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International Performance Measurement _ Verification Protocols .._1_

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International Performance Measurement _ Verification Protocols .._1_ Powered By Docstoc
					                               Jakarta, 10 August 2011
                                  Ir. Rana Yusuf Nasir
                 Director Rating & Technology GBCI
Past President ASHRAE Indonesia Chapter 2009-2010
               President Director PT Airkon Pratama



                                                         1
Reference
 ASHRAE Guidelines 14
 ASHRAE Guidelines 0
 ARI Standard
 IPMVP
System to be audited
 Building Envelope
 HVAC System
 Lighting
 Domestic hot water
 Laundry
 Food preparation
 Building Transportation & Conveying systems
 Other systems
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
 Or Energy Saving Opportunity (ESO) :
  Upgrading performance
  Energy source saving measures,
  Water efficiency measures,
  Load shifting and
  Installation or retrofit of equipment, and/or
  Modification of operating procedures
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
 Saving : Measured or estimated:
   Savings cannot be directly measured,
           6




   Determined by comparing measured use or demand
   before and after implementation
Reference
                                    ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Energy Audit Level
 Preliminary Energy Use Analysis
 Level I Analysis—Walk-Through Analysis
 Level II Analysis—Energy Survey and Analysis
 Level III Analysis—Detailed Analysis of Capital
 Intensive Modifications
                                                     ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Preliminary Energy Use Analysis
1.    Gross conditioned square footage.
2.    Assemble all utility bills
3.    Summarize them for at least a one-year period,
      preferably three years.
     a.   Review the monthly patterns for irregularities.
     b.   Note if a bill is missing or if it is estimated rather than actual
          consumption.
4. Develop energy index and the cost index
4. Compare the Energy Utilization Index (EUI) with
   buildings having similar characteristics.
5. Set target energy, demand, and cost indices
               Regional       Our Intensity      Potential        Our Goals
               Average                            Saving
OFFICE
                250                325             75              270
              KWH/m2.yr                         KWH/m2.yr        KWH/m2.yr
                               KWH/m2.yr
                                    ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Level I—Walk- Through Analysis

   1.   Walk-through survey

   2. Discuss with owner/operator

   3. Any O&M problem?

   4. Breakdown of energy use

   5. Identify low-cost/no-cost ECM

   6. Identify potential high cost ECM (!)
                                       ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002
Level 1 Report
    1. Building characteristics
    2. Energy use summary & breakdown
    3. Energy cost by fuel type
    4. Irregularities found
    5. The energy index
    6. Method for target indices.
    7. O&M special problems & revision
    8. Listing of low-cost/no-cost
    9. Identify potential high cost ECM (!)
                                            ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Level II—Energy Survey and Analysis
      1. Level-1 Audit
      2. Measure key operating parameters :
              operating schedules,
              cooling water temperature,
              supply air temperature,
      3. Breakdown the annual energy use
      4. List and estimate for each ECM.
              The savings and cost
              Impact to O&M
      5. Estimate the combined ECM
      6. Review O&M modifications
      7. Discuss priorities & select ECM
      8. Modifications requiring further analysis
                                           ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Level II—Report
1. A summary of energy use and cost
2. For each ECM, provide
      Description of ECM
      Existing situation impact energy
      Its impact on occupant health, comfort, and safety;
      Required repairs
      Impact on O&M practices & costs;
      Expected life time of new equipment vs existing
       equipment;
      Required new skills for O&M staff
                                     ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Level II—Report
3. The impractical ECM
4. The estimated costs for all ECM
5. Any differences between Level I & Level II analysis
6. Overall project economic evaluation.
7. If necessary, required M&V method(s) for
   recommended measures.
8. Discussion of feasible capital-intensive measures
   that may require a Level III analysis.
                                     ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

