DELHI METRO RAIL
“A TECHNOLOGICAL AND FINANCIAL BREAKTHROUGH”
• Project Planning
• Financial and feasibility analysis
• Risk Management
• Project Implementation
• Project evaluation and maintainance
By, Fenil Shah
Roll No. : 319
MBA(Tech.) - Manufacturing
MAIN REASONS BEHIND METRO
As cities grow in size, the number of vehicular trips on road system
goes up. This requires a pragmatic policy shift to discourage private
modes and encourage public transport.
•Delhi has experienced phenomenal growth in population in the
last few decades. Its population has increased from 6 million in
1981 to almost 15 million today.
•For want of an efficient mass transport system, the number of
motor vehicles had increased from 0.5 million in 1981 to more than
4 million today.
•The result is extreme congestion on Delhi roads, ever slowing
speeds, increase in road accidents fuel wastage and environmental
pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two
thirds of the atmospheric pollution. 4
SOME KEY FACTS
• E Sreedharan took over as the managing director of Delhi Metro Rail in the year 1997
• Tow doubts raised
was it worth the effort?
Equally important, would it finish on time?
• subway railway system in a crowded metropolitan city isn’t easy
• A large number of utilities like water pipes, sewerage lines, telephone and electric
cables need to be relocated to facilitate the construction work; people have to be
• India’s first metro project in the eastern city of Kolkata took more than 25 years to
In the case of Delhi, as many as 35 studies have been done on the transport problems of
Delhi since 1950 – and a number have suggested the Metro Rail for a solution in Delhi
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN
• Planning for the metro started in 1984, when the Delhi Development
Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for
developing a multi-modal transport system for the city.
• The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up the
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) in 1995.
• Construction started in 1998, and the first section,
on the Red Line, opened in 2002,
followed by the Yellow Line in 2004,
the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009,
the Green and Violet Lines in 2010.
• Subsequently, these lines have been extended and new lines are under
construction in Phase II of the project, including the Delhi Airport Metro
Express whose opening has been postponed until December 2010 due to
First Last Length Rolling
Line Stations Terminals
operational Extension (km) stock
December June 4, Dilshad
Red Line 21 25.1 Rithala 23 trains
24, 2002 2008 Garden
Yellow December September
34 45 Jahangirpuri City 45 trains
Line 20, 2004 3, 2010
December October Noida City Dwarka
Blue Line 44 50 59 trains
31, 2005 30, 2010 Centre Sector 21
January 8, Yamuna Anand
— 6 6.25
2010 Bank Vihar
Green April 3,
— 14 15.1 Inderlok Mundka 13 trains
October 3, Central Sarita
Violet Line — 13 15 29 trains
2010 Secretariat Vihar 7
•The Structures-Stations, Tunnels, Elevated Via-Duct
•The Rail Track
•The Rolling Stock
•Electrical Systems-Traction and Low Voltage Supply
•Train Control & Signaling Systems
ACTUAL WORKING ACCORDING TO PLAN
• Twenty-two kilometers of the metro project are up and running
• Not only has the DMRC has stuck within the completion targets, some stretches have
finished six months ahead of time and the entire project is expected to be completed
by December 2005
• To finish the project faster, work was going on three fronts simultaneously:
actual civil construction
Already, the Delhi Metro project rivals similar services in London, Seoul
and New York.
• The station air-conditioning and ventilation system in tunnels have been planned to
meet the rigorous climatic conditions of Delhi. The coaches are all air-conditioned.
• Ticketing is fully automatic. Contact-less smart cards serve the purpose of tickets for
INTO THE DMRC
• All entrances of the metro stations should be controlled through
automatic flap gates through which 45 to 60 passengers can exit
and enter per minute
• The entire fare collection system should be monitored through a
central commuter in the operational control Centre of the DMRC.
But the real marvel of the Delhi Metro project stems from two
• First is the way in which a foreign dependent project has been
localized and re-engineered
• This was done by roping in Indian companies as consortium
members at each stage of the project.
Over the course of the seven-year venture, several capabilities have been acquired by
the Indian partners
• 2002 Indian engineering firm Bharat Earth Movers Ltd signed a contract with South
Korean firm Rotem for manufacturing rust-proof and has fibre-reinforced interiors
steel coaches within India under a transfer of technology agreement.
• A year later, Bharat Earth Movers (BEML) released the first rake comprising two
engines and four trailer coaches. By 2005, BEML will supply 180 coaches.
Alongside the manufacturing practices, project management processes have also been
• When the metro project started, a five-member consortium managed it.
Four of them were global firms:
• Pacific Consultants International,
• Railway Technical Services and
• Tonichi Engineering Consultants from Japan, and
• Parson Brinkerhoff International from the US
• Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) was the only Indian consultant.
• for the final stretch of the metro project, DMRC and RITES are confident enough to
navigate the venture from here alone, even though the third stretch will pass through
some of the most congested areas of Delhi.
• DMRC’s domain expertise acquired over the last seven years is now being used to
develop feasibility studies for other metro projects
The studies include
• route alignment,
• utility mapping, and
• projected demand for transport in the next five decades,
• soil testing,
• environmental impact and
• system designing
‘‘We (DMRC and its partners) have acquired the expertise for most of the work.
