Water- NRI- Serve Agraam

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					In search of drinking water
                                        2
Amount of drinking water in the world
                                          3
 Per capita consumption – India / World

      Litres per person
                per day
Drinking              3
Cooking               4
Bathing              20
Flushing             40
Washing clothes      25
Washing utensils 20
Gardening            23

Total             135
                                                        4
In search of drinking water




  In many parts of the world, women spend 2-3 hours a
                    day fetching water
                                     5
India – rainfall

                   India annual
                   rainfall
                   is within the
                   top 6 countries
                   in the world.

                   But we do not
                   conserve the
                   rain water.
                                           6
India has 2 seasons – Floods and Drought
                                                                                                                                                  7
                                                 Compare rainfall in 5 Indian cities
                     35.0


                     30.0
                                                                                      Mumbai
                     25.0
rainfall in Inches




                     20.0


                     15.0                                                                                       Chennai
                                                                         Calcutta
                     10.0
                                                                                  Delhi
                     5.0
                                                                                                                          Bangalore
                     0.0




                                                                                                    September




                                                                                                                            November


                                                                                                                                       December
                                      February
                            January




                                                                                                                October
                                                                                           August
                                                   March




                                                                           June
                                                           April




                                                                                    July
                                                                   May




                                                                             months


Bangalore gets 37”annually but the rainfall is more spread out.
Delhi = 32.1” Mumbai=120” Calcutta=62.3”
                                    8
How Chennai residents get water ?
                         9
Ram’s house in Chennai
                                                                                10
Rain Centre opens in Chennai
                                                    • Opened in August 2002
                                                    • Shows how to install
                                                      RWH using
                                                       –   Roofwater RWH
                                                       –   Surface water
                                                       –   Collect at gate
                                                       –   Percolation pit
                                                       –   Sump and babywells
                                                    • Exhibits by CSE
                                                    • Design help
 Rain Centre – located at 4 Third trust link road
 in Mandavallipakkam, exactly 1 city block from
 the Santhome main road.
 Telephone : 461-6134 www.raincentre.org
 Open Hours : 11 AM to 7 PM – all days
                               11
Rain Centre opens in Chennai
                                                        12
With students from a local college at the Rain centre
With Prof Indiresan –a past Director of IITM   13
                                                                                   14
Collecting surface water at the building gate

                                                           The rainwater falling on
                                                           the open space around the
                                                           complex can be collected
                                                           near the gate by providing
                                                           a gutter with a perforated
                                                           lid. The collected water
                                                           can be led through a pipe
                                                           into a recharge well
                                                           of 1 metre dia and 5 metre
Rain Centre – Two views of water collection at the gate.
                                                           deep.


      If the area around the flat complex is paved with concrete,
      we collect the water at the gate.
                                                             15
  Collecting roof water and draining it in a well

                           • Clean the building roof as a
                             collector of rainfall.
                           • Draw rainwater down through
                             pipes and gutters (Rs 2000)
                           • Drain water through a filtering
                             pit 2’x2’x2’ filled with pebbles
Rain Centre -                and sand with a cover slab
Take roof
water, filter and            (Rs1500)
charge the well
                           • Provide a pipe from the filtering
                             pit to the well. (Rs 500)
                           • Cost estimates for drawing
                             shown. Will vary for other units
                                                                  16
What is Rainwater harvesting ?

• “Capture rain water, store it and use it - it is as simple as
  that” - Prime Minister Vajpayayee at a national seminar on
  Rain water harvesting, New Delhi, May 22, 2000

• Collect the rain water falling on house tops, collection
  ponds, lakes, open areas with natural grading

• Rain water is naturally pure (excepting where it becomes
  acid rain due to industrial pollution)

• Ground water could be salty or brackish
                                                               17
Rainwater harvesting in Austin Texas




 Visited these RWH installations in Austin Texas in Feb 2002
                  Roof top Rain Water harvesting                          18


1. Rain water collected
                                                        Rain water 8
   on the roof                                              1      tank
2. Flows thru drain pipe
3. First flush - discard
   some initial water                               House - Top floor
4. Water flows thru
                                                                           7
   a filter - bottom to                         2
   top (sponge is filter)
5. Store in a sump                   filter 4       House - Ground floor
6. Pump water to tank            5                  3
7. Water pumped up
8. Store in a overhead          sump            6
                                                        pump    Ground level
   tank - to house
9. Overflow from sump       9
   charges the aquifer
                                                 19
Rural water harvesting




          Check dams along a river - Rajasthan
                                                         20
Rural water harvesting




  Water shed management – Ralegaon Sidhi - Maharashtra
                                                           21
 Water shed management - CCT


No CCT                    CCT – Continuous Contour Trenching




  CCT is a trench dug across the sloped hills (along the
  contour ) to hold and retain water and to increase the
        moisture availability for the plant growth
Typical family of 5 - annual consumption and costs              22

• Family of 5 that needs 135 litres per person per day will
  need 246,375 litres in a year
• A typical water tanker in Chennai carries 12,000 litres of
  water and the tanker of water costs Rs 700 to Rs 1,000
  during the summer of 2001
• This will cost our family of 5, Rs 20,531 annually.
How much water can be harvested in a house ?
• A typical house plot in Chennai is about 2,400 sq.feet
• If we harvest the entire 129 cm of annual rainfall, it will
  yield 700 litres of fresh water per ground per day.
• This will result in 255,500 litres per year
                                                               23
Collecting rain water in Temple tanks




        Before                                After
• There are many temple tanks in the city of Chennai. They act
  as large storage tanks, percolating rain water and charging the
  water table. This allows thousands of people living around the
  tank to draw water from their wells
• Desilting a temple tank costs between Rs 5 and 10 lakhs and
  is being done by the Rotary Club of Chennai
                                                             24
Results to date
• The underground water level has come up by 10 to 15 feet
  in those places that have installed RWH.
• There are about 400,000 plots in Chennai.
• In 2001, about 5000 plots had RWH implemented.
• In 2002, this figure is close to 50,000 plots
• In 2003, the current estimate would be around 80,000
• We have reached about 20% of the households.

				
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posted:11/16/2012
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