     Level III—Detailed Analysis of Capital
             Intensive Modifications
1.    Level II Audit
2.    Review measurement methods,
3.    Perform additional testing and monitoring
4.    Perform accurate modeling/simulation of proposed
      modifications.
5.    Estimate the cost and savings of each modification.
6.    Meet with owner to discuss/develop
      recommendations.
                                         ASHRAE Guidelines 14-2002

Level III - Report
1. Name and version of software used, include input
   and output data.
2. Complete all proposed changes :
        Final design
        Firm price contractor quotations
        Contingencies cost estimates
        Report the expected accuracy of the budget.
3. Financial evaluation of high cost ECM
Part Load KW/TR & Load Profile
                                                               0.900
                                                         0.867

                                                               0.850


                                                               0.800
                                                 0.750
                                                               0.750




                                                                       KW/TR
                                                               0.700
                                         0.660
                                                               0.650

                                 0.587
                                                               0.600
0.551                   0.543
        0.540   0.538
                                                               0.550


                                                               0.500
100%    90%     80%     70%       60%    50%     40%     30%
                           % Capacity



                                                                               16
Capacity vs RLA
100,0%                                                        100%

         92,4%
                          Data yang di
                                                              95%
                         Microproccessor
                          digital panel                       90%
                 85,4%
                                                              85%
                          79,4%
                                                              80%




                                                                     % RLA
                                   73,7%
                                                              75%
                                           68,1%              70%

                                                   62,1%      65%

                                                               60%
                                                           55,8%
                                                              55%

                                                              50%
100%     90%     80%       70%      60%    50%     40%     30%
                             % Capacity
                                                                             17
        Water Cooled Centrifugal Chiller
1,300

1,200

1,100

1,000
                                                                                         Part load
0,900

0,800
                                                                                       characteristic
0,700

0,600                                                                                ”based on constant
0,500
    100%                   75%                    50%                  25%
                                                                                          ECWT”
           87 F = 30,5 C          85 F = 29,5 C            89,6 F = 32 C


                            Part Load                   KW/TR              KW/TR          KW/TR

                                 ECWT             85 F = 29,5 C        87 F = 30,5 C    89,6 F = 32 C

                                 100%                   0,580                0,600         0,608

                                 75%                    0,540                0,568         0,621

                                 50%                    0,570                0,650         0,788

                                 25%                    0,905                1,050         1,150

                                 NPLV                   0,548                0,584         0,648
                                                                                                          18
                                                    ARI 550 - 2003

Test Methods
 C3.1.1 The test will measure net cooling capacity (tons of
  refrigeration) and energy requirements, at a specific set of
  conditions (actual condition)
 C3.1.2 To confirm that steady-state conditions have been
  established at the specific set of conditions and within the
  tolerances set forth in C6.2.1, three sets of data shall be
  taken, at a minimum of five-minute intervals. To minimize
  the effects of transient conditions, test readings should be
  taken as nearly simultaneously as possible.
                                                                                                                                             Centrifugal Chiller

               Evaporator – Chilled Water
                   CHANGES LEAVING CHILLED WATER TEMPERATURE ON EVAPORATOR
                                OTHERS VARIABLES ARE CONSTANT
        0,64

        0,62

         0,6                                                                                           • Higher CHW temperature
        0,58

                                                                                                       reduces compressor energy :
KW/TR




        0,56

        0,54

        0,52
                                                                                                       1oC rise ↓2% drop in energy input
         0,5

        0,48
             ,5



                    ,5



                           ,5



                                  ,5



                                         ,5



                                                ,5



                                                       ,5



                                                              ,5



                                                                      ,5



                                                                             ,5



                                                                                    ,5
            39



                   40



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                                 42



                                        43



                                               44



                                                      45



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                                                                     47



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                                                                                   49



                                                                                         50
           39



                  40



                         41



                                42



                                       43



                                              44



                                                     45



                                                            46



                                                                    47



                                                                           48



                                                                                  49
                                        LEAV. CHILLED WATER TEMP.
                                        EWT COND=85 F     EWT COND=87.8



