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```									        Hierarchical          TRIZ Algorithms
12th Installment- Apr 2006
Hierarchical TRIZ Algorithms is a how-to TRIZ book.                  It is designed to
assist both beginning and advanced users. Each month, the TRIZ-Journal will publish
another chapter of the book. This month’s installment includes the 10th step of the 10 step
algorithm (shown on the cover) :

J. Implement the Solution

In all, there were 12 installments. Should you decide to purchase the most current
edition of the complete book contact the publisher at:

http://www.3mpub.com/TRIZ/
J
Implement                                             A
Resolved                                                      the                                            Profitable
Contradictions                                                Solution                                          Product

Introduction
Do not make the mistake of building any of these                Combining Concepts
No idea, no matter how good it is, will implement itself.
prototype at great expense. It is almost an immutable law       Once we have refined the individual concepts, it is
Each concept is still quite vulnerable and must be handled
that the first prototypes will have serious flaws. Making       possible to create a “super product” by the
with diligence and discipline in order to make it into a
expensive prototypes can exhaust your resources.                combination of these individual concepts.
viable product.
Discouragement often sets in and the final product may
never materialize. For this reason, the these prototypes        Before doing this, some people find it useful to rank
Refining the Concept
should be as inexpensive as possible. Remember that the         the ideas against business and customer needs. This
If the TRIZ methodology has been followed, it is likely
purpose of these first prototypes is to convince you that all   gives an idea of the relative strength of each
that several concepts will have been generated. Each of
of the ideas work together.                                     concept. This method is often referred to as PUGH
these ideas can be further refined by making a succession
Concept selection. The front end of Quality
of drawings in your invention journal. Drawing successive
This next round of prototypes is to convince you that you       Function Deployment (QFD) also accomplishes the
drawings in which small improvements are made to
haven’t left anything out so that your invention is ready for   same purpose.
conserve space, weight and cost will help to refine the idea
to the point that you can build a more complete prototype.      patent filing. It will also be used to persuade prospective
customers that your idea is marketable. Because these           If adequate resources are available, a DOE can be
During this refinement, we can consider different
prototypes are more extensive, they may also be a little        performed. DOE stands for Design of Experiment
configurations and orientations of elements. We can also
more expensive.                                                 and is a favorite Six-Sigma tool for determining the
consider the partial or complete consolidation of similar
relative strength of various knobs. In this context
and dissimilar elements.           Folding elements into
In order to build prototypes, you will need materials and       we are interested in the relative strength of each
themselves and other elements can further refine the
tools. It is not necessary to have all tools and pieces on      concept and how much of each idea should be
product to decrease its size.
hand when you begin, but you will find this to be a big         combined into one final product. This can be
time saver. One helpful hint is to create a stockpile of        practically done by a two level DOE where the
Prototypes
parts, which can be readily modified to build prototypes.       concepts are combined in different combinations.
Since we have already created other prototypes, let us
Keep bins of raw materials such as small, medium and            This allows us to determine the combination of
review the purpose of each round. The purpose of the
large plastic, metal and wood parts. These storage bins         solutions that gives the most value to the customer
first round of prototypes was to help understand the
need not take over the workshop and they can be stocked         or the business. The beauty of a DOE is that a
relative importance of each knob. This was done in the
by taking apart unused or inoperative equipment from the        partial list of combinations can be tried rather than
cause-effect stage. The second round of prototypes was to
home or second-hand stores. Make it a practice to               the full compliment. The final output of the DOE is
verify that the solutions found by resolving the
disassemble second hand goods to create useful parts.           an equation that can be optimized to give the best
contradictions were viable and that there were no major
You will learn a lot about different manufacturing methods      “super product”. It is not the purpose of this text to
risks left. This was done in the resolve contradictions stage
and collect expensive parts at the same time.                   go into detail on how to set-up or perform a DOE
to determine whether there were more improvements                                                                                                                               J1
required.
Patents                                                            Selling or Licensing Your Idea                                  It is customary to ask for money up front. This
Assuming that the previous steps have been followed                Selling or licensing your idea can be an exhilarating and       money can be applied to the royalties. This is good
(including the patent search from Identifying Physical             discouraging experience. Now, you will be dealing with          for two reasons. First, this gives motivation to the
Phenomena) you are now ready to file a patent.                     people who have a monetary interest in their own business       manufacturer to make something of the product.
prospects. They may not be as encouraging as others have        Secondly, this gives some money to handle the costs
