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International Space Station - CMIE

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					 International
Space Station
     Team 5
    Jared Bell
    Dustin Lail
   Chris Martin
   Paul Nguyen
Timeline

  11/20/98
              12/4/98   5/27/99   5/19/00   7/12/00    9/8/00    10/11/00   10/30/00   11/30/00      2/7/01      3/8/01      4/19/01     7/12/01
  Mission 1
                2A        2A.1     2A.2A      1R       2A.2B        3A         2R         4A           5A         5A.1         6A          7A
     A/R




  8/10/01     9/14/01   12/5/01   4/8/02     6/5/02    10/7/02   11/23/02   7/26/05     7/4/06       9/9/06      12/9/06      6/8/07      8/8/07
    7A.1        4R       UF-1       8A        UF-2       9A        11A        LF 1      ULF 1.1       12A         12A.1        13A        13A.1




  10/23/07    2/7/08    3/11/08   5/31/08   11/14/08   3/15/09   7/15/09    8/28/09    11/10/09    11/16/09      2/8/10       4/5/10      5/14/10
    10A         1E       1 J/A       1J       ULF2       15A       2J/A       17A         5R         ULF3         20A          19A         ULF4




                                                                               http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/iss_assembly.html
Objectives
  •   1)   Protein Crystal Studies
  •   2)   Tissue Culture
  •   3)   Life in Low Gravity
  •   4)   Materials in Space
  •   5)   Fundamental Physics in Space
  •   6)   Observations of the Earth
Challenges: Power Supply
  • Powered by a total of 8
    Photovoltaic (PV) Solar
    Arrays
  • Each of the 4 larger solar
    arrays is about 1350 cubic
    feet in size
  • Arrays track the sun for
    maximum power generation
    (32.8 kW each)
  • Rechargeable nickel-
    hydrogen batteries power
    the station while it is
    eclipsed by the Earth
Challenges: Orbital Debris
  • The ISS orbits the Earth at a
    low altitude making it
    vulnerable to many types of
    flying debris
  • DAM- Debris Avoidance Man
    oeuvre is conducted if any large
    debris is heading towards the
    ISS
  • Uses thrusters to alter the
    space orbital altitude of the
    ISS- 8 DAMs have already been
    conducted
  • If identified too late, the crew
    must evacuate to an escape
    craft
Challenges: Radiation
  • Each crew member receives the
    equivalent of one years worth of
    radiation per day aboard the ISS
  • Highly affects the immune system
    of the crew and causes different
    types of cancer
  • Protective shielding and drugs
    have been implemented to
    protect from radiation
  • Despite their efforts, radiation is
    not vastly reduced and further
    technological advancement will
    be required for human spaceflight
    further into the solar system
Engineering Issues:
                           Life Support
    • Environmental Control and Life Support
      System (ECLSS)
      –   atmospheric pressure
      –   oxygen levels
      –    waste management
      –    water supply
      –   fire detection and suppression
Engineering Issues:
                  Life Support
Engineering Issues:
                            Life Support
    • Atmospheric Pressure
      – 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) the same as at sea level on
        Earth
    • Oxygen Generating System
      – Russian “Elektron” and US OGS
         • electrolyzes water from the Water Recovery System to
           produce oxygen and hydrogen
         • plagued with problems (Elektron)
            – backup sources of bottled oxygen and Solid Fuel Oxygen
              Generation (SFOG) canisters
Engineering Issues:
                              Life Support
    • By-Product Removal
      – Carbon dioxide
         • removed from the air by the Vozdukh
      – Methane and Ammonia
         • Activated charcoal filters
    • Water Recovery System
      – US system and Russian System
             – low pressure vacuum distillation process that uses a
               centrifuge to compensate for the lack of gravity
Engineering Issues:
                                   Orbit Control
    Altitude Control
    • Minimum mean altitude
      173 mi and a maximum of
      286 mi
    • 17,227 mi/hour
    • 15.7 orbits per day
    • Atmospheric drag pulls station
      to Earth at 1.24 mi/month
       – Must be boosted to higher
         altitude
           • Zevzda main engines
           • Docked vehicle
Engineering Issues:
                  Orbit Control
                      Attitude (Orientation) Control
                      • determined by a set of sun,
                        star and horizon sensors on
                        Zvezda
                      • Determined by the US GPS
                        with antennas
                      • a system of four control
                        moment gyroscopes (CMGs)
                        adjust
                      • Automatic thruster firings if
                        CMG is over saturated
Engineering Issues:
                          Communications
    • Russian Orbital Segment
       – Communicates directly with
         Earth via Lira antenna
       – Formerly could transmit via
         Luch Satellite in
         geosynchronous orbit
    • US Orbital Segment
       – transmissions are routed via the
         US Tracking and Data Relay
         Satellite System (TDRSS) in
         geostationary orbit
           • the S band (used for audio)
           • Ku band (used for audio, video
             and data)
       – UHF Radio
           • EVAs
Human Exploration
  • Operated by “Expedition” Crews
    – Currently on Crew 24


  • Uninterrupted
  Human Presence

  • October 23, 2010
Human Exploration
  • Sleep Quarter Ventilation

  • No Shower on Board




                                • Food and Water

                                       • Exercise
Crew Expertise
  • Background in Engineering

  • Military Experience

  • Scientists

  • Aviations and Aeronautical
Questions

				
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