                                                                                                                        CHANGES FLOW RATE ON EVAPORATOR OTHER VARIABLES ARE CONSTANT

                                                                                                      0.6



                                                                                                 0.59



                                                                                                 0.58
                                                                                              KW/TR




                                                                                                 0.57



                                                                                                 0.56



                                                                                                 0.55



                                                                                                 0.54
                                                                                                            1.4   1.5    1.6   1.7   1.8   1.9   2.0   2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8   2.9   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.3
                                                                                                                                                            FLOW RATE EVAP.
                                                                                                                                                       ECWT EVAP=85     ECWT EVAP=87.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       20
                                                                                                                                               Centrifugal Chiller

            Condenser Water
           CHANGES ENTERING WATER TEMPERATURE ON CONDENSER OTHERS VARIABLES ARE
                                        CONTANTS
    0.63

    0.61

    0.59
                                                                                                          • Lower CW temperature also
    0.57

    0.55
                                                                                                          reduces compressor energy :
KW/TR




    0.53

    0.51
                                                                                                          1°C drop ↓2% drop in energy
    0.49                                                                                                  input
    0.47

    0.45
           80 80.5 81   81.5 82   82.5 83 83.5 84 84.5 85 85.5 86 86.5 87     87.5 88 88.5 89   89.5 90
                                               ENTERING WATER TEMP.
                                            LCWT EVAP=44     LCWT EVAP=48.2



                                                                                                                          CHANGES WATER FLOW RATE ON CONDENSER OTHERS VARIABLES ARE CONTANT

                                                                                                                    0.6



                                                                                                                   0.58



                                                                                                                   0.56
                                                                                                           KW/TR




                                                                                                                   0.54



                                                                                                                   0.52



                                                                                                                    0.5



                                                                                                                   0.48
                                                                                                                          2.00   2.10   2.20   2.30   2.40   2.50    2.60   2.70   2.80   2.90   3.00   3.10   3.20   3.30   3.40   3.50    3.60
                                                                                                                                                                    FLOW RATE CONDENSER GPM/TR
                                                                                                                                                                     LCWT EVAP=44          LCWT EVAP=48.2


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           21
                                                                  ARI 550 - 2003

Test Methods
 C3.1.3 The test shall include a measurement of the net heat removed
  from the water as it passes through the evaporator by determination of
  the following:
   a. Water flow rate
   b. Temperature difference between entering and leaving water
 C3.1.4 The heat removed from the chilled water is equal to the product
  of the chilled water flow rate, the water temperature difference, and
  the specific heat of the water ad defined by equation C6.
    Chiller efficiency commissioning (KW/TR)
                  USGPME x ∆TE (°F)                                      USGPMC x ∆TC (°F)
Capacity (TR) =                                  Heat Rejection (TR) =
                             24                                                    30

                                                                  Note :
                    Power Input (KW)
Efficiency (KW/TR =                                               ∆T (°F) = Tout - Tin
                      Capacity (TR)

                                    Data logger


    Flow meter
                                         LOA D
                                                                                 Cooling
                  KW meter                                                       Tower



           Tout ºF                                                 Tin ºF
                              Evaporator     35.3 psi
                                                                         Flow meter

                             Condenser
                                           124 psi
                                                                                           23
                                                                 ARI 550 - 2003
                          Verification
    Heat Balance (ARI-550) :
    Heat Rejection (TR) = Capacity (TR) + Power Input (TR)

    Capacity (TR) + Power Input (TR)              Note :
                                     =1           ∆T (°F) = Tout - Tin
        Heat Rejection (TR)


                              Data logger


Flow meter
                                    LOA D
                                                                   Cooling
             KW meter                                              Tower



       Tout ºF                                       Tin ºF
                        Evaporator     35.3 psi
                                                           Flow meter