Two types of patents are considered: a provisional or              been. Potential customers can be manufacturers,                 of filing a non-provisional or traditional patent,
“poor man’s” patent and a non-provisional or regular               distributors or the final user. One way to license your         which can cost several thousand dollars.
patent. Congress created the provisional patent in the late        idea is to directly contact a manufacturing organization
90’s to help spur small business growth. A provisional             that makes related products or that has the same vendor         Commercializing
patent is basically a place holder for a filing date, since the    base to produce the product. Many manufacturing                 You may decide that you would rather manufacture
patent examiner will not even look at it until the regular         companies will be open to licensing your invention.             your invention yourself. (Admittedly, there is often
patent is filed. (It can also serve as a substitute for building                                                                   more money to be made in this way. However, it is
working prototypes, also called “reduction to practice”).          Most of the time, you will be trying to sell or license your    assumed that most people who would use the full
The provisional patent must include sufficient detail that         invention from afar. This is difficult since the most           TRIZ approach described in this book will more
someone “skilled in the art” could build your invention.           effective persuasion usually comes from personal contact.       likely find themselves licensing their inventions
While it is good practice to give as much detail as possible,      Consequently, the initial stages of selling your idea need to   rather than manufacturing them). At any rate,
do not worry about flowery legal wording and drawings.             be focused on getting you and your invention in the             whether you decide to manufacture the product or
Attach legible drawings and the cover-sheet provided               physical presence of the person that has the authority to       license it, there will usually be a need to “maintain”
through the USPTO web-site and pay a fee of about \$80.             make the decision. Most of the information that is passed       the invention. Remember, you know the most about
Provisional patents are in effect until one year from the          should have the intent of wetting the appetite. The             the invention. It is good business practice to
date of filing. They need to be converted to a regular             prospective buyer will have the alternate desire to weed        support the invention with free advice and problem
patent within the year or your invention is considered to be       out the good ideas and will be trying to get as much            solving. You will find that this will open the way
abandoned. One strategy is to first, file a provisional            information as possible before a personal sales contact.        for future work if you do not simply leave your
patent and then license the idea. Part of the business             One way around this dilemma is to create a sales brochure       invention on their doorstep. The company will
agreement is up-front money which can be used to file the          that tells just enough to get the vision across, but leaves     know that you are a good source of ideas because
non-provisional patent via a patent attorney or agent.             much to the imagination. Another reason to have a sales         you continue to provide support.
brochure is that prototypes are often poor tools for creating
Traditional patents are much more expensive. If you are            a vision.                                                       A few final ideas about inventing for profit. Do not
in business for yourself, it is usually difficult to justify the                                                                   get to wrapped up in one idea. You can afford to
expense of a non-provisional patent, before the market has         If the prospective buyer is interested, arrange a personal      throw away a few good ideas. You now have an
proven itself. On the other hand, most large companies             visit to discuss the invention and possible business            infinite source of ideas. Do not throw away good
have greater resources and therefore rarely bother with the        arrangements. In order to talk freely with the company          friendships over inventing. Again, you can afford to
added time and effort of a provisional patent.                     representatives, it is usually necessary to enter into an       throw away or give away a few good ideas. If your
agreement which will limit what either or both parties may      business model is not working, try new approaches.
When you have established a filing date, you are now               do with the information that they will receive. Ask the         Find a mentor that can help you with the business
patent pending. Write patent pending on your prototypes.           company representative what they would prefer and then          side of things. The important thing is to hone a
You are now free to sell, license or manufacture your              consider the risks to yourself and your future prospects        business model that allows you to invent and create
invention. Understand that you are still at some risk that         before signing.                                                 cash flow that will empower you with more time
someone else has already patented the idea. Your degree                                                                            and resources to invent.
of risk is directly related to the depth of your patent            If the company is willing to license the product, it is
searching and to how close your invention is to other              expected that a business agreement will be entered into.
related patents.                                                   Such agreements can be found through legal consultation
or on the web. Modify these to suit your needs.                                                                J2
Simplified
Make a Succession                                                            Combine the                                           Build and Test
of Improved Drawings                                                            Solutions                                           Cheap Prototypes