• We have always wanted to have a more patriotic approach in our work and are proud
that we can do the job ourselves in such little time,’’ says DMRC managing director E.
Sreedharan said in a recent interview.
• An important reason why DMRC’s skills are being taken to other cities is the cost factor.
• At a presentation made to the Andhra Pradesh government in 2003, Sridharan pointed
out that the cost of a 39.45 km metro project in Hyderabad was estimated at US$ 712
million at April 2003 prices, which translated into a per km cost of US$ 18 million.
• “The cost of the Delhi metro project at US $2.3 billion for 66 kms of tracks is higher
since most of the technology has been sourced from abroad,” Mr Sridharan said during
• DMRC not only brings in experience and lower costs, it also shows the rest of India and
the world how to put together a world-class project within a world- class timeframe.
• The Project implementation period compressed from 10 years to 7 years.
Several extensions to the Delhi Metro network have been planned.
Phase III, tentatively composed of six routes covering 69.57 kilometres
(43.23 mi), has a 2015 deadline. The following routes have received
Cabinet clearance and are expected to commence construction by the end
In addition, a 13.8 km (8.6 mi) long extension of the Violet Line from
Badarpur into Faridabad in neighbouring Haryana at a cost of 2,533 crore
(US$ 574.99 million) has received budgetary and other clearances, and
construction is set to begin in October 2010.
Route Terminals Length Stations
New Delhi – IGI
December 2010 Airport Express Airport – Dwarka 22.7 km (14.1 mi) 5
Sarita Vihar –
December 2010 Violet Line 5.16 km (3.21 mi) 3
Kirti Nagar –
March 2011 Green Line 3.32 km (2.06 mi) 2
Ashok Park Main
Anand Vihar –
June 2011 Blue Line 2.5 km (1.6 mi) 2
• Phase IV has a 2020 deadline, and tentatively includes further extensions to
Sonia Vihar, Reola Khanpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Ghazipur, Noida Sector 62,
Gurgaon and Faridabad, having a total length of 108.5 km (67.4 mi).
• Apart from these lines in Phases I to IV, plans have been mooted to construct a
new line from Noida Sector 62 to Greater Noida which will intersect Indraprastha
– Noida Sector 32 line.
• The Ghaziabad Development Authority is planning to extend Delhi Metro lines
deeper into Ghaziabad in three phases, including the extension of the Blue Line
from Anand Vihar to Vaishali, and subsequently to Mehrauli via Indirapuram, as
well as the extension of the Red Line from Dilshad Garden to the new Ghaziabad
• The independently operated Gurgaon Metro, if built, will also interchange with the
Delhi Metro Rail
Financial and Feasibility Report
A Presentation by;
Roll No. : 323
MBA(Tech.) - Manufacturing
• Need for Metro
• Project costing
• Benefits of Metro
• Financial Evaluation
The Urgent Need
• Delhi, the capital city of India, is one of the fastest
growing cities in the world with a population of 13
million as reported in the Census of India Report for
the year 2000.
• Until recently, it was perhaps the only city of its size in
the world depending almost entirely on roads as the
sole mode of mass transport.
• The increase in road length is not at par with the
phenomenal growth in the number of vehicles on
roads in Delhi.
The Urgent Need
• Delhi has now become the fourth most polluted city in the world,
with automobiles contributing more than two thirds of the total
• In this context, the decision of the Government of India to develop
a mass transport system for Delhi providing alternative modes of
transport to the passengers was most appropriate.
• The first concrete step in the launching of an Integrated Multi Mode
Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) for Delhi was taken when a
feasibility study for developing a multi-modal MRTS system was
commissioned by the Government of the National Capital Territory
of Delhi (GNCTD)
Overview of Costing
• The construction of the first phase of DM was
spread over 10 years during 1995-96 to 2004-
05 while that of the second phase, which
started in 2005-2006 is expected to be
complete by 2010-11.
• The total capital cost of DM at 2004 prices for
Phase I and Phase II are estimated as Rs.
64,060 and Rs. 80,260 million, respectively.
Overview of Costing
Financial Costs and Benefits
of the Metro
• It is important to examine the financial feasibility of
DM before actually taking up its economic appraisal.
• The financial evaluation of a project requires the
analysis of its annual cash flows of revenue and costs
considering it as a commercial organization operating
with the objective of maximizing private profits.
• The financial capital cost of DM represents the time
stream of investment made by it during its lifetime.
Financial Costs and Benefits of
• The investment expenditures made by the project in one of the
years during its life time constitutes the purchase of capital goods,
cost of acquisition of land and payments made to skilled and
unskilled labour and material inputs for project construction.
• The operation and maintenance cost of the project constitutes the
annual expenditure incurred on energy, material inputs for
maintenance and payments made to skilled and unskilled labour.
• The investment goods and material inputs used by the project are
evaluated at market prices, given the definition of market price of a
commodity as producer price plus commodity tax minus
commodity subsidy. If the government gives some commodity tax
concessions to DM, they are reflected in the prices paid by DM for
Sources of Funding
Sources of Funding
• More than 60 percent of the funds required for investment are raised as debt capital.
• Around 30 percent of total investments of DM are raised through equity capital with the
Government of India (GOI) and GNCTD having equal shares in it.
