, Underproduction, Lean Manufacturing, Inventory.



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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Over the last two decades there has been enormous increase not only in demand but also in
production supply of variety of products. In most of the manufacturing industries, the main issue
of productivity is production planning. The materials play an important role so far as its
contribution towards the product and also the cost are concerned. Therefore, a systematic control
is essential so far as materials are concerned to avoid obsolescence, unnecessary storage and
material handling including the delayed deliveries. Figure 1 shows the various inputs to
production to make the system efficient and effective.




                    Figure 1 Resources that must be managed effectively
Twenty keys are discussed for workplace improvement in manufacturing industry as shown in
Figure 2 [8]. These keys must be considered in order to achieve continuous improvement. These
20 keys are arranged in a circle that shows the relations between the keys and their influence on
the three main factors: quality, cost, and lead time. The arrangement in the circle is not
categorical, and some keys offer benefits in more than one factor. There are four keys outside the
circle. Three of them (keys 1, 2, and 3) must be implemented before the rest, and key 20 is the
result of implementing the other 19 keys.




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                      Figure 2 Twenty keys for workplace improvement

The lack of planning generates imbalance in the planned targets and subsequently deliveries. As
a result of this, the customer demand gets nullified resulting into loss of revenues. The uncertain
production plan and scheduling also leads to very heavy inventory of raw materials, WIP and
undesired movements of materials. This leads to unnecessary breakup of lots considered for
manufacturing. The result is loss of man-hours, machine-hours, material input and also increase
in the input cost. All these are a type of waste which does not add any value. "A more liberal and
extensive reciprocity in the production and sale of commodities is necessary, so that the
overproduction of the organizations can be satisfactorily disposed off to the market.”

The problem of unevenness in planning and scheduling can be addressed through process of
categorization of the demand factors pertaining to various models. This categorization shall
provide a whip to the planning and scheduling department to keep a close watch and amend the
actions where-so-ever required. Once, the objective of smoothening the production is achieved
80-85% then it becomes easy to meet the market requirements. This paper addressed the data
bifurcation in which the products are refers to three main categories such as Production at par,
overproduction, underproduction. This paper presents mathematical optimization with
application of methodology for finding Co-efficient of variation [5].



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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Data filtering has become a key technology for modern production control systems. The goal of
data bifurcation or filtration is a route to the right decision of controlling and optimizing the
production. In order to deal with high variety of products, a very small variety of products
requires the attention for getting the maximum efficiency. The VED technique is the best
adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out of stock
situations in the production house. The VED analysis will facilitate planning department to
engage entire energy to limited area only leading to reducing overproduction to bare minimum
including best utilization of funds [2,11].

Optimization is about utilizing the resources in organized manner to achieve higher efficiency.
Optimization is thus, about achieving high utilization, high efficiency and high effectiveness at
bare minimum cost [4]. Mathematical Optimization refers to the selection of a best element
(with regard to some criteria) from some set of available alternatives. In the simplest case, an
optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically
choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. The
generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations comprises a large area
of applied mathematics. More generally, optimization includes finding "best available" values of
some objective function given a defined domain, including a variety of different types of
objective functions and different types of domains.

3.0 CASE STUDY

A study was undertaken in a company manufacturing shock absorbers and having a wide variety
of the product numbering 203. The period of this study was based on a data spread over the
period of last six month as per Annexure 1. Table 1 shows the performance of actual production
as compared with planned production targets. This variation has been graphically represented
through Bar Chart as given in Figure 3.

                         Table 1 Gross average monthly production


                       Months     Planned Production   Actual Production
                       Jan’12            222521               151431
                       Feb'12            250428              156504
                       March'12          266333              152994
                       April'12          248845              209559
                       May'12            186317              149798
                       June'12           176038              150009
                       Average           225080              161716




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                                           Variation in Actual & Planned
                                                    Production

                                  300000

                                  250000
            Production Quantity




                                  200000                                            Series1
                                                                                    Series2
                                  150000
                                                                                    Series3
                                  100000                                            Series4

                                  50000

                                       0



                                                  2
                                                  2




                                                  2
                                                12




                                                 2
                                               12




                                               '1
                                               '1
                                               '1

                                              '1
                                           n’

                                           b'

                                          ch




                                          ne
                                          ay
                                          ril
                                        Ja

                                        Fe




                                       Ap


                                        M
                                       ar




                                       Ju
                                      M




                                                        Months Detail


                                       Figure 3 Gross average monthly productions
3.1 Inferences

On analysis of data given in Annexure 1, it was found that on an average 13 % production was
inline with the plans ac in Annexure 2, 20% of the production on an average was overproduced
i.e. over and above the planned production as in Annexure 3, and in balance cases it was
observed that 67% of the production was in the category of underproduction as compared to
palmed production as in Annexure 4. The process of straightening the plans is a quite heavy task
therefore, the principles of VED analysis was followed for purpose of categorization so that
effective controls could be introduced. Table 2 shows the VED analysis of over production,
under production and production at par. The categorization establishes that production at par is
the lowest followed by overproduction and further followed by under production.