                        Condenser
                                     124 psi
                                                                                  24
                                         ARI 550 - 2003
Allowable Tolerance Curves for Full and Part Load
International Performance Measurement
Verification Protocol - IPMVP
Participating Organization from Countries :
 Brazil                  Poland
 Bulgaria                Russia
 Canada                  Singapore
 China                   Sweden
 India                   Ukraine
 Japan                   United Kingdom
 Korea                   USA
 Mexico
                                                   IPMVP 1 - 2007

International Performance Measurement and
Verification Protocol (IPMVP)
 IPMVP documents common terms and methods to
    evaluate performance of efficiency projects for buyers,
    sellers and financiers.
   Common practice in measuring, computing and
    reporting savings
   For transparently, reliably and consistently reporting a
    project’s saving.
   M&V activities include all energy audit aspects
   Method of monitoring, calculation, and reporting.
   Will produce verifiable savings reports.
   Applies to a wide variety of facilities including existing
    and new buildings and industrial processes.
                                                IPMVP 1 - 2007

Benefits Of Using IPMVP
 Secure and safe payments for performance.
 Financial payments based on IPMVP ensures that
  savings follow good practice
 ESCOs supported by IPMVP- guaranteed savings
  reports, and usually receive prompt payments.
 International credibility for energy savings reports,
  thereby increasing the value to a buyer of the
  associated energy savings.
                                                            IPMVP 1 - 2007

Definition
        Energy Savings = Baseyear Energy Use - Post-
             Retrofit Energy Use + Adjustment

 Cannot ‘measure’ energy savings, can only ‘estimate’, and
  with ‘uncertainty’ (%error)
 The "Adjustments" term depend on conditions :
    Commonly affecting energy use are :
      Weather,
      Occupancy,
      Plant throughput, and
      equipment operations required by these conditions.

 Adjustments may be positive or negative.
 On uncertainty condition using statistical formula
                                       IPMVP 1 - 2007
Savings determination process
                         It shows the energy-
                         usage history of an
                         industrial boiler before
                         and after the addition of
                         an energy conservation
                         measure (ECM) to
                         recover heat from its flue
                         gases. At about the time
                         of ECM installation,
                         plant production also
                         increased.
                                                         IPMVP 1 - 2007
Savings determination process
                                           The “baseline energy”
                                           use pattern before ECM
                                           installation was
                                           studied to determine
                                           the relationship
                                           between energy use
                                           and production


 Following ECM installation, this baseline relationship was used
  to estimate how much energy the plant would have used each
  month if there had been no ECM (called the “adjusted-baseline
  energy”).
 The saving, or ‘avoided energy use’ is the difference between the
  adjusted-baseline energy and the energy that was actually
  metered during the reporting period
                        ESCO Services



                   Engineering     Construction




                           ESCO
                          Services
       Audit & Design                      Installation




              Measurement
                   and           Commissioning
               Verification




Dilip R. Limaye - ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program
                      Additional ESCO Services




                             Operations and
                              Maintenance




                                Optional
    Providing or              ESCO Services
                                                           Training
Arranging Financing




       Dilip R. Limaye - ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program
                 Chiller plant - OVERSIZE
2 running & 1 stand-by              4 running & 1 stand-by
   CH-1

          CH-2

                 CH-3




                             CH-1

                                       CH-2

                                              CH-3

                                                     CH-4

                                                             CH-5
                Over capacity installed
                     Diversification

                                                                           Waisting :
                                        Oversize                           -Investment
Capacity/Load (TR)




                                                                           - Operating cost




                                                                       Oversize in :
                      Cooling Load                                     -Chiller
                       Calculation     Chiller Cap
                                                                       -Power installed
                                        Installed
                                                                       -Panel & its component
                                                                       -Cabling
                                                     Chiller running   -Piping
                                                          & In         -etc
                                                       operation
The cost of running pumps & fan - Life Cycle Costs
                        It has been stated :
                          British Pump Manufacturers
            5%
                           Association (BPMA) say that 20%
                           of the Worlds Energy is consumed
                           by Pumps and 95% of pumps
                           installed are over sized