• The remaining 10 percent of the investments of DM will be covered out of the revenues it earns.
• As reported in RITES (1995a), the DM had been provided with the following concessions by GOI to
make the project viable, namely :
(a) The cost of land equivalent to Rs. 2180 million has been provided as an interest free
subordinate loan by GOI/GNCTD to be repaid by the DM within 5 years after the senior debt is
repaid fully by the twentieth year of taking the loan
(b) The risk associated with the exchange rate fluctuations is borne by government in case of
(c) The DM is exempted from payment of income tax, capital gains tax, property tax and customs
duty on imports,
(d) The DM is permitted to generate resources through property development over a period of 6-20
(e) No dividend is paid on GOI share of equity till the senior debt is repaid fully by the twentieth
Cost Estimate of DM (Phase I)
Fare Sensitivity of Ridership
on the Metro
Estimates of Daily Passenger Trips
by Metro (in lakhs)
Estimates of Financial Flows of
Revenue Earned by
DM (Phases I and II) During its Lifetime
Measurement of Economic Costs and
Benefits of Metro
• Reduction in the number of vehicles on road
• Savings in fuel consumption
• Reduction in air pollution
• Savings in passenger time
• Savings due to fewer accidents
• Savings in vehicular operating costs due to the
• Savings in Capital and Operating Cost of
Reduction in the number
of vehicles on road
The economic benefits from the reduced number of
vehicles on Delhi roads due to the Metro could be
identified as the following:
•Savings in Foreign Exchange due to reduced Fuel
• Reduction in Pollution
• Savings in Time for all passengers using Metro and Roads
• Savings in Accidents
• Savings in Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) due to decongestion
for residual traffic
• Savings in Capital and Operating cost of diverted vehicles
• Savings in the cost of Road Infrastructure
Savings in fuel consumption
• There are savings in fuel consumption (inclusive of both CNG and petrol)
due to the diversion of a part of the Delhi road traffic to Metro and
reduced congestion to vehicles still operating on the roads.
• There is an inter-fuel substitution of petrol and CNG to electricity that
could result in savings of foreign exchange and a reduction of air pollution.
• RITES (2005a) has estimated the total reduction in CNG due to the traffic
of buses diverted to the Metro (Phases I & II) during the year 2011-12 as
39.65 million kg.
• Similarly, the fuel saved due to the diverted traffic of cars and two-
wheelers is estimated as 138.35 and 25.70 million litres respectively.
• When these fuel savings are valued at 2004 prices (Rs. 18/kg for CNG and
Rs. 38/litre for petrol) the corresponding fuel savings for cars, two-
wheelers and buses are Rs. 5260, 9770 and 710 million, respectively.
Savings in fuel consumption
Reduction in air pollution
• Fewer vehicles and the decongestion for the residual traffic on
Delhi roads due to Metro could lead to reduced air pollution.
• The distance saved due to decongestion is estimated by multiplying
the time saved with the speed of a vehicle in a decongested
• An estimate of the pollution reduction by a vehicle in this context
could be obtained by multiplying the distance saved by the relevant
emission coefficient for different pollutants for each category of
• The cost of conversion of vehicles from Euro II norms to Euro IV
norms are also taken under consideration
Reduction in air pollution
Savings in passenger time
• The savings of travel time of passengers traveling by
the Metro instead of by road are calculated as the
product of the number of passengers traveled daily and
the time saved on the average passenger lead in Delhi.
Savings due to
• The Road User Cost Study (CRRI, 2002) later updated by Dr.
L. R. Kadiyali et. al. in association with the Loss Prevention
Association of India provides estimates of the cost of
various accidents on road.
• Components like gross loss of future output due to
death/major injury, medical treatment expenses, legal
expenses, administrative expenses on police, insurance
companies and the intangible psychosomatic cost of pain
were included in the estimation.
• In the case of buses and other public vehicles, the loss due
to lay off period and unproductive wages paid to the crew
are also included.
Savings due to
Savings in vehicular
• Annual vehicle operating cost is substantially reduced
due to the higher speed of vehicles and consequently
lesser hours on road.
• It is estimated as the product of the residual traffic,
time saved on average lead per vehicle annually and
the vehicle operating cost per hour.
• According to RITES (2005b), the value of this
component for the year 2011-12 is Rs. 15040 million.
• Creation of over 1000 temporary skilled jobs.
• Creation of 500 permanent skilled jobs.
• Employment to about 10000 unskilled
• Development of areas near to metro.
• Bringing the NCR nearer to the city.
• The Delhi Metro planned in four phases is part of an Integrated Multi
Mode Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) planned for dealing with
the fast growing passenger traffic demand in Delhi.
• It provides an alternative safe and comfortable mode of transport by
rail to a large fraction of passengers using the road transport in Delhi.
• The financial cost-benefit ratio of the Metro is estimated as 2.30 and
1.92 at 8 percent and 10 percent discount rates respectively while its
financial internal rate of return is estimated as 17 percent.
(DELHI RAIL METRO PROJECT)
ROLL NO. 320
• Project Risk Assessment is an integral part of Project Risk
Management which primarily comprises of cost and
schedule uncertainties and risks.
• These risks can be assessed or measured in terms of
likelihood, impact and consequences.