                                                 Table 2 Actual Performance

                                           Production Data          Actual Model
                                                                    Contribution
                                           Production at Par        13%
                                           Over Production          20%
                                           Under Production         67%
                                                   Total            100%

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                                 Model Contribution




                                       Production at
                                         Par, 13%


                                                  Over
                                                                        Production at Par
                                               Production,
                                                  20%                   Over Production
                                                                        Under Production
              Under
            Production,
               67%




                          Figure 4 Pie chart for category bifurcation

The production data reveals over planning as compared to manufacturing capacity. This variation
is almost to the tune of 28% as given in the Figure 3. This over planning will result in
unnecessary pressure on material planning, unnecessary occupancy of space, lockup of funds,
obsolescence in spoilage of materials and frequent movement of the stocks. Table 3 provides
comparative analysis of underproduction; overproduction and production at par in terms of no. of
product produced in six months and the contribution of each category so-far-as volumes
manufactured are concerned.

                     Table 3 Comparative Analysis on Production Data

         Production Detail       Production Quantity      Percentage Contribution
         Production at Par              17268                       02%
         Over Production               353971                       36%
         Under Production              608547                       62%
                 Total                 979786                      100%

It is concluded from Table 3 above that the Production Planning and Control Department of said
company is working with no exposure to the technological advancements. It is evident that the


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production data doesn’t match with the planned production. In most of the categories, it is
underproduction followed with overproduction and further very small percentage matching with
the planned data.

The data was further analyzed and it was observed that there is a huge variation from the
standard deviation. This was further normalized with the help of mathematical modeling and the
details are as per enclosed table. This normalized solution can remove the waviness to a great
extent by introducing controls on categorized items only. Table 4 gives details regarding
category-wise breakup of VED analysis. This table establishes that a mere control of 35 items
out of 203 items (17%) will help in eliminating the imbalances in the production and improving
the overall performance.

                                    Table 4 Results Summary Sheet


       Sr.                                                                        Items for Control
       No.   Description        Total No. of Items   Category Bifurcation
                                                                              V      E      D         Total

        1    Under Production          135                 23   (17%)         4      7      12         23

        2    Over Production            41                 12   (30%)         3      4       5         12

        3    Balanced                   27                      0             0      0       0         0

               Total                   203                      35            7      11     17         35


Table 5 is based on optimized data including the percentage smoothness of both categories i.e.
over production and under production. The category of overproduction being serious in nature
has been smoothened to an extant of 92% with control on 12 items (0.6% of total varieties).

                                    Table 5 Optimization Results

Production         Total Produced Quantity                     Optimized Quantity                Percentage
Detail          No. of         Quantity                 No. of           Quantity                Contribution
                Products                                Products
Over            41             353971                   12               326937                  92%
Production
Under           135                 608547              23                  277961               28%
Production
     Total      176                 962518              35                  704898               73%

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this competitive globalization, almost all the manufacturing organizations realize the value of
on time delivery of their products to market or stockholders. The amount of product varieties was
found under production to be tune of 67%, over production 20% and remaining 13% production
just matching with the actual plans giving rise to huge build up of inventories all around. This
also results in non compliance of deliveries and thereby an unsatisfied customer. Under
production is the confirmation of living in dreams while it is quiet evident that the planned data
is much beyond capacities and therefore away from realm. This statement is further confirmed

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by the fact that the data depicts 62% of quantities produced are underproduction as compared
with planned production. The situation is not so serious except that there is extra amount of
burden for procurement to cater the needs of the planned production. Similarly, the fate of over
production is also bad as it results in build up of unnecessary inventories either in the form of
WIP or finished goods. This is contrary to fundamental principles of Lean Manufacturing. The
amount of over production is to the tune of 36% of the item produced. The co-efficient of
variation when applied to this situation optimizes the given data in a fashion that mere strict
control of 9 % of the items produced can provide smoothness up to 38% and further control of
8% of items can remove waviness up to 35%. Therefore, the overall results can be improved up
to 73% by controlling 35 items as given in the table above.

