Honey Bee Notes Powerpoint by xuyuzhu

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									Decline of the Honey Bee
      TIP Group# 2
              Facts About the Honey Bee
• Communicate the location, distance, quality and source of
  nectar or pollen using dance.(1)
• Every pound of honey produced requires nectar collection
  from 25,000 flights, visiting 2 million flowers, and 55,000 miles
  in flight. (2)
• Most subspecies of honeybees are not aggressive but the
  subspecies African honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) and
  the hybrid honey bees (Africanized honey bees) have been
  dubbed “Killer Bees”.(3)
Importance of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)




• Fruits and vegetables require pollination to reproduce
  and the honey bee is one of the chief pollinators
  within an ecosystem.
• Honey bees pollinate estimated worth of more than 15
  billion dollars for the foods consumed in the U.S.
                                                   (4,5)
        Value of Honey Bee Pollination
Economics …
• Loss of colonies could seriously affect the production of
  several important crops that rely on pollination services
  provided by commercial beekeepers.




• Honey bee pollination contributes about $55 million to the
  value of crops in the Florida. Besides apples, other crops
  that depend in part on honey bee pollination include
  peaches, soybeans, pears, pumpkins, cucumbers, cherries,
  raspberries, blackberries and strawberries.
  Honey Bee Hive Form and Function
• Honey bee hives are made of wax which is formed in hexagon-
  shaped cells or units.
• Hive cells provide storage for honey, larvae, and pollen.
• An active bee hive serves as a giant nursery, a honey factory,
  and a well-protected home.
• Honey bee hives may be domesticated and managed by
  farmers in grow boxes or they may be feral and located in
  wooded areas.
          Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)
• In October 2006, U.S. beekeepers began reporting losses of 30-
  90% of their hives. Some colony losses are expected during
  winter weather but the magnitude of those reported were highly
  unusual.
• The domesticated honey bee population has experienced a
  marked decline from 30% to 50% over the last two decades.
  Some pollinators may take over some roles of honey bees but
  not all.
• This phenomenon is termed as Colony Collapse Disorder
  (CCD). There is no documented underlying cause currently.
• An indicator of CCD is the absence adult honey bees. The
  queen lives, brood bees are present, and honey may remain,
  but there are no signs of dead honey bees in the hive.
(4, 6)
    Potential causes of CCD associated with declining
                 numbers of Honey Bees
Pesticides…
• Agriculturalists use chemicals on plant crops to deter
  or kill unwanted insects. Honey bees may come into
  contact with pesticides as they collect pollen from
  these sources and transport it back to the hive.
  Contamination of the hive would cause the bees to
  leave or die off.
• One pesticide contains a substance which affects the
  honey bee’s navigational ability and has been banned
  in France. (5)
   Potential causes of CCD associated with declining
                numbers of Honey Bees

Malnutrition…
• Mono-cropping is a process used by farmers who grow
  few products on a large scale.
• Domesticated honey bees are used as pollinators
  throughout the year for these few products.
• This pollination method does not provide honey bees
  with enough diversity in their diets to remain healthy
  resulting in sick and/or dying honey bees. (It’s like you
  eating only wheat for every meal for your life)
        Potential causes of CCD associated with declining
                     numbers of Honey Bees
Mites…
• Researchers have deemed parasitic mites as plausible causes of CCD.
  State apiaries do not allow movement of used bee hives and inspect
  bee hives and require them to be boarded up if infected with mites
• Varroa destructor mites infect and feed on honey bee larvae in the
  brood cells.
• Mites of the species Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae infect the
  digestive tract of honey bees.
• Tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi) invade and reproduce in the airways
  of mature honey bees blocking the tubes and leading to asphyxiation.
• Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) is the most likely cause of CCD
  and the marked decline of honey bees in the U.S. since 2006. IAPV
  was first identified in Israel in 2004. This virus causes bees to develop
  shivering wings eventually leading to paralysis and death outside the
  hive.
(5,6)
    Potential causes of CCD associated with declining
                 numbers of Honey Bees
Intensive Agriculture…
• Bee farmers often move colony hives to different locations.
   Rapid seasonal changes affect relocated honey bee colonies and
   instigates stress and confusion within the hive. Bees become
   immuno-compromised and susceptible to diseases when in this
   state.
              What can be done?

How can you help the honey bees find
  – More food
  – Healthy diet
  – Clean (mite free) home
                                             Resources
•   1. Tales from the Hive. 1999. PBS. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bees/dances.html

•   2. . History of CCBA Trivia Facts.2012. Chester County Beekeepers Association.
    http://www.chescobees.org/trivia.htm

•   3. Ellis, J. 2008. Featured Creatures: African Honey bee. University of Florida: Food and Agricultural
    sciences. Available from: http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bees/ahb.htm

•   4. United States Department of Agricultural (USDA). (2008). Colony Collapse Disorder: A Complex Buzz.
    Published in Agricultural Research May/June 2008 issue.
    http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may08/colony0508.htm

•   5.Khamsi R. (2007). Paralysing virus a suspect in disappearing bee mystery. New Scientist, 22:61.
    http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12605

•   6. Kaplan K. (2009). Pathogen Loads Higher in Bee Colonies Suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder.
    http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2009/090812.htm


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