• For a complex mega infrastructure project like construction
of an underground corridor for metro rail operations, risk
assessment should be mandatory during the conceptual
and feasibility phase of the project
• The decision making authorities of the project should take
appropriate decision pertaining to the adoption of the
mitigation measures for reducing the likelihood of
occurrence of the identified risks involved in the project
• These risks can be assessed or measured in terms of likelihood,
impact and consequences. The most appropriate way of dealing
with the project risk is treating it as a function of likelihood and
impact [Risk = f (likelihood, impact)]
• Finally, as risk is a component which cannot be eliminated, suitable
risk mitigation measures are to be suggested which will enable to
reduce the identified project risks.
• The major activities of the underground corridor construction
consist of feasibility studies, design, traffic diversion, utility
diversion, survey works, soldier piling and king piling works, timber
lagging works, soil and rock excavation, construction decks, steel
struts, rock anchors, subfloor drainage, waterproofing, permanent
structure works, mechanical and electrical installations and
backfilling and restoration works.
• A proper risk mitigation plan if developed for
the identified risks, it would ensure better and
smooth achievement of project goals within
specified time, cost and quality parameters.
• It would also ensure better construction safety
throughout the execution and operational
phase of the project.
Risk Analysis by Expected Value
• The Base Time Estimate (BTE) and Base Cost Estimate (BCE) of all the
major activities of the project and also for their work packages have been
calculated as per the detailed construction drawings, method statement
and specifications for the works collected from the project.
• The corresponding expected failure time or Corrective Time (CT) for each
activity and their expected failure cost or Corrective Cost (CC) has been
tabulated. The Likelihood of failure (Li) of each activity as per the feedback
from the questionnaire survey from the experts has also been tabulated.
• This value ranges from 0 to 1. The corresponding Weightage (Wi) of each
activity has also been obtained from the feedback of the questionnaire
survey circulated among the experts. The summation of the weightages
should be equal to 1. ie. “Wi = 1. The weightages can be based on Local
Priority (LP) where the weightages of all the activities of a particular work
package equals to1. For Global Priority (GP) the weightages of all the
interrelated work packages of the project equals to 1
• The Risk Cost (RC) and Risk Time (RT) of the activities of the different work
packages of the project can be obtained from the following relationship:
Risk Cost (RC) = Corrective Cost (CC) x Likelihood of failure (Li) -----------(1)
Risk Time (RT) = Corrective Time (CT) x Likelihood of failure (Li) -----------(2)
• Composite Likelihood Factor (CLF) = L1(W1) + L2 (W2) + L3 (W3) + ……… + Ln
(Wn) = Σ Li
• Composite Impact Factor (CIF) = I1(W1) + I2 (W2) + I3 (W3) + ……… + In (Wn)
= Σ Ii Wi
• Where Ii and Wi are the Impacts and Weightages respectively of the ith risk
source of the activities of a work package. The values of Ii ranges from 0 to
1 and Σ Wi = 1.
• Risk Consequence / Severity (RS) = Li x Ii ----------(5)
Here Li and Ii are Likelihood and Impact respectively of the ith risk
source of a work package.
• Risk Consequence / Severity can also be expressed as:
• Risk Consequence / Severity (RS) = CLF + CIF – CLF (CIF) ----------(6)
• The Risk Consequence derived from this equation measures how
serious the risk is to project performance. Small values represent
unimportant risks that might be ignored and large values represent
important risks that need to be treated.
• Probable Cost (PC) = BCE + RC + Opportunity Cost -----------(7)
Probable Time (PT) = BTE + RT ----------(8)
CASE STUDY(DELHI RAIL METRO
• Details of the project of underground corridor of metro rail taken as case
study for Project Risk Management is described as below:
• Scope of work: Design and construction of underground Metro Corridor
MC1B from Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT) to Central Secretariat (Delhi)
with 6 underground stations and twin tunnel system. The underground
stations include Delhi Main, Chawri Bazzar, New Delhi, Connaught Place,
Patel Chowk and Central Secretariat.
• Client: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC)
• Contractor: International Metro Civil Contractors (IMCC JV) This is a joint
venture of five companies as stated below: DYWIDAG (Dykerhoff &
Widman AG, Germany) with 9% shares. L&T (Larsen & Toubro Ltd, India)
with 26% shares SAMSUNG (Samsung Corporation, South Korea) with 26%
shares IRCON (IRCON International Ltd, India) with 9.5% and SHIMIZU
(Shimizu Ltd, Japan) 9.5% shares.
• Consultant: General Consultants (GC) Type of contract: Design Build Turnkey
Contract Contract Period : April 2001 to March 2006 Total project cost: Rs. 1800
Crores. Length of route : 6569 m Tunnel (by Tunnel Boring Machine [TBM] ) –
• Tunnel (by Cut & Cover method) – 937m
• Station boxes – 1821m
• Depth of stations: 15 – 20 m below ground level
• Typical width of stations : Average 20m
• Typical length of stations: 275m to 300m Design life: 120 years for underground
structures and 50 years for super structures
• Major scope:
Excavation (soil) : 10,90,000 cu .
Excavation (rock): 2,15,000 cu .
Concreting : 3,00,000 cu .