REFERENCES

   1. Dilworth, J. B., (1993). “Production and Operations Management: Manufacturing and
      Services”. Mc-Graw Hill Publication, 4th Edition.
   2. Grewal C.S. and Sareen K.K. (2006). “Development of model for lean improvement: A
      case study of automobile industry”. Industrial Engineering Journal, Vol. 35(5), pp. 24-
      27.
   3. Hines, P., Rich, N. & Esain, A. (1997). "Creating a Lean Supplier Network: A
      Distribution Industry Case". Proceedings of the Logistics Research Network Conference,
      Huddersfield, U.K.: University of Huddersfield, pp. 60-77.
   4. Khare, S. (2006). “Optimizing the Organization: Unleashing the potential of practices,
      processes and people”. Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp.
      2-10.
   5. Kobayashi, I. (1998). “20 Keys to Workplace Improvement”. Productivity Press,
      Cambridge, revised edition, MA.
   6. Ohno, T. (1988). "Toyota Production system: Beyond Large Scale Production".
      Productivity Press, Cambridge, MA.
   7. Pavnaskar, S.J., Gershenso, J.K and Jambekar, A.B. (2003). "Classification scheme for
      lean manufacturing tools”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 41, pp.
      3075-3090.
   8. Sardana, S., Kumar, R., Bajwa, M. and Gulati, P. (2011). “Application of SPC tool for
      finding variation in the Process Output (A Case Study)”. International Journal of
      Industrial Engineering Research and Development, ISSN: 0976-6987, Vol. 2, Iss. 1,
      May-Oct., 2011, pp. 46-58.
   9. Schroeder, R. G., (1993). “Operations Management: Decision making in the Operations
       Function”, Mc-Graw Hill Publication, 4th Edition.
   10. Stevenson, W.J. (1996). “Production and Operations Management”, Irwin McGraw-Hill,
       5th ed., New York.
   11. Womack, J.P., and D.T. Jones, “From Lean production to the Lean Enterprise”, Harvard
       Business Review, pp. 93-103(1994).




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Annexure 1: Planned Production V/S Actual Performance from time period of January to June, 2012

                        January         February             March                April                 May                 June
Sr. No. Part No.
                   Plan      Actual   Plan    Actual   Plan      Actual    Plan       Actual     Plan     Actual     Plan      Actual
  1      3558      7304      1458     10708   1260     15448     3144      7000           2485   7582         3726   6956          2828
  2      3504      4848      2574     9078    5286     12292     4000      8000           3594   11956        4650   12256         7240
  3      3543      4020      1074     7946     984     10962     2334      5000           2946   4554         2340   4364          2742
  4      3712      12964     10124    17846   12799    22547     13024     18023      20688      18835    16700      8385          9538
  5      6222      2770      1280     6290    2450     7340      3340      5000           2650   4380         1980   4100          3076
  6      3542      5350      2820     5732     672     9560      2568      4000           5134   1986         1992   1644          1506
  7      3510      852        84      2070      0      4870      1132      2000           780    2770         1218   3562           0
  8      3549      4758      2244     6214    1218     11496     4170      4000           4482   2522         3384   2138          2882
  9      3371      3840           0    0        0      4100      1188      5412           612    100          247    100           156
  10     6201       0             0   2000      0      4000          0     1500            0     1500          0     1500           0
  11     3407      400            0   1400      0      1400          0     1900            0     2350          0     2900           0
  12     4119      600            0   1100     68      1032          0     1332            0     1732         50     1982          152
  13     3519      606            0   906      396     510           0     2910           828    4682         1866   2816          2814
  14     4134      800            0   1300      0      1300          0     1300            0     1550         324    1376          860
  15     3329      400            0   900       0      900           0     1100            0     1500         84     1816          686
  16     6203      3000      1919     5439    2318     2382      1338      1644           1296   948          719    229           299
  17     3727      6290      2164     8224    4730     8494      6810      3500           6564   2430         2388   5158          5798
  18     4123      400            0   900       0      900           0     1100            0     1340         100    1440          392
  19     4122      600            0   1100      0      1100          100   1000            0     1120         128    1192          404
  20     3720      5220      3400     6850    4130     6830      3440      9090           8610   3000         5121   3279          4090
  21     6225       0         188     2000      0      500           0     2000           936    1764          0     1764          1431
  22     3380      1800           0    0        0      700           0     2200            0     800          420    780           684
  23     6202      3000      1758     6116    2981     2426      1440      1886           1942   600          542     58           450
  24     4136      600            0   1100      0      1100          0     1100            0     1600         876    1024          811
  25     4127      600            0   1100      0      1100          0     1500           494    1206         492    714           582
  26     3528      1000           0   3050     717     933           0     1000           813    187           0      0             0
  27     3366      1520      1144     1880     192     2688      1280      1000           456    1344         1512   532           292
  28     3367      1090       330     2260     800     2460          730   1000           1262   538          450    788           650
  29     3526      1500           0   3000    1177     323           113   350            200    150          18      0             0
  30     6151      4000      3731     5586    2994      0        1892      358            511    2647          0     2647          2302
  31     3435      728        240      0        0      1000          0     2500           444     0            0     600           354
  32     4126      600            0   1100     100     1000          244   956            388    768          332    436           204
  33     3344      880        278      0        0      1032          0     2032            0     750          960    990           876
  34     3379      1300           0    0        0      600           0     1100            0     750          480    470           264
  35     3457       0             0   400       0      800           0     400             0     800           0     1200          144
  36     3455       0             0   400       0      800           0     400             0     800           0     1200          156
  37     3473       0             0   400       0      800           0     400             0     800           0     1200          186
  38     3598      500        258     742      180     1062          474   500             0     1000          0     1500          1146
  39     3527      700            0   2250     413     637           332   500            409     91           0      0             0
  40     3513      1000           0   2000    1280     720           88     0              0      0            0     2000          1368
  41     3512      730            0   1730     924     806           0      0              0      0            0     2000          1449
  42     3569      1310       90       0        0      150           0     650             0     450           0     550           174




