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Multimedia (MM) Principles Applied to PPT




  Nabil Issa MD, Mary Schuller MSEd, Ed Wang PhD.,
   Michael Shapiro MD, Susan Santacaterina MHPE,
                Debra A. DaRosa PhD.
                                                     0
1
•
    DEATH BY    An Important Title
    This is important
•   This is also important
•
•
•
     POWER
    This is very important
    This is very very important
    This is extremely important
•
•
•
      POINT
    I swear this is the most important
    I will die if you do not remember this one
    You will die if you do not remember this one

                                                   2
3
Multimedia = Words + Pictures




  Words
The cognitive theory of multimedia
             learning




                                 5
    *




*Mayer,   ‘02   6
7
      Five Evidence-Based & Theoretically
            Grounded MM Principles
 Principle            Definition           Effect   Studies
                                            Size
Spatial      Place words next to            1.30     8/8
Contiguity   corresponding graphics

Multi-Media Use Words & Pictures           1.90      3/3
Modality    Present words as narration     1.30      8/8
            instead of printed text
Signaling   Highlight essential material   0.52      6/6
Coherence Exclude unneeded words &         0.97     13/14
            sounds
                                                              8
Does instruction using MM
principles result in:

enhanced retention

enhanced transfer of learning

of third year medical students?




                                  9
                 Study Protocol
•   Pre-test /post-test control group design
•   Lecture topic = Shock.
•   Traditional lecture- already in place
•   Modified lecture- selected MM principles
•   10 questions= 5 (retention) + 5 (transfer)
•   Content validity of questions – expert review
•   Reliability of scores – percent agreement
    among raters

                                                    10
               180 M3 students

                             Q1: pilot n = 50

             130 students included




Q2-3 (Modified) n=91       Q4 (Traditional) n=39



                                                11
                     Example of change:
                      Signaling Principle

    [IV] Obstructive Shock
    [IV] Obstructive Shock
 Tension Pneumothorax: results in
      Tension of the hemithorax
  hyperinflation Pneumothorax
  resulting in kinking of IVS and
  decreased prelaod


        Pulmonary Embolism
 Pulmonary Embolism: results in obstruction
  of the R ventricular outflow and decrease in L
  ventricular stroke volume resulting in cardiac
  failure
        Cardiac Tamponade
                                                   33
                                                   28



                                                    12
          Coherence Principle
     Swan-Ganz (PAC) insertion is like
      ‘Surfing through Blood
Changes in wave tracings Stream’




                                         10
                                          9




                                          13
           Multimedia Principle

Relationship between vs. Consumption
Oxygen Delivery DO2 and VO2
 You can increase your delivery but you can
  not control your consumption as it is a
  function of tissue physiology
                Critical DO2
 You have to meet your tissue’s
  requirements or else you will accelerate
  lactic acid production and tissue ischemia
 Critical DO2 is that point were DO2 meets
  VO2 and tissues are utilizing aerobic
  metabolism
 Up till that point there is an inverse relation
  between DO2 and VO2 a state we call flow
  dependent
                                                6
                                                8




                                                    14
              TRADITIONAL                  MODIFIED
              Pre       Post*       Pre         Post*
              n=39      n=39        n=91        n=89
              M(SD)     M(SD)       M(SD)       M(SD)

Retention     2.3 (.61) 3.3 (.64)   2.1 (.91)   3.9 (.70)

Transfer      2.3 (.88) 2.9 (.99)   2.3 (1.1)   3.2 (1.1)

Total Score   4.6 (1.3) 6.2 (1.2)   4.3 (1.7)   7.0 (1.3)

 *P<.0001                                               15
 Inter-rater Percent Agreement
           Inter-rater % Agreement




96

94

92

90
      Q2           Q3                Q4


                                          16
Generalized Linear Models
                       Retention score   Transfer score    Total score



                        b      p value    b     p value    b     p value



Group (Modification)   0.45     0.0022   0.29    0.1504   0.75    0.0064




Pre/Post Improvement   1.08    <.0001*   0.59    0.0124   1.67   <.0001*



Group*Time             0.66     0.0016   0.30     0.278   1.02    0.0081
                                                                    17
               Results- Total Score
                       Total Score
        8.00

        7.00

        6.00

        5.00
Score




        4.00

        3.00

        2.00                         Traditional   Modified
        1.00

        0.00
                   1                 2

                            Time
                                                              18
               Results- Retention Score
                    Retention Score
        4.50

        4.00

        3.50

        3.00
Score




        2.50

        2.00

        1.50

        1.00                          Traditional   Modified

        0.50

        0.00
                     1                2

                           Time
                                                               19
               Results- Transfer Score
                         Transfer Score
        3.50

        3.00

        2.50
Score




        2.00

        1.50

        1.00
                                          Traditional   Modified
        0.50

        0.00
                     1                      2

                               Time
                                                                   20
Limitations of the Study




                   SHOCK




                           21
Future Directions




                    22
The use of selected MM principles enhances:

retention of information
 transfer of learning




                                         23
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posted:11/16/2012
language:English
pages:25