• Reinforcement : 47,500 MT
• Strutting : 24,500 MT
Identification and Classification of Risks Involved in
Construction of Underground Corridor
• The risks identified at each phase of the project and its
subsequent work packages and activities are classified as
• FPR : Feasibility Project Risk
• PEPR 1: Pre execution Project Risk – Design Risks
• PEPR 2: Pre execution Project Risk – Technology Risks
• EPR 1: Execution Project Risk – Risks in traffic diversion
• EPR 2: Risks in utility diversion works
• EPR 3: Risks in survey works
• EPR 4: Risks in soldier piling and king piling works.
• EPR 5: Risks in timber lagging works.
• EPR 6: Risks in soil excavation works
• EPR 7: Risks in rock excavation works
• EPR 8: Risks in installation of construction decks
• EPR 9: Risks in installation of steel struts
• EPR 10: Risks in installation of rock anchors
• EPR 11: Risks in shotcreting and rock bolting works
• EPR 12: Risks in subfloor drainage works
• EPR 13: Risks in waterproofing works
• EPR 14: Risks in diaphragm wall construction
• EPR 15: Risks in top down construction
• EPR 16: Risks in permanent structure works
• EPR 17: Risks in mechanical and electrical installation works
• EPR 18: Risks in backfilling and restoration works
• Similarly for Feasibility, Design, Development and Execution
Phase, tables have been formulated for identification of the
risks involved in the respective work packages along with
their likelihood and weightages as obtained from the
questionnaire survey. Considering all the work packages,
the major type of risks identified for the underground
corridor project can be grouped and listed as follows:
• Delay in Approval of Detailed Project Report (DPR)
• Land Acquisition risks
• Design Risks
• Technology Selection Risks
• Approval and Permit Risks
• Joint Venture Risks
• Financial and Investment Risks
• Political Risks
• Environment Related Risks
• Geo-technical Risks
• Major / Minor Accidents during Execution
• Unforeseen Heavy Rains
• Force Majeure Risks like Flood, Fire, Earthquake etc.
• Labor Agitation and Strikes
• Inflation Risk
• Delayed Payment from Client
• Delayed Payment to Subcontractor
Application of EVM for Risk Analysis
• RC = Li x CC = 0.1 x 42,75,000 = Rs. 4,27,500. RT = Li x CT = 0.1 x 50 =
• Similarly the Risk Cost (RC) of the entire feasibility phase or work
package can be calculated as the summation of the RC of all the
activities of the work package ie Rs. 4,27,500 + 12,15,000 + …… +
26,512.5 = Rs. 2,63,62,888. The Risk Time (RT) for this feasibility
phase or work package is the total risk time along the critical path
ie. 5 + 6.9 + 11.25 + 6.25 + 1.3 +22.8 + 29.25 + 24 + 12.25 + 3 + 0.5 =
• Thus for this work package, Probable Cost (PC) = BCE + RC +
Opportunity Cost = 22,00,00,000 + 2,63,62,888 + 44,00,000
(assumed 2% of BCE) = 25,07,62,888. Further, the Probable Time
(PT) = BTE + RT = 530 + 122.5 = 652.5 days. Thereby it is observed
that the PC is about 13.98 % higher than BCE and PT is 23.11 %
higher than the BTE.
Risk Severity Analysis using Concept of CLF and CIF
• he product of likelihood and impact of a risk
can be considered as the severity of that risk.
This concept can be extended for multiple risk
sources in a work package the likelihood and
impact of which can be expressed in terms of
CLF and CIF respectively.
• Risk severity analysis has also been carried out
by PERT analysis and the outcome of both
EVM and PERT analysis in terms of severity of
the major work packages of the project is
presented in table 6.
Proposed Risk Assessor Model
MEASURES ADOPTED BY RISK
• TRANSFER OF RISK-This can be done using
contractual incentives, warranties, or penalties
attached to project performance, cost or
schedule measures. It is to be noted that entire
transfer of risk is impossible and transfer of one
kind of risk may inherit another kind of risk
• AVOID RISK-The risk management team should
make the project authorities aware that it is
always better to reduce risk to an acceptable
level than to attempt to completely avoid the
• RISK CONTINGENCY PLANNING-In risk
contingency planning the consequences of the
identified risks are anticipated and detailed plan
of action is prepared for mitigating these risks.
• ACCEPT RISK-For risks for which impacts or
consequences are not severe, and if the cost of
avoiding, reducing or transferring the risk exceeds
the benefit, then it may be advisable to accept
• In present research work it has been found that the
numbers of major and minor risks involved during the
construction of the project from the feasibility to
completion of the execution, are large and if not treated or
mitigated properly, the probability of successful completion
of the project within stipulated time and cost frame will
• As per the analysis carried out by EVM based on the expert
questionnaire survey the probable project cost for the
sample stretch under analysis (530 m, cut and cover tunnel
connecting Patel Chowk to Central Secretariat station,
Central Secretariat Station Box and 180m cut and cover
over-run tunnel) is about 23.90 % higher than the base cost
estimate of the project
• According to basic assumption made for the analytical procedure
adopted, the maximum permissible cost over-run for the project is
25 %, thus if proper Project Risk Management is not carried out by
the authority, the project will result in cost over-run and time over-
run which will ultimately reduce the feasibility of successful
completion of the project
• Hence considering the results of all the analysis carried out in this
research work it can be concluded that for complex infrastructure
projects like that of an underground corridor construction about Rs.