Journal

1. Record Ideas as drawings in Journal                              When several solutions are found,                           The first prototypes are used to
2. Refine ideas by drawing successive                               consider different ways that they can                       determine whether the ideas will work.
pictures                                                         be combined. Especially if the ideal                        As such, they should only include the
3. Perform calculations to establish                                solution is not created.                                    basic elements necessary to convince
drawing details                                                                                                              you that the idea will work.

Document and                                 File for                                Public Test of                                Commercialize the
Witness the Invention                           Patents                                  Prototypes                                      Product

Patent

Journal

1. Document the invention in            1. If money is tight, consider a             1. Build refined prototypes                 1. Find a business that makes similar
your journal.                           provisional patent. This gives one        2. Write “Patent Pending”            on     products and has a suitable vendor base
2. Have two reliable witnesses             year protection to further test the          everything that the public can see.      2. License the invention
sign that they understand               invention and to sell it.                 3. Conduct public testing of the            Or
and have seen the invention          2. Within the year, convert this to a           prototypes.                              Begin plans to manufacture your own
reduced to practice.                    traditional or non-provisional            4. Continue to log test ideas and           product
3. Date all entries.                       patent.                                      results in the journal.

J3
Detailed                                   Fold Elements Into
Themselves and Other Parts
Consolidate Multiple
Like Elements
Consolidate
Unlike Elements

