wALL PANELLING & cladding

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wALL PANELLING & cladding Powered By Docstoc
Panelling is a wall covering constructed
from rigid or semi-rigid components.
These are traditionally interlocking wood,
but could be plastic or other materials.
 Paneling may be installed on three
 different types of walls (Fig. 1). Panels
 less than 1/4“ thick need a solid backing.
 Panels 1/4" and thicker can be installed
 directly over even framing members–
 studs or furring strips. All paneling may
 be put up with nails or with a
 combination of panel adhesive and nails.

 First check the masonry walls for
 excessive moisture. Walls with moisture
 must be completely waterproofed before
 they are paneled. Moisture can
 sometimes be caused by condensation. If
 this is the case, add a waterproof vapor
 barrier over the wall.
To hold the panels firmly to the wall, apply 3" long 1/8" beads of a
solvent-based panel adhesive to the studs or solid-backed wall. At the
panel edges, apply a continuous zigzag bead. If the wall has been
papered, the wallpaper must be removed before applying adhesive.
 Place the panel in position on the adhesive and drive several nails
loosely in the proper position.

Then pull the panel about 10" from the wall at the bottom, resting it
on a block of wood. The adhesive will become tacky in 2 to 10 minutes.

Heavy panels need additional support, with nails 16 to 20 inches
apart. In this case, you need not pull the panel away from the wall to
allow the adhesive to become tacky.
Plywood is probably the most widely available manufactured board
material. It is made by bonding together a number of thin veneers of
softwood or hardwood - or a combination of each.The more veneers
used, the stronger the plywood. Both the type of glue and veneers
determine the suitability of a sheet for a particular application. The
finish quality of plywood varies enormously.

Exterior grade plywood (WBP - Weather and Boil Proof) is specially
made using a water-resistant adhesive to withstand a certain amount
of moisture and can be used for outdoor constructions - sheds etc.

Internal plywood is of a similar quality as Exterior grade but it does
not use water resistant adhesive. It can be used for wall panelling,
flooring and furniture.

Shuttering Ply is used in the construction industry for making
shuttering boxes for containing concrete while it goes off.
               SIZE OF PLYWOOD
  Plywood is normally available in 2440 x 1220 sheets (or
  subdivisions) and in thicknesses from 3 to 35 mm.

           Working with plywood-
  If the sheets are to be used in a centrally heated room, store
  them in similar conditions before use so that the moisture
  content of the sheets will stabilise before installation - this
  will avoid shrinkage later.

 To avoid damage to the finishing face, cut into the panel
  from that face - for hand sawing have the face upwards, for
  power sawing have the face downwards. To reduce the
  damage, score through the outer veneer on both sides of the
  sheet using a sharp knife before starting to saw.
 Thin sheets (up to 3mm) can be cut using a sharp knife.
  From 3 to 6mm use a tenon saw.
  From 6 to 12mm thick, use a fine tooth panel saw.
  For thicker sheets use a coarse tooth panel saw.
 Plywood may be fixed in place with adhesive and screws or
 nails. Where a corner joint is required, fit a softwood batten
   in the corner so than both sheets of ply can be fixed to it.
For thin material, always fix plywood to a pre-made frame,
use glue and panel pins (on about a 200mm pitch), use a
punch to knock the head of the pins below the surface. The
frame should support all edges of each plywood sheet and at
about 400mm centres (for 6mm ply), 600mm centres (for
9mm) or 900mm centres for thicker material.

Plywood which is supplied with a decorative veneer can be
varnished or painted but to get a really smooth surface will
need good preparation as most plywoods are not as smooth
as planed timber.
Sheets are also available with pre-printed faces such as
mock panelling.
     Wall paneling is an architectural element that can be installed
    in residential or commercial buildings.
 Decorative wall paneling is installed over walls to add aesthetic
    appeal, while other types of paneling may be added for their
    functional or structural characteristics.

                  Decorative Wall Panels
    Decorative wall panels are available in many different
    materials. They are often used to change the look of the wall,
    but may also be installed to help protect the wall from
    damage. Wainscoting is one of the most commonly used wall
    panels. It is made from wood or synthetic materials patterned
    with carvings and designs. Wainscot is usually installed on
    the lower half of a wall, but heights and styles may vary.
Tileboard panels are made from melamine or resin and are
used to mimic the look of ceramic tiles. They are textured and
colored to look like tile and are attached to a moisture-resistant
backerboard. These panels are an affordable alternative to
ceramic and are much easier to install.