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 43    3358    1480    280     0       0     220     0     1020     0      800    384     816    828
 44    6284    5716   5588    5132   3612    3120   3072   3048    1946     0      0      0       0
 45    3423    2200    880     0       0     1000    60     940    408      0      0      0       0
 46    6282    400      0     3600   2872    1198   841     957    597    1560    640    1520    1507
 47    6145    6718   4604    3215   2038     0      98     352    856    1000    816     684    786
 48    6278    500      0     1000     0     1500   800     300     0      300    110     190    170
 49    6160     0       0     300      0     600     0      600     0      600     0      600     0
 50    3472     0       0     400      0     800     0      400    192     608     0     1008    372
 51    6171    1634   1180     0       0     780    396    1234     72      0      0     1000    456
 52    4120    400      0     400     68     332     0      332     0      582     72     810    192
 53    3599    500     306    696     306    890    306     500    294     706     0     1206    836
 54    3715    1040    590    820     270    550     0      800    920    1680    1290   2740    2166
 55    6170    1980   1100     0       0     2320   360    4460    3980     0     984     0       0
 56    3751    860     540    1570    910    1760   700     500    610     900    790    1110    950
 57    3453     0       0     400      0     800     0      400     0      800    390     810    654
 58    3221    700      0     1200    575    1125    0      625    900     725    875     350    275
 59    3570    800     354     0       0     500     0     1000    348     200     36     264     0
 60    3520     0       0      0       0      0      0     2000     0       0      0      0       0
 61    3536     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0     2000     0
 62    4135    400      0     900     116    784    220     564    464     300    180     220    260
 63    3383    1000    429    2400    937    63      0      550    721      0      0      0       0
 64    6236     0       0      0       0      0      0      600     0      600     0     1200    486
 65    3337    400      0      0       0     500     0     1000     0       0      0      0       0
 66    3748     0       0     500      0     1500   324    1676    1602    122    108     600    522
 67    6228    775     905     0       0     2000   300    1700    1477    223     0      223    409
 68    3357    730     280     0       0     500     0     1000    300      0      0      0       0
 69    6198    1200    258    950     290    652    654      0      0       0      0      0       0
 70    3726    620     610    700     460    1440   190     900    750     800    830     570    620
 71    6169    2700   1780     0       0     2560   1652   1408    1500     0     180     0       0
 72    6215    1383    297    2586   2509    359    841      0      0      431     0      431     0
 73    3280    4920   4920    6810   6180    6630   4490   8640    8464   8276    8576   6200    7338
 74    6237    100      0      0       0     380     0      980    600     380     0     1280    1153
 75    3227    700     600     0       0     380     0      780    792     500    216     884    288
 76    6135     0       0     200      0     500     0      500    336     164     0      164     0
 77    6235    359      0      0       0     680     0      680    536     144    143     0       0
 78    3732    400      0      0       0     500     0      500    228      0      0      0       0
 79    3103    620     250     0       0     550    252    1098    684     300    264     0       0
 80    6157    2400   2129    270     160    750    589     161     80     981    758     523    255
 81    3107     0       0     500      0     500     0      500    420      0      0      0       0
 82    6269    200      0     176     504    183     0      183    243     410    291     909     0
 83    6259     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      500     0      800    288
 84    3232     0       0     300      0     300     0     2800    2400     0      0      0       0
 85    6161     0       0     200     200    200    200     200    200     200    200     200    200
 86    3101    500      0     200      0     1200   996    1050    984      0      0      0       0
 87    6289     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0     2502    1631    871    804
 88    3252    600     610    200      0     700     0     1100    1064    200    192     0       0