Refine the Concept
Evolution of systems also dictates that
--------                          One of the greatest disadvantages that                                                unlike elements will also be
Make a Succession of                      many concepts have is a large            An essential and unavoidable part of        consolidated. Each element in the
envelope or volume. This can create       the evolution of systems is that           system should take on as many
Improved Drawings                         problems in a variety of ways.            multiplied    objects     will    be       functions as possible. This ultimately
• Is there a requirement that the       consolidated into single elements. It      leads to consolidation of parts.
article be transported during or      may be that only part of each           1. Update the functional diagram of the
Journal                 after manufacture? Must the           element will be consolidated. An           system.
user of the article move it about     example of this is a gattling gun.      2. Consider how each part might take on
during normal use? Will its size      The gun had multiple barrels which         the function of other parts. What part
Permutate the                            be a hindrance in transportation?     were consolidated into one barrel.         of the elements could be made to serve
Elements                             • Is there a requirement to store       This necessitated changes to the           all of the elements?
the article because it has            feed mechanisms.
ABC ACB BAC BCA CAB CBA                            intermittent use? Does it take up
excessive storage space?
Entire books have been written on the             • Is the article excessively large,
subject of recursively drawing ideas in             making it awkward during use?
order to “evolve” them.       Psychological   1. Consider how elements may be
inertia dictates that your idea can only be     temporarily folded up.
drawn as you see it in your mind. Up to
this point, you have seen your idea in only
The handles are consolidated into one
a few ways. In this step, we will consider
drawing the idea in a variety of ways over                                                Combined
Consolidated
and over until it is a good as we can                                                     (Partially                                       Document and
Consolidated)
imagine it.                                                                                                                              Witness the Concept
1. Draw the idea in your journal just as you                                               1. Are multiple like elements used in
see it in your mind.                                                                      the concept?      What would be
2. Draw it over and over, improving it each      2. Consider how elements may be             necessary in order that one element
time in some small way.                         permanently         folded     into       could take over for all of the                                    Journal
3. Determine whether parts MUST come in a          themselves.                               elements?
certain order. For instance, must one part    3. Does the article normally interact                                                1. Document the concept in your
2. What part of the multiplied
be inside of another, or can the order be       with other objects? Consider                                                          journal.
elements could be made to serve all
changed?                                        different orientations of     other                                                2. Have two reliable witnesses sign
of the elements?
4. If the order can be changed, draw the idea      elements which allow them to be                                                       that they understand and have seen
in different orientations. Do this over and     folded into one another?                                                              the invention reduced to practice.
over until it is as good as you can imagine                                                                                        3. Date all entries.
it.                                                                                                                                                                    J4
Stockpile Raw                        Learn How to Use                     Build and Test                       Document and
Prototype                          Materials                          Cheap Prototyping                   Cheap Prototypes                   Witness the Reduction
Individual                                                                Materials                                                               to Practice
Solutions
---
Reduce the Invention
to Practice                                                                                                                                                   Journal
The building of prototypes can
These prototypes are chiefly          Documenting          that    the
be frustrating or satisfying
1.  Become aware of local               used to convince you that the         invention has been “reduced
depending upon the resources
businesses that sell raw              parts work well together and          to     practice”     is   very
Build up                   which the inventor have at hand.
important.      This will be
While it is good to have raw          materials                             that there are no unforeseen
Your Tools                                                                                                                                    required later when the
material available in the form of   2. Buy and store the following          problems. As such, these
materials                             prototypes should only include        patent is submitted.
rods, tubes and blocks, there are
• Torn down parts from              the basic elements necessary to    1. Document the building and
many types of pre-used objects
other products                   convince you that the idea will       testing in your journal. The
that can be modified to form
• Fiberglass      resin    and      work. Keep this as cheap as           more information that is
prototype objects.      Excellent
Bondo™ (Available from           possible.                             written, the better. This
accessibility of these materials
auto parts stores)            1. Determine the minimum that            may be required later to
will     also     enhance     the
• Plywood and scrap wood            must be built to determine            prosecute your patent.
experience.
• Aluminum Sheet metal              whether the parts will all work    2. Sign and date the invention
1. Collect tools whenever the    1. Install bins which can be used to
• Lexan™ Plastic (now               together. It may be that you          in the journal.
opportunity arises. A huge       store the materials. Get several
available at hardware            only need to prototype a few       3. Have two reliable witnesses
and expensive workshop is        sizes, allowing you to stockpile
stores)                          elements together because the         sign and date an entry that
not usually necessary.           a variety of sizes and types of
• Plastic and metal tubing          working of the rest will be           indicates       that      they
One can begin with a             parts.
• Aluminum stock metal              obvious.                              understand the invention
modest investment of          2. Make it a common practice to
blocks, rods and sheets       2. Build and test the prototype.         and have seen the invention
common household tools.          disassemble      products     and
(Aluminum is a wonderful      3. Log detailed data of the              reduced to practice. These
2. Add to these tools as            stockpile the parts.
material to work with            testing. It is allowable to test      witnesses       should      be
opportunities       present         • This allows you to see how
since it can be easily           the prototype in public as long       sufficiently competent to
themselves.                           other products are
worked with many hand            as you are doing it for               understand the workings of
3. Learn how to use these                manufactured
tools)                           experimental purposes only.           the device. The witnesses
tools                               • This is a great source for
3. The local hardware store             This is not yet considered            should not be family
4. Following hand tools, the             odd parts like switches,
carries many items that can be        public use. Once you use it in        members or a co-inventor.
next round of tools can be            motors and fans
used to create prototypes.            public for your own pleasure          Make sure that it is
bought           relatively   3. Store the parts in a manner that
Thus it is not necessary to keep      or     convenience,      it   is      someone that you trust.
inexpensively                    is very accessible
a full supply of all possible         considered public use and must     4. Indicate that the material is
• grinders                  4. Use the parts. You will best
prototyping items on hand.            be patented within one year.          confidential, such as “I
• welders                      learn where they are and how to
confidentially       witnessed
• power saws                   use them if they are in constant
this invention. . .”
• Power screwdrivers           use.                                                                                                                                       J5
Document and
Combine                                          Combine                                     Optimize the
Witness the Reduction
Solutions                                 Combined Solutions
Solutions                                                                                                                                     to Practice