8.8 lakhs per day per station would be incurred extra if proper risk
management is not followed to mitigate the anticipated risks
• The proposed Risk Management Model will definitely benefit the
future anticipated metro projects in Indian cities like Chennai,
Mumbai, Chandigar, Ahmedabad and ongoing projects of Delhi,
Kolkata and Bangalore metro.
• The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system in the Delhi
that is built and is operated by the Delhi Metro Rail
Corporation Limited (DMRC).
• The first section of the Delhi Metro was opened on
December 24,2002. It became the second
underground rapid transit system in India, after
kolkata. The Delhi Metro has a combination of
elevated, at-grade and underground lines.
• Planning started in 1984
• DMRC was set up in1995 by Gov of India and DDA
• Construction started on 1st october ,1998
• The first section on red line was inaugrated by the
then PM of India,Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 24
The miracle project
• The entire Phase I of the project was completed
in December 2005, on budget and almost three
years ahead of schedule, an achievement
described as "nothing short of a miracle" by
• Dr. E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of the
Metro during the Phase I construction, was
declared "Indian of the Year for 2007" by CNN-
IBN news channel.
Work in progress
• Phase II consists of 127 km of new rail, of which the following
sections are under construction. This phase has completion
deadline of 2010.
• Yellow Line southwest
• Central Secretariat - QutubMinar - (Gurgaon)27.45
• Unnamed south
• Central Secretariat - Nehru Place - 20.04kms,15Sep 2010
• Blue Line west
• Dwarka (Delhi) Sector 9 - Sector 21 - IGI
Blue Line east
• Mayur Vihar - NOIDA Sector 32 City Centre15.0711Aug
• New Delhi Railway Station - Indira Gandhi International
Airport - Dwarka (Delhi)22.46kms,Sep 2010
Blue Line (branch) east - Vaishali (Ghaziabad)2.572kms,Mar
• Most of the work on phase II is completed
• Delhi airport metro express’s opening is
postponed to december 2010 due to safety
Line operational Extension
Red line December 24, June 4, 2008
Yellow line December 20, September 3,
Blue line December 31, October
January 8, 2010 -
Green line April 3, 2010 -
Violet line October 3, -
• The Red Line-inaugration of various sections:
• Tis Hazari – Trinagar (later renamed Inderlok)
on October 4, 2003,
• Inderlok – Rithala on March 31, 2004, and
• Shahdara – Dilshad Garden on June 4, 2008.
The yellow line
• It connects jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre
• The first section between Vishwa Vidyalaya
and Kasjmera Gate opened on December 20,
• Kashmere Gate – Central Secretariat opened
on July 3, 2005
• On 21 June 2010, an additional stretch from
QUTUB MINAR to HUDA City Centre in Gurgaon
• Chattarpur stn on this line opened on August 26,
• Due to delay in acquiring the land for
constructing the station, it was constructed using
pre-fabricated structures in a record time of nine
months and is the only station in the Delhi metro
network to be made completely of steel.
• The Blue Line was the third line of the Metro
to be opened, and the first to connect areas
• The first section of this line between Dwarka
and Barakhamba road was inaugurated on
December 31, 2005,
• subsequent sections opened between Dwarka
– Dwarka sector 9 on April 1, 2006,
• Barakhamba Road – Indraprasthaon
November 11, 2006,
• Indraprastha – Yamuna bank on May 10,
• Yamuna Bank –Noida city centre on
November 12, 2009,
• Dwarka Sector 9 – Dwarka sector 21 on
October 30, 2010
• A small stretch of 2.76 kilometres (1.71 mi)
from Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21
was inaugurated on October 30, 2010
• Opened in 2010, the Green Line was the first
• connects Mundkawith Inderlok
• An interchange with the Red line is available at
Inderlok station via an integrated concoursege
corridor of the Delhi Metro
• The Violet Line is the most recent line of the
Metro to be opened
• Inaugurated on October 3, 2010, just hours
before the inaugural ceremony of the 2010
Commonwealth Games, and connects the
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium which was the
venue for the opening and closing ceremonies
of the event
• Completed in just 41 months
Routes under construction
• The Airport Express line runs for
22.7 km (14.1 mi) from New Delhi
Railway Station to Dwarka Sector
21, linking the Indira Gandhi
• Originally scheduled to open
before the 2010 Commonwealth
Games, the line failed to obtain the
mandatory safety clearance, and
was rescheduled to open by the
middle of November 2010
• The line is still to be completed with its final
safety inspections and get clearances which is
scheduled in December 2010
Phase III extensions
• The following routes have received Cabinet
clearance and are expected to commence
construction by the end of 2010:
• Central Secretariat to Red Fort (6.8 km)
• Rajouri Garden to Mukundupur (12.4 km)
• Jahangirpuri to Badali (3.4 km)
• Three lines are still pending approval:
• Anand Vihar to Dhaula Kuan (25.66 km)
• Malviya Nagar to Kalindi Kunj (11.64 km)
• Ashok Park to Delhi Gate (9.64 km)
• Phase IV has a 2020 deadline, and tentatively
includes further extensions to Sonia Vihar,
Reola Khanpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Ghazipur,
Noida Sector 62, Gurgaon and Faridabad,
having a total length of 108.5 km (67.4 mi)
Implementing a project requires a lot of
attention specially in the field of risk management.