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 89    3208    930     250     0       0     500    288     612    600      0      0      0       0
 90    6156     0       0     100      0     250     75     525    520     530     0      530    442
 91    3354    1250    370     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 92    3562    400      0     500     378    1522   954     736    930     100     0      0      120
 93    3730     0       0     800     800     0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 94    3267    500     480     0       0     500     0      900    624      0      0      0       0
 95    3733    140      0     140      0     140    117     23      0       0      0      460     0
 96    6227     0       0      0       0     122     0     1922    1630    292     0     3292    3231
 97    3240    5064   4800    7264   4840    7424   8020   2404    2690   2300    3220   1080    1220
 98    3417     10      0      0       0      0      0      700    130     570    470     0       0
 99    6211     0       0     300      0     300     0      300     0      300    528     0       0
 100   3343    2080   1712     0       0     100     0      100     0      100     0      100    102
 101   6175    1389    799    590     463    727    662     322    591      0      0      150     0
 102   3735    140      0     140      0     140     67     73      66      0      0      300     0
 103   3364     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      500    136     864    600
 104   6194     0       0     5000   4572    428    229     199     0     5500    5379    0      386
 105   3418     68      0      0       0      0      0      500     0      500    492     0      42
 106   4129     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      200     16     334     0
 107   3262    1000    770    1230   1080    1150   1030     0      0       0      0      0       0
 108   3263    500     500     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 109   3456    500     500     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 110   3345    800     720     0       0      0      0      500     0       0      0      0      84
 111   3729     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      600    132
 112   4314    1096    996    3000   2880    12     288    3324    2976   1084    945    3139    3108
 113   3365     0       0      0       0                     0      0      500    376     624    310
 114   6127     0       0     100      0     100     0      500    576     600    324     676    646
 115   3382     0       0      0       0      0      0      750    425     325    175     0      59
 116   3511    4906   3906    5710   5562    5798   4080   1000    3966    648    1086   3412    2466
 117   3226    400     400     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 118   3360    400     400     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 119   3361    400     400     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 120   3736     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      200    200     200    200
 121   3128    1000    600     0       0      0      0      500    504      0      0      0       0
 122   6186    170     100    170     180     0      0       0      0      260     0      260    204
 123   3419     32      0      0       0      0      0      300     0      300    240     0      36
 124   6178     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      300    300     50     50
 125   3725    860     520     0       0      0      10      0      0       0      0      0       0
 126   6162     0       0     1810   1218    592    806      0      0      150    203     0       0
 127   3260    120      0      0       0     500    488     512    324      0      0      0       0
 128   3749     0       0     1000    950    1550   1470   1080    990     880    680    1200    1310
 129   6154    3289   2616    673     710     0     339      0      0       0      0      0       0
 130   3317    700     444     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 131   3721    950    1090    800     710    890    870     720    720     700    500    1200    1130
 132   6261     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      200     0      200    163
 133   3228    130      0      0       0      0      0      500    396      0      0      0       0
 134   3229    300      0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0      72



                                             84
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

 135   4133    600      0     1100    756    444    270     174    635      0     442     0       0
 136   3427     0       0      0       0     200    200      0      0       0      0      0       0
 137   6184     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      100     0      500    400
 138   6240     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      500    300
 139   3424    1400   1206     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 140   3234    760     830    500     200    300     70    1730    2060    820    780    1050    1036
 141   3246    500     485    200     144    56      0      56      0       0      0      0       0
 142   6131    150     160    300     240    60      0      60      0       0      0      119    120
 143   6283    7652   5568    6084   7310    2880   3516   5764    5685     0     132     0       0
 144   3452    500     340     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 145   3438     0       0      0       0     150     0      150    180      0      0      300    288
 146   4117     0       0      0       0     50      50     50      50     50      50     0       0
 147   3484     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      100    100
 148   3416     70     70      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 149   6193     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0     2000    2000
 150   3102     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      500    500     0       0
 151   6144    1100    900    350     550     0      0       0      0       0      0      300    300
 152   3476    260     260     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 153   3175    200     200     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 154   3353    180     180     0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 155   3475    1600   1836     0       0     224     0      224    212      0      0      0       0
 156   6260     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      500    500     0       0
 157   3251     0       0      0       0     150    150      0      0       0      0      0       0
 158   3350     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      400    400     0       0
 159   3351     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      600    600     0       0
 160   3737     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      150    150     0       0
 161   6204    300     300    220     80      0      80      0      0       0      0      240    300
 162   6212     0       0     1500   1500    1000   1000     0      0       0      0      0       0
 163   3241     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      50     60
 164   6138    180     220    200      0     200    192      8     192      0      0      0       0
 165   6268    500     248    270     543     0      0       0      0       0      0      0       0
 166   4115     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      52      0      0      0       0
 167   6190     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      91     150     0      150    265
 168   4309     0       0      0       0      0      0       0     100      0      0      0       0
 169   3714     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0      25      0      0      140
 170   4321    1000    920    2000   1950     0      0      600     0       0      0      500    1368
 171   6257     0      25      0      60      0      0       0      0       0      50     0      20
 172   4128     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0     156     0       0
 173   4113     0       0      0       0     100     0      100    100     100    210     0      156
 174   6124     0       0     200     144    56      0      56     192      0      0      48     192
 175   6136     0       0     200     180    20      0      20     120      0      0      80     192
 176   3129     0       0      0       0      0      0       0      0       0      0      0      180
 177   3244     0       0     300     300     0      0       0      0       0      0      730    918
 178   6279     0       0      0      100     0      0       0      0       0      0      0      93
 179   4118     0       0      0       0      0      0       0     200      0      0      0       0
 180   6216     0       0     300     430     0      75      0      0       0      0      0       0