Rank Ideas Against Customer
DOE
and Business Needs                                                                                                                                               Journal

Continuing from the combine solution step,
PUGH or QFD                                       In many cases, only one good concept is
required which satisfies all of the
we need a strategy for combining the
solutions. If there are many possible
1. Document the testing of the
various combinations in your
requirements. Other cases require the          solutions, simply combining them all may             journal.     The mathematical
If you have used the full TRIZ format for                                                                                                                output of the DOE will support
highest performance or reliability             not be wise. This is because there is often
developing your ideas, it is highly likely that                                                                                                          the reduction to practice.
possible. If this is the case, a good          an “interaction” between the variables.
you will have several viable concepts. Each                                                                                                           2. Sign and date the invention in
tactic is to combine the solutions into a      The uninitiated will often suppose that
concept will have its advantages over the                                                                                                                the journal.
super-product which greatly extends the        simply combining solutions will give the
others. The advantages that are apparent are                                                                                                          3. Have two reliable witnesses
performance or reliability. This step          best result. Actually, the combining of
not inherent. It is still possible to improve                                                                                                            sign and date an entry that
sets us up to perform a Design of              certain solutions may make the
each concept. This step affords us the                                                                                                                   indicates that they understand
Experiment (DOE) as shown in the next          performance worse. This can be seen
opportunity to determine the relative                                                                                                                    the combination of inventions
step.                                          mathematically as an equation of combined
strengths and weaknesses. It also sets us up                                                                                                             and have witnessed the
1. Consider different ways that they can          variables such as X1 x X2.
to combine the solutions. A common                                                                                                                       outcome of the DOE.
be combined. Especially if the ideal         Up to now, mostly screening tests should
method for comparing ideas is referred to as                                                                                                          4. As with all witnessing, use
solution is not created.                       have been performed to determine rough
the Pugh selection method.             Quality                                                                                                           competent witnesses and have
2. Draw the combination possibilities             cause and effect. These screening tests are
Function Deployment (QFD) also uses a                                                                                                                    them sign and date the entries.
3. Consider ways to simplify the                  performed by changing one variable at a
similar step.
combinations        by     consolidating       time. In this step, we will purposely
1.Perform PUGH Selection techniques to
component parts.                               change several variables at a time. In
verify that customer needs are being met and
order to save time, we will not consider all
to get a comparison between concepts.
of the possibilities. This is the intent of the
A) Assign weights to different qualities of
DOE, to consider a reduced subset of the
the product, such as ease of use, weight,
total possibility of combinations. The
reliability, etc.
reader should find a good source which
B) For each of the invention concepts,
explains the DOE methodology.
assign a score in each of the categories.
1. Combine the concepts into two-level
C) Add the multiplication of the weight
DOEs.
and the scores to give an overall score
2. Perform the tests. The output of the DOE
for each concept.
will give sensitivities and interactions
2. Consider refining some of the concepts to
between knobs.
give them higher ranking
3. Consider refinements to the final concepts
based on the outcome.                                                           J6
Provisional                                 Traditional Patent For                          Traditional Patent For
Patent                                       a Small Entity                                 a Large Company
File
For Patents
Provisional
Traditional                                     Traditional
Patent
Patent                                          Patent