                          Environment Protection Agency
                           (EPA-USA) say that :
                            60% of fan (AHU) installed are
                             over sized :
                 95%        Average of 40% oversize
Pump General Rule
  Operate on the correct water flow rate as design
  condition.
   N1        GPM1        (HEAD1)^2   (KW1)^3
         =           =                 =
   N2        GPM2        (HEAD2)^2   (KW2)^3



   N               = Rotation speed (RPM)     e.g 80% GPM
   GPM             = Flow Rate                80% speed
   Head            = Feet head                Input power
   KW              = KW Input
                                               = (0.8x0.8x0.8)
                                               = 0.51 or 51%
Production : more efficient chiller
                                  1.0
                                        0.90
                                  0.9
Efficiency at full load (KW/TR)




                                               0.80
                                  0.8                  0.75
                                                              0.70       0.70
                                  0.7                                           0.65
                                                                                       0.60
                                  0.6
                                                                                              0.48
                                  0.5
                                  0.4
                                  0.3
                                  0.2
                                  0.1
                                  0.0
                                        Pre -1973       1980               1990         1995
                                                      Standard       High efficiency
Chiller System Plant :
 Water cooled chiller                    Condenser water pump
 Chilled water pump                      Cooling tower

                     ASHRAE Journal




                  New Target

                                               Existing

            Achievable         Current
       Overseas                Target                             40
Low Cost

                CASE STUDY – Ngurah Rai Int Airport
 Optimizing by tuning up chiller & its operational
 Reducing cooling load of HVAC system :
    Setting Room Temp = 25 C
    Turn off FES & FSS
 Calibration temperature control, pressure control etc
 Delay start chiller & earlier stop
 Optimizing Secondary Water Pump by adjusting &
  calibration operational range of VSD and PDV.
Case Study
Load Profile

             30,0%




             25,0%




             20,0%

                                                                              Base Line
% Run Hour




             15,0%




             10,0%




              5,0%
                                                                    No Investment Energy
                                                                        Optimization
              0,0%
                 100%   95%   90%   85%   80%   75%   70%   65%   60%   55%    50%   45%   40%   35%   30%   25%   20%   15%   10%   5%   0%


                                                                        % Part Load


                                                                   Base Case
Resume
Bandara Ngurah Rai
                         TOTAL ENERGY SAVING ACHIEVED

             DESCRIPTION                    BASE LINE   Peb-00   Mar-00   Apr-00    Mei-00



  ENERGY SAVING FROM USING HEX-1                          0      47.212   52.409    50.089
  Saving energy (KWH)

  ENERGY SAVING FROM CRB-2 : McQuay
  Saving Energy (KWH)                                   67.989   44.747   53.227    59.222


Total Energy Saving (HEX-1 + CRB-2) - KWH    661.842    67.989   91.959   105.637   109.311
                                                        10,3%    13,9%     16,0%     16,5%
    Energy Saving Company (ESCO)
    Performance Contract
                Cash
                Flow                           Total Savings
      Old                  Profit
$    Energy
                                     Savings
                ESCO
      Bill
               Payment
                                               ESCO Share
                New
               Energy
                Bill
                                                 Positive
                                                Cash Flow



     Present    During     After                During          After
               Contract   Contract             Contract        Contract
                 Term      Term                  Term           Term
     On the way to “Green Building”
                 Space Use/Indoor
                  Environments

                   Energy Audit          Benchmark
Building Audit
                 FM/O&M Practices

                    Systems &
                    Equipment


                 Recommissioning
                      Plan
  Planning
                  Measurement &
                  Verification Plan     FM/O&M Staff
                                       Training/Practices

                    Upgrades &
                 Recommissioning
  Execution
                  Measurement &
                                         Benchmark
                   Verification


Performance       Systems Manual         Certification?
Maintenance      (Building Log Book)
Thank you

				
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