Similar concepts we will be observed here.The drawbacks ,its
solution ,its future references should be dealt with.
Construction work on the project
commenced on October 1, 1998. The entire project was divided
into 4 phases. Further, these lines were divided into sections :-
Line Stations Terminals Rolling stock
Red Line 21 25.1 Dilshad Garden Rithala 23 trains
Yellow Line 34 45 Jahangirpuri 45 trains
Noida City Dwarka Sector
Blue Line 59 trains[
6 6.25 Yamuna Bank Anand Vihar
Green Line 14 15.1 Inderlok Mundka 13 trains
Violet Line 13 15 Sarita Vihar 29 trains
Route Terminals Length Stations
New Delhi – IGI Airport – Dwarka
■ Airport Express 22.7 km (14.1 mi) 5
■ Violet Line Sarita Vihar – Badarpur 5.16 km (3.21 mi) 3
■ Green Line Kirti Nagar – Ashok Park Main 3.32 km (2.06 mi) 2
■ Blue Line Anand Vihar – Vaishali 2.5 km (1.6 mi) 2
Central Secretariat to Red Fort (6.8 km)
Rajouri Garden to Mukundupur (12.4 km)
Jahangirpuri to Badali (3.4 km)
Anand Vihar to Dhaula Kuan (25.66 km)
Malviya Nagar to Kalindi Kunj (11.64 km)
Ashok Park to Delhi Gate (9.64 km)
Delhi Metro Project is the biggest urban
intervention in India since Independence in 1947.
1.Project had to be executed in very difficult
It faced the challenge of relocating a large
number of utilities like water pipes, sewerage lines, telephone and
electric cables to facilitate the construction work, apart from the
overwhelming challenge of relocating people.
2.Being in the capital city all actions under close
scrutiny of WIPs
This project required close attention as there were various
links interconnected for creating a route
3. Strong calculations were necessary
The power generated ,or the force of the
metro trains on the supporting pillars had to be calculated
carefully as it may create damage to the surroundings if
4 Soil Erosion and Disposal
Runoff from unprotected excavated areas, quarry sites,
and underground tunnel faces can result in excessive soil
erosion, especially in areas where excavation is susceptible to
erosion. The excavation of soil is done mainly for cut and
cover and tunneling and foundations.
5. Solid Waste
The range of solid waste during construction is varied, including
large quantities of earth, construction spoils (concrete, bricks)
waste materials such as metal, scraps, plastic, and paint scrap
(from utilities, welding and electrical works, and contractor
camps). Leakage from used lube oil, paint, and chemical containers
could be a potential source of water pollution.
6 Impact from Noise
The baseline noise levels are likely to increase during the
preconstruction and construction phases of the activities involving
site clearing and construction operations. During construction,
there may be high noise levels as a result of pile driving and the
use of compressors and drilling machinery. Diesel generator (DG)
sets, vent shafts, and loading and unloading activities all contribute
to the increase in the ambient noise level.
7. Impact on Water Quality
Water requirement for the construction are met from bore
wells along the route alignment. Spillage of earth, used water from
stone crushing, oils and greases, sewage waste, chemicals, and
concrete agitator washings can pollute water if they leach into
surface and the underground water.
High total suspended solids is a primary concern in regard
to water quality, considering its use in washing, dust suppression,
and other construction activities.
Through refinement of the alignment and the moving
of smaller trees, DMRC succeeded in reducing environmental
degradation. Because an extensive amount of green cover is affected
during the site-clearing operation (the construction phase), a manual
count of the existing trees on every median has been carried out to
identify the number of the trees that are likely to be affected and/or
cut during the construction phase.
For every tree cut during construction, the DMRC is
planting ten trees as compensatory afforestation. The Metro has
undertaken compensatory afforestation with an 83 percent survival
rate at Isapur, Najafgarh, Kakraula, and other sites.
It is paying for the planting and fencing of indigenous tree
species in two other sites. DMRC’s environmental policy statement
emphasizes conservation and enhancement of green cover.
Installing of dust screens and hoardings alongside
the construction area and doing regular water sprinkling during
material movement are proving to be beneficial.
Full-height fences, barriers, and barricades were
erected around the site to control dust during excavation.
During transportation of debris and much from construction
sites, trucks were covered and loaded with sufficient free
boarding space left at the top to avoid spills through the
tailboard or sideboards.
Noise control can be achieved by means of
automation, protective devices, noise barriers, soundproof
compartments and control rooms, and job rotation.
A site-specific noise-monitoring control plan guides
noise management and alters the scheduling to minimize noise. For
elevated corridors, a track structure without ballast is supported on
two layers of rubber pads to reduce noise and vibrations. In addition,
baffle wall for the parapets has been constructed up to the rail level
to reduce sound levels.
Wastewater from the construction site is not
discharged from the site into water bodies by the contractors. Any
water obtained from dewatering systems installed in the works is
reused for construction purposes or discharged to the drainage.
Adequate sanitary facilities and appropriate refuse
collection and disposal systems are maintained. All water and
waste products (surface runoff and wastewater) arising on the site
shall be collected and removed from the site via a suitable and
properly designed temporary drainage system.