The subject of patents cannot be          If you are not sure that your idea has a strong     If you are certain that you idea has a strong       If you work for a company, it is often
adequately covered in this text. It        market, or you cannot afford the expense of          market and you can afford the expense, you         the policy that a regular patent is filed
is suggested that you read a book          a regular patent application, you may want           may want to file a regular or traditional          first. This is because a non-provisional
on patenting. It is entirely possible      to file a provisional patent first. Provisional      patent first. It is entirely possible for an       patent is more complete. It is done once
for a lone inventor to patent his          patents were created in the late 90’s as a           inventor who is not a patent agent or an           and has a stronger position than the
own invention and do a better job          poor man’s patent. They serve as a filing            attorney to file a patent. Nor is it required      provisional patent.
than is typically done by                  date place holder and allow the holder to be         by the patent office. A lone inventor can       1. Assist the company attorneys to file the
professional patent attorneys and          “patent pending”. Thus, the inventor to go           prosecute (do what it takes to secure) a           patents.    This usually involves some
agents.    However, there are a            out and find a customer. In other words,             patent from the USPTO. On the other hand,          sort of disclosure of the invention,
number of important things that            you can test both function and marketability         you can also work with a patent agent or           meeting with the attorney, disclosing
must be learned. Remember, you             in public.         Provisional patents are           attorney. The cost may be as high as               drawings of the idea and providing lab
are the one that knows your                considerably less formal than the non-               several thousand dollars. If you are hiring        notebook copies.
invention the best.                        provisional patents. They usually require a          someone to do the work, then follow the         2. Assist in the patent search. The
cover letter provided by the patent office           same guidelines as the “Traditional Patent         company will usually hire a search to be
There are a number of tests that           and an informal explanation and drawings.            for a Large Company”. If you are doing it          done. The patents that come back need
must be overcome in order to              The weakness of the provisional patent is            on your own then:                                  to be reviewed. Some search firms are
secure a patent. The two most             that anything that was overlooked and later       1. Read a good book on the subject. One such          better than others.        If you have
important tests are novelty and non-      put into the non-provisional patent cannot           book is Patent it yourself by attorney David       developed the ability to search patents
obviousness. The novelty test is          claim the filing date of the provisional             Pressman. NOLO produces this book and it           yourself, you can assist.
generally an easy test.                   patent.                                              can be found at Nolo.com. This book             3. Review the patent application for
• Is it physically different than   1. Get forms from USPTO web site.                       contains forms and in-depth explanations of        correctness. Remember, you are the
prior art?                        2. Fill out the forms and attach the explanation        the finer points of patenting. Whether you         one that truly understands how your
The non-obvious test is much more          of the invention along with the drawings.            patent yourself or allow someone else to do        patent works. Take the time to review it
difficult to pass. It must be non-     3. Include a check which is about \$80                   it, you should probably read this book.            properly and give needed feedback.
obvious to someone skilled in the      4. Include a self addressed post card with           2. Follow all of the procedures described in          Especially take the time to carefully
art with full knowledge of all prior      check boxes for everything that you have             Patent it Yourself. It is strongly suggested       review the claims. Create a claim tree
art, and it must be non-obvious           sent. They will check the boxes and return           that the only procedure that should be done        to     help    you     understand      the
after consulting all prior art. Ask       the card to you. Make sure the card has a            out of sequence is the patent search. In this      completeness of the claims.           The
yourself, does the effect of the          postage stamp.                                       book this is done during the step of               strength of the patent will largly depend
invention provide a non-obvious        5. Send the package by U.S. Overnight                   determining a physical phenomenon to               upon the strength of the claims.
result? For example, does it solve a      express mail.        The postage date is             deliver the function. The search helps us to
previously unsolved problem?              considered the filing date.                          determine available physical phenomena and
The practical rules of non-             6. If everything is OK at USPTO then will               keeps us from putting in too much work on
obviousness are quite abstract.           receive filing date in 6-8 weeks. You are            an idea that is not likely to go anywhere.
now “Patent Pending”                                                                                                                        J7
Refine Aesthetic                                 Build Refined                                Public Testing of
Form                                         Prototypes                                 Refined Prototypes
Public Testing