              UTILITY PANELING
Utility paneling is made from perforated hardboard and is
used for its function and appearance. These panels contain
rows of small holes that can be used to hang objects from nails
or pegs. They are frequently used in kitchens or garages, as
well as in commercial applications. Utility paneling is available
in standard white or natural wood finishes and also in custom
colors. These panels can be installed over the entire wall or
just in small areas as needed.
Acoustical panels are used to control noise levels in a space
and to block noise transfer through walls. They are made from
foam or wood cores wrapped with a layer of vinyl or fabric.The
panels help absorb sound and are commonly used n schools,
auditoriums and hotels. These panels are available in a wide
variety of colors and textures to match the room's decor.
Acoustical panels can be installed temporarily using clips or
magnets, or with nails or adhesive for more permanent

Most types of wall paneling are installed on the interior,
others are used to create exterior walls. These panels are
frequently made from precast concrete and allow for quick
and easy framing of homes and businesses. Structural
insulated panels (SIPs) take the place of wall framing, interior
drywall and exterior sheathing or siding. They are made from
sheets of rigid foam insulation sandwiched between layers of
wood fiber board.
Wainscot or wainscoting is a
paneling style applied to the lower
3' (900mm) to 5' (1500mm) of an
interior wall, below the dado rail
or chair rail and above the
baseboard or skirting board.

 It is traditionally constructed
from tongue-and-groove boards,
though beadboard or decorative
panels are also common.
           USE OF PANELING
Panelling was developed in antiquity to make rooms in
stone buildings more comfortable. The panels served to
insulate the room from the cold stone.
 In more modern buildings, such panelling is often
installed for decorative purposes.
Wall panels serve many functions, from providing
descriptions of exhibits in museums and galleries to hiding
away electronics such as stereo speakers. It is also used for
decorative purposes.

Modular wall panels may be constructed of wood or metal
and are often covered with textured materials, fabrics,
panelling or wallpaper to make them more aesthetically

In the business setting, there are portable or temporary
wall panels that can be used to divide a space into cubicles.

There are also acoustical and sound absorbing wall panels
that are perfect for the studio.

Wall panels are convenient and practical whether used for
functional purposes or simply as an aesthetic element.
 Paneling may be applied to drywall, directly to wall studs, or
    to furring strips applied over masonry surfaces.
   Many homes have wood paneling that covers all or part of a
    wall in a living room, study, family room, or similar space.
   Paneling is paired with another material on a single wall--it
    isn't unusual for the top of a wall to be drywall and the bottom
    half to be wood paneling or wainscoting, for example:Wood
    paneling is typically installed as solid, interlocking boards.
   Sheets of wood are fairly thin, normally 1/4 to 3/4 inch thick,
    and are made of different kinds of hardwood that can be given
    a clear finish or less expensive woods meant to be stained or
   Boards may be milled to overlap or to interlock with tongue-
    and-groove or shiplap edges.
   Wood paneling is also sold as a 4-by-8-foot sheet material with
    a wood-veneered or simulated wood surface.
                TYPES OF PANELLING
 Cut your wood or plastic moldings in a miter box using a fine-
  tooth saw. If the moldings are prefinished, clean them with a
  dry cloth. Otherwise, apply paint or stain and a clear finish to
  complete your paneling project.
 Paneling can be cleaned with a dish detergent solution or
  mild cleaner.
 Avoid strong alkalis and solvents. Exercise care if the shellac
  or varnish is cracked, as moisture may penetrate and stain
  the grain. Beware of cleaning bare wood. Since unsealed
  wood lacks a shield of finish, the grain will absorb moisture,
  grease, crayon and fingerprints.
 An unfinished panel is hard to clean without making it look
  worse and requires regular "feeding" with oils and polishes to
  prevent wood drying.
 External coating systems must be maintained in accordance
  with the respective manufacturer’s instructions and all
  damage repaired promptly to ensure the ongoing weather
  tight properties of the coating systems.
 In addition to these system-specific requirements, the
  following general maintenance procedures must also be
  implemented Any dirt accumulation or organic growth that
  may occur should be regularly removed from the external
  surface by cleaning with warm water and detergent and a soft
  bristled broom. Solvent-based cleaners must not be used.

  Step 1-
  Dust wood walls and paneling with a soft rag, or vacuum with
  a vacuum cleaner brush about every two weeks.
   Step 2-
Use a soft cloth to apply oil soap to particularly dirty wood according
to the oil soap manufacturer's directions.

   Step 3-
For tough stains, clean the wood with mineral spirits as a last resort.
To test for staining, use a soft cloth to apply the spirits to an
inconspicuous area of the wall. If the spirits do not stain, moisten the
cloth with mineral spirits and lightly dab the spot or stain. Allow to
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