Evaluation Of Delhi Metro Rail
• Public transport service has to meet the needs of commuters
• This includes accessible stations, minimum affordable time loss at
interchanges, safer and reliable services.
• 500 m. is an ideal walking distance,
• population residing along the metro within walking distance has the
highest accessibility to metro.
• the area within 500 m from the metro corridor is 31% (198.5 sq.km. out of
the 640 sq.km. of total urban area) of Delhi thus, after the implementation
of the complete system 69% area of Delhi will remain beyond walking
distance of metro.
• Expansion of metro influence zone beyond 31% will have to rely on
• This is not easy because of the inherent transfer costs and wait
times at interchanges
• phase 1, Shahadara – Barwala metro line of length 23.8 km has
Population residing within 0.5 km can reach metro by walking but
people residing at more than this distance have to use rickshaw or
• Population residing within the area of walking distance is 3,46,560
for the corridor length of 23.8 km
• Total length of metro line is 198.5 km, applying the same
methodology for accessible population as line 1, total population
residing within the distance of 0.5 km is 28,90,426.
• This is approximately 2.2 % of the total population of Delhi.
• Trips originating in the region of 0.5 km distance i.e. walking distance is
approximately 3,74,939 for metro length of 23.8 km. Applying same
weight to the total length of 198.5 km, number of trips originating in the
region of 0.5 km distance is 31,27,117. This shows that only 31,27,117
trips can be shifted to metro if all the persons have destination along the
Feeder service and an integrated ticket
• If a very good, coordinated, well-organized feeder system is provided to
the Metro, accessibility of metro will increase.
• DMRC is planning for an integrated ticket.
• If the integration works out, the same ticket will be valid in metro trains as
well as buses.
• However, this will translate to higher rider-ship only if commuters are
willing to accept the added transfer time and transfer costs.
• One of the Metro stop is Sahadra railway station, it is at walking distance
from Sahadra railway station and Sahadra bus terminal but people
traveling through this may not take benefit of metro due to restrictions on
carrying luggage in metro trains
• Many passengers coming and going through railway station and bus
terminal have a luggage with them as it is connected to long distance
• Metro is not available to them.
• Parking place outside the Metro station has been provided but non-metro
user can also use it.
• To encourage people to use Metro there should be a separate parking
place for the monthly pass holders.
INITIAL AND MAINTENANCE COST OF
• Total length of 198.5 km of metro rail will cost Rs.10751/- Crores
(excluding taxes and duties) and metro has not mentioned anything about
the maintenance cost.
• maintenance cost of metro rail is as much as the original cost.
• It should have been considered in the cost evaluation, as it needs a large
• Already 100% cost overrun is estimated for first phase of the metro (Rs.
12000 crores instead of Rs. 6000 crores estimated for first phase in 1996.)
ANNUAL MAINTENANCE OF RADIO TOWERS
FOR TWO YEARS AT VARIOUS STATIONS FOR
LINE 1 & 3 OF DMRC
DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION LTD.
TENDER Notice No:DMRC/S&T/Radio Towers/10-12
Name of the Work: Annual Maintenance of Radio towers
for Two years at various stations for Line 1 & 3 of DMRC
Sale of Tender Documents: 15/09/2010 to 07/10/2010
between 10:00 hrs to 17:00 hrs. &
08/10/2010 up to 14:00 hrs. (Working Days)
Date for Receipt of Tenders: 08/10/2010 up to 15:00 hrs.
Date & time of Opening of Tender: 08/10/2010 at 15:30 hrs.
1. Work Experience:
Bidder should have experience of having satisfactorily completed/executed of similar
type of works as detailed in the bid document and should have successfully
installation and commissioning during last 5 years as on 31st August 2010 and
should be either of the followings:-
(a) Three similar completed works costing not less than Rs 6,33,776/-*
(b) Two similar works costing not less than the Rs 7,92,220/-*
(c) One similar completed work costing not less than Rs.12,67,552/-*
(* - This value shall be computed by taking into account various items such as
maintenance of Radio Towers)
Order copies of works executed along with their satisfactorily completion letter
should be provided by Bidder.
2. Financial Standing (Annual Turn Over):
Applicant should have average Annual Turnover of Last Three
audited financial years not less
3. COMPLETION PERIOD:
The work should be completed within Two Years (731 Days) from
the date of issue of acceptance letter. No extension shall be
granted to the contractor unless the reasons are beyond his control
and the engineer in-charge is satisfied with the reasons.
4. Tender document consists of the following:
• Notice Inviting Tender
• Instructions to Tenderers
• Special Conditions of Contract.
• Bill of Quantities
5. Employer’s General conditions of contract are deemed to be part of tender
6. The Contract shall be governed by the tender documents.
7. The Tenderer may obtain further information in respect of these tender
documents from the office of Deputy General Manager/S&T at 6th Floor, Right
Wing, Metro Bhawan, 13 Fire
Brigade Lane, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi-110001.
8.DMRC reserves the right to accept or reject any or all proposals
without assigning any reasons.No tenderer shall have any cause of
action or claim against DMRC for rejection of his proposal.
Dy. General Manager / S&T-I
Metro Bhawan 6th floor
Left wing Barakhamba Road,
New Delhi 110001