Journal
While it is technically permissible to
perform public testing before filing for a
patent, it is suggested that public testing                                                   Once more, we build a prototype. This is
The aesthetic form of the invention is                                                       If you can afford the time to perform
take place after at least filing a                                                             the complete invention. The purpose of
often important, especially if it is a                                                         this step, you will receive a wealth of
provisional patent. When those who test                                                        this invention is to convince you whether
consumer product. Notice how you                                                               information. While performing public
the idea know that the invention is patent                                                     there is sufficient public acceptance of
react to choices that you make when                                                            testing, you need to be careful that
pending, this will relieve them and you                                                        your invention.       It is also used to
you buy among competing products.                                                              improvements are still owned by you.
from worrying about secrecy issues.                                                            determine the preferred form of the
Given the choice of products having the                                                        This can be done in a couple of ways.
Unfortunately, you are still not out of the                                                    invention.     Whether you create the
same function, you will likely choose                                                             A) Insist that the user only bring up
woods concerning secrecy. Should you                                                           preferred aesthetic form or not will be
the one that has the most aesthetic                                                                 problems, not solutions.
discover important features during this                                                        determined by your pocketbook. The
appeal.      If your product is not                                                               B) Have the participants sign a form
period, you may want to add these                                                              closer to the final product the better, as
competing with any product of                                                                       that forfeits their invention rights
features to your invention. Sometimes                                                          you will be able to better assess public
consequence, the aesthetic form is used                                                             to you. Then they are free to
these ideas are suggestions brought                                                            reaction. This is where it pays to have a
to convince the customer that the                                                                   suggest improvements.
forward by those testing your prototype.                                                       real arsenal of tools if you are going to do
product will actually perform as                                                             Resist the urge to ask questions too
If the change is within the scope of the                                                       it yourself. You may also wish to employ
advertised. In other words, if the                                                             quickly. Rather, watch and then ask as
present patent, you may want to amend                                                          the services of a prototype shop. This can
manufacturer has taken the time to                                                             done in “Discovery of Market”.
the patent to clarify it. If if is not within                                                  become quite expensive and it is
refine the aesthetic form, surely the                                                       1. Write “Patent Pending” on everything
the scope, this may necessitate re-filing                                                      necessary to create detailed drawing to
effort has been expended to ensure that                                                        that the public can see.
the patent. Also, you should secure, in                                                        convey the ideas.
it works!                                                                                   2. Conduct public testing of prototypes.
writing, that any suggestions made by the                                                    1.Research the parts that must be purchased
1.Draw multiple pictures in your journal                                                         As much as possible, try not to
public tester will be forfeited to you.                                                        to build the prototype: motors, fans,
showing several different aesthetic                                                            intervene or show the best methods for
(Remember that the inventor has one year                                                       electrical equipment, etc.
forms of the product.                                                                          use. Also watch them perform their
from the time of public use or offering                                                      2. Create detailed drawings of the parts.
2. Show the pictures to others and get                                                           task or job.          Note unexpected
the invention for sale to file a patent. The                                                   Make sure that the parts fit together. It is
their opinions.                                                                                behaviors
USPTO does not consider public testing                                                         usually not necessary to define detailed
3. Since you have already filed for the                                                       3. Ask questions about what they were
to be “public use”. Keep good testing                                                          tolerances for professional prototype
patent, getting professional advise is a                                                       trying to do and why they did it.
records during this time if you choose to                                                      builders, but this can help the builder to
great idea.                                                                                    Especially      ask     about    unusual
test in public before you file for patent.                                                     determine the cost up-front.                      behaviors.
These records should be well dated and                                                       3. Build the prototype. Remember that you        3. Continue to log test ideas and results
witnessed if possible.            Avoid the                                                    can still use many of the inexpensive             in the journal.
temptation to simply use the invention in                                                      materials that we have already talked
public. If you do, note the dates).                                                            about.                                                                               J8
Sell the Idea
Sell the
Invention
Low-Cost
Advertising Graphics