                                             85
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

 181    6229     959          1077        0         220         0          0        0             0     0        0      1200     1093
 182    3316    1100           680        0          0         150         0       650          528     6        0        0       948
 183    6132      0             0        300        216        84          60       24            0     0        0       84       476
 184    3700      0             0         0          0          0          0        0           168    932      960       0       72
 185    3176      0             0         0          0          0          0        0             0     0        0        0       276
 186    6158      0             0         0         291         0          0        0             0     0        0        0        0
 187    3245      0             0        200        204         0          0        0             0     0        0       539      828
 188    6143    2300          2380       920        1055       565         619     546          635   1200     1055      745      857
 189    3713      0             0         0          0          0          0        0             0     0       354       0        0
 190    3224     300           810        0          0          0          0        0             0     0        0        0        0
 191    3247     150           150        0          0          0          0        0             0     0        0        0       648
 192    3900    4522          4160       5000       4416      7234     5328        9306      11481    4325     4848     2627     4018
 193    3220      0           1560       1740       1296       84          0        84          236     0        0      3050     3360
 194    6133    1000          1830       2040       2796        8          0        8             0     0        0        0        0
 195    3711    6124          6286       7428       7650      8278     5198        9000      11402    8598     9740     1858     2824
 196    6288      0             0         0          0          0          0        0             0   2080     4704       0       648
 197    3289    4192          4872       2000       2769      4520     6334         0             0     0        0      1000     1152
 198    3728    8820          7554      13266       14511     8795     9120        6675      7840     5680     7416     4714     5414
 199    4315     270          3780       1600       1331       270         420      0             0     0        0        0       552
 200    6241    3140          4470       8170       8210      7460     7780        5080      8280     1850     3206     3244     3636
 201    6213    5000          4770        0         1798        0          0      12300      13099      0        0      7200     11668
 202    3601      0           4050       200        975         0      3750        6250      7512     5800     5600     4200     4055
 203    6226    5000          3921        0         2220     11114     20147      16167      16595    15500    21560    2200     2789
Total           222168        154119    252657   158864      267603    154674     248765    209795    187781   151738   175828   150656




               Annexure 2 Planned V/s Actual Production: Production at Par Optimization


                      Sr.            Product Code        Plan Production         Actual Production
                      No.
                         1.             6204                    760                        760
                         2.             6161                    1000                       1000
                         3.             3730                    800                        800
                         4.             3263                    500                        500
                         5.             3456                    500                        500
                         6.             3226                    400                        400
                         7.             3360                    400                        400
                         8.             3361                    400                        400
                         9.             3736                    400                        400
                       10               3427                    200                        200
                       11.              3484                    100                        100
                       12.              3416                     70                        70
                       13.              3251                    150                        150
                       14.              3350                    400                        400
                       15.              3351                    600                        600




                                                               86
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

                   16.              3737                     150                      150
                   17.              6212                  2500                        2500
                   18.              6178                     350                      350
                   19.              4117                     150                      150
                   20.              6193                  2000                        2000
                   21.              3102                     500                      500
                   22.              6144                  1750                        1750
                   23.              3476                     260                      260
                   24.              3175                     200                      200
                   25.              3353                     180                      180
                   26.              3475                  2048                        2048
                   27.              6260                     500                      500

                                   Total                  17268                       17268




    Annexure 3: Analysis of Planned V/s Actual Production: Underproduction Optimization

  Sr. No.   Code                Total            Deviation         Average   Deviation      %age           Cumulative
                         Plan           Actual                      Prod      in days       Contribution     %age

    1       3558     54998              14901     40097             2484       -484             9.08          9.08
    2       3504     58430              27344     31086             4557       -205             7.04         16.12
    3       3543     36846              12420     24426             2070       -354             5.53         21.65
    4       3712     98600              82873     15727             13812       -34             3.56         25.21
    5       6222     29880              14776     15104             2463       -184             3.49          28.7
    6       3542     28272              14692     13580             2449       -166             3.07         31.77
    7       3510     16124              3214      12910              536       -723             2.94         34.71
    8       3549     31128              18380     12748             3063       -125             2.89          37.6
    9       3371     13552              2203      11349              367       -927             2.56         40.16
    10      6201     10500                0       10500              0          0               2.39         42.55
    11      3407     10350                0       10350              0          0               2.34         44.89
    12      4119         7778            270       7508              45       -5005             1.69         46.58
    13      3519     12430              5904       6526              984       -199             1.52          48.1
    14      4134         7626           1184       6442              197       -979             1.45         49.55
    15      3329         6616            770       5846              128      -1367             1.36         50.91
    16      6203     13642              7889       5753             1315       -131             1.30         52.21
    17      3727     34096              28454      5642             4742        -36             1.27         53.48
    18      4123         6080            492       5588              82       -2044             1.26         54.74
    19      4122         6112            632       5480              105      -1561             1.24         55.98
    20      3720     34269              28791      5478             4799        -34             1.23         57.21
    21      6225         8028           2555       5473              426       -386             1.23         58.44
    22      3380         6280           1104       5176              184       -844             1.17         59.61
    23      6202     14086              9113       4973             1519        -98             1.12         60.73
    24      4136         6524           1687       4837              281       -516             1.09         61.82