If you are at this point, then you have finally reached one of the most exciting (and potentially most
discouraging) moments of your career in inventing. You must now become a sales person. This
activity starts with doing a little homework to find potential buyers. Once the company is found, you
need to contact the people in this company that have the authority to buy or license your invention. It
may be necessary to sign an agreement that limits what either or both of you can do with the
information exchanged.
1. Do your homework, look for companies that market products similar to your invention, or,
Most inventors believe that the prototype will help them to sell their                manufacturers which will have the right vendor base to manufacture the product. Keep in mind that
invention. Consequently, they will put some level of effort and cost into           most companies are willing to take the risk of working with an outside inventor if the product
building a prototype that they hope will help to sell their invention. There        concept is good enough. Some companies will be willing to move to new markets if the market is
is a lot of risk in doing this. First, you do not know the type of person that      already growing rapidly.
is going to be looking at your prototype. Some people will be able to see        2. Contact the company representative that has the authority to make these type of decisions. Someone
past the imperfections that will be there and understand the vision of what         in marketing and sales can usually tell you who this person is. You may find yourself being
your idea can be. Others will have no vision. They need to be served up             transferred around the company. This is not the run-around. Most people know whether they have
the full-blown invention, complete with packaging and labeling in order to          the authority to talk to outside inventors.
get a vision. Only the perfect prototype can reduce this risk. This may be       3. Talk with the responsible individual. Try to arrange for a meeting. If this is not possible, mail or
prohibitive in cost and time. Since you cannot know before hand who is              email your brochure. Few people will turn you down. Resist the urge to tell them too much at this
going to look at your ideas, there is a better tool for accomplishing this          point. Let the brochure create the vision before you give details. Arrange for a time to discuss the
task, the sales brochure. Remember who you will be talking to. Usually,             brochure.
this person is from the marketing or management arm of the organization.         4. Follow up with phone call to arrange for a personal meeting. By this time, they will have a better
They are used to looking at brochures and will be impressed that you have           picture of your vision. Be candid and truthful about your claims of what the invention can do. If
gone to this level of effort to sell your idea. You will leave them with the        possible, arrange for a face-to-face visit. It may be appropriate to show prototypes during this visit.
impression that you are concerned with more than just the function of your       5. Visit with the company representative. Work towards signing a business agreement. This may be an
invention.                                                                          outright sale of the invention or an agreement to license the invention. Most companies will work
1. Take pictures of the prototype or objects with similar shapes in an                 towards an exclusive license. Be cautious of greediness. Ask for royalties that are within the
appropriate setting, such as performing the task.                                   common practice of the industry. Remember that there are more ideas where this idea came from.
2. Or, download an image from the computer that is very close. Be careful,             Seek help in putting together this business agreement. Such agreements can be found on the web for
these images are usually of much lower quality than one that you can take           free or for a small fee.
with a digital camera.                                                           6. It is customary to ask for money up-front which the company can apply to future royalties. This
3. Enhance the image with the appropriate software to look like your                   ensures that the company has motivation to move forward with the idea and also gives the inventor
invention.                                                                          some capital to work with. If you have not yet filed a regular or traditional patent, this money can be
4. Add appropriate labeling to the invention. Think of clever branding that            applied to this task. This is a poor man’s approach to gaining a traditional patent.
may include the company’s name that you are hoping to sell the invention         7. Be prepared to assist with the commercialization of the invention. Give whatever help is necessary
to.                                                                                 to overcome manufacturing problems. Remember that if your idea is not manufacturable or comes to
5. Make a brochure that describes the invention and its advantages. Do not             market poorly, this will affect your royalties. If you give good advice and support, this will deepen
describe too much. The purpose is to create interest.                               your relationship with a company that you may want to do future business with.
6. If you have several ideas, put them into a binder or book that you can give                                                                                                            J9
to the potential buyer. Include patents and business agreements.

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