                                                          87
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

   25       4127      6220     1568      4652        261    -534       1.07        62.89
   26       3528      6170     1530      4640        255    -546       1.05        63.94
   27       3366      8964     4876      4088        813    -151       0.95        64.89
   28       3367      8136     4222      3914        704    -167       0.92        65.81
   29       3526      5323     1508      3815        251    -455       0.88        66.69
   30       6151     15238     11430     3808        1905    -60       0.86        67.55
   31       3435      4828     1038      3790        173    -657       0.85        68.4
   32       4126      4860     1268      3592        211    -510       0.82        69.22
   33       3344      5684     2114      3570        352    -304       0.80        70.02
   34       3379      4220      744      3476        124    -841       0.79        70.81
   35       3457      3600      144      3456        24     -4320      0.78        71.59
   36       3455      3600      156      3444        26     -3974      0.78        72.37
   37       3473      3600      186      3414        31     -3304      0.77        73.14
   38       3598      5304     2058      3246        343    -284       0.74        73.88
   39       3527      4178     1154      3024        192    -472       0.69        74.57
   40       3513      5720     2736      2984        456    -196       0.68        75.25
   41       3512      5266     2373      2893        396    -219       0.66        75.91
   42       3569      3110      264      2846        44     -1940      0.64        76.55
   43       3358      4336     1492      2844        249    -343       0.64        77.19
   44       6284     17016     14218     2798        2370    -35       0.63        77.82
   45       3423      4140     1348      2792        225    -373       0.63        78.45
   46       6282      9235     6457      2778        1076    -77       0.62        79.07
   47       6145     11969     9198      2771        1533    -54       0.62        79.69
   48       6278      3790     1080      2710        180    -452       0.61        80.3
   49       6160      2700       0       2700         0       0        0.61        80.91
   50       3472      3216      564      2652        94     -846       0.60        81.51
   51       6171      4648     2104      2544        351    -218       0.59        82.1
   52       4120      2856      332      2524        55     -1368      0.57        82.67
   53       3599      4498     2048      2450        341    -215       0.55        83.22
   54       3715      7630     5236      2394        873     -82       0.54        83.76
   55       6170      8760     6424      2336        1071    -65       0.52        84.28
   56       3751      6700     4500      2200        750     -88       0.49        84.77
   57       3453      3210     1044      2166        174    -373       0.49        85.26
   58       3221      4725     2625      2100        438    -144       0.47        85.73
   59       3570      2764      738      2026        123    -494       0.45        86.18
   60       3520      2000       0       2000         0       0        0.45        86.63
   61       3536      2000       0       2000         0       0        0.45        87.08
   62       4135      3168     1240      1928        207    -280       0.43        87.51
   63       3383      4013     2087      1926        348    -166       0.43        87.94
   64       6236      2400      486      1914        81     -709       0.43        88.37
   65       3337      1900       0       1900         0       0        0.43        88.8
   66       3748      4398     2556      1842        426    -130       0.41        89.21
   67       6228      4921     3091      1830        515    -107       0.41        89.62




                                                88
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

   68       3357      2230      580      1650        97     -512       0.37        89.99
   69       6198      2802     1202      1600        200    -240       0.36        90.35
   70       3726      5030     3460      1570        577     -82       0.35        90.7
   71       6169      6668     5112      1556        852     -55       0.35        91.05
   72       6215      5190     3647      1543        608     -76       0.34        91.39
   73       3280     41476     39968     1508        6661    -7        0.35        91.74
   74       6237      3120     1753      1367        292    -140       0.33        92.07
   75       3227      3244     1896      1348        316    -128       0.30        92.37
   76       6135      1528      336      1192        56     -639       0.27        92.64
   77       6235      1863      679      1184        113    -314       0.27        92.91
   78       3732      1400      228      1172        38     -925       0.26        93.17
   79       3103      2568     1450      1118        242    -139       0.25        93.42
   80       6157      5085     3971      1114        662     -50       0.25        93.67
   81       3107      1500      420      1080        70     -463       0.24        93.91
   82       6269      2061     1038      1023        173    -177       0.23        94.14
   83       6259      1300      288      1012        48     -633       0.22        94.36
   84       3232      3400     2400      1000        400     -75       0.22        94.58
   85       3101      2950     1980      970         330     -88       0.22        94.8
   86       6289      3373     2435      938         406     -69       0.21        95.01
   87       3252      2800     1866      934         311     -90       0.21        95.22
   88       3208      2042     1138      904         190    -143       0.21        95.43
   89       6156      1935     1037      898         173    -156       0.20        95.63
   90       3354      1250      370      880         62     -428       0.19        95.82
   91       3562      3258     2382      876         397     -66       0.19        96.01
   92       3267      1900     1104      796         184    -130       0.18        96.19
   93       3733      903       117      786         20     -1209      0.18        96.37
   94       6227      5628     4861      767         810     -28       0.17        96.54
   95       3240     25536     24790     746         4132    -5        0.16        96.7
   96       3417      1280      600      680         100    -204       0.16        96.86
   97       6211      1200      528      672         88     -229       0.16        97.02
   98       3343      2480     1814      666         302     -66       0.15        97.17
   99       6175      3178     2515      663         419     -47       0.15        97.32
   100      3735      793       133      660         22     -893       0.14        97.46
   101      3364      1364      736      628         123    -154       0.14        97.6
   102      6194     11127     10566     561         1761    -10       0.13        97.73
   103      3418      1068      534      534         89     -180       0.13        97.86
   104      4129      534       16       518          3     -5828      0.12        97.98
   105      3262      3380     2880      500         480     -31       0.12        98.1
   106      3345      1300      804      496         134    -111       0.11        98.21
   107      3729      600       132      468         22     -638       0.11        98.32
   108      4314     11655     11193     462         1866    -7        0.10        98.42
   109      3365      1124      686      438         114    -115       0.10        98.52
   110      6127      1976     1546      430         258     -50       0.09        98.61




                                                89
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

   111          3382      1075         659        416         110         -114          0.09      98.7
   112          3511     21474        21066       408         3511         -3           0.09      98.79
   113          3128      1500         1104       396         184          -65          0.08      98.87
   114          6186         860       484        376          81         -140          0.08      98.95
   115          3419         632       276        356          46         -232          0.08      99.03
   116          3725         860       530        330          88         -112          0.08      99.11
   117          6162      2552         2227       325         371          -26          0.07      99.18
   118          3260      1132         812        320         135          -71          0.07      99.25
   119          3749      5710         5400       310         900          -10          0.07      99.32
   120          6154      3962         3665       297         611          -15          0.06      99.38
   121          3317         700       444        256          74         -104          0.06      99.44
   122          3721      5260         5020       240         837          -9           0.06      99.5
   123          6261         400       163        237          27         -262          0.05      99.55
   124          3228         630       396        234          66         -106          0.05      99.6
   125          3229         300        72        228          12         -570          0.05      99.65
   126          4133      2318         2103       215         351          -18          0.04      99.69
   127          6184         600       400        200          67          -90          0.04      99.73
   128          6240         500       300        200          50         -120          0.04      99.77
   129          3424      1400         1206       194         201          -29          0.04      99.81
   130          3234      5160         4976       184         829          -7           0.04      99.85
   131          3246         812       629        183         105          -52          0.04      99.89
   132          6131         689       520        169          87          -59          0.03      99.92
   133          6283     22380        22211       169         3702         -1           0.03      99.95
   134          3452         500       340        160          57          -85          0.03      99.98
   135          3438         600       468        132          78          -51          0.02      100
  Total                 1050366       608547     441819




          Annexure 4: Analysis of Planned V/s Actual Production: Overproduction Optimization
                       Total
Sr. No.      Code                  Deviation   Average    Deviation in   %age        Cumulative    Sr. No.
                                                Prod         days      Contributio     %age
                                                                           n
  1          3241       50            60         10           10           30           0.01        0.01
  2          6138       588          604         16           101          5            0.02        0.04
  3          6268       770          791         21           132          5            0.03        0.07
  4          4115        0            52         52            9          180           0.08        0.15
  5          6190       300          356         56           59           28           0.08        0.23
  6          4309        0           100         100          17          180           0.15        0.38
  7          3714       25           140         115          23          148           0.17        0.55
  8          4321      4100          4238        138          706          6            0.21        0.76
  9          6257        0           155         155          26          180           0.23        0.99
  10         4128        0           156         156          26          180           0.23        1.22
  11         4113       300          466         166          78           64           0.25        1.47
  12         6124       360          528         168          88           57           0.25        1.72



                                                         90
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2012), © IAEME

  13     6136       320       492       172          82      63        0.26          1.98
  14     3129        0        180       180          30      180       0.27          2.25
  15     3244       1030      1218      188         203      28        0.28          2.53
  16     6279        0        193       193          32      180       0.29          2.82
  17     4118        0        200       200          33      180        0.3          3.12
  18     6216       300       505       205          84      73        0.31          3.43
  19     6229       2159      2390      231         398      17        0.35          3.77
  20     3316       1906      2156      250         359      21        0.37          4.15
  21     6132       492       752       260         125      62        0.39          4.53
  22     3700       932       1200      268         200      40         0.4          4.94
  23     3176        0        276       276          46      180       0.41          5.35
  24     6158        0        291       291          49      180       0.44          5.78
  25     3245       739       1032      293         172      51        0.44          6.22
  26     6143       6276      6601      325         1100     9         0.49          6.71
  27     3713        0        354       354          59      180       0.53          7.24
  28     3224       300       810       510         135      113       0.76           8
  29     3247       150       798       648         133      146       0.97          8.97
  30     3900      33014     34251      1237        5709     7         1.85         10.82
  31     3220       4958      6452      1494        1075     42        2.23         13.05
  32     6133       3056      4626      1570        771      61        2.35          15.4
  33     3711      41286     43100      1814        7183     8         2.71         18.11
  34     6288       2080      5352      3272        892      110       4.89         23.01
  35     3289      11712     15127      3415        2521     41        5.11         28.12
  36     3728      47950     51855      3905        8643     14        5.84         33.96
  37     4315       2140      6083      3943        1014     117        5.9         39.85
  38     6241      28944     35582      6638        5930     34        9.93         49.78
  39     6213      24500     31335      6835        5223     39        10.22         60
  40     3601      16450     25942      9492        4324     66        14.2          74.2
  41     6226      49981     67232     17251        11205    46        25.8          100
 Total             287118    353971




                                               91

				
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