45390065- Final- Delhi- Metro- Rail

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•   Project Planning
•   Financial and feasibility analysis
•   Risk Management
•   Scheduling
•   Project Implementation
•   Project evaluation and maintainance
By, Fenil Shah
Roll No. : 319
MBA(Tech.) - Manufacturing
As cities grow in size, the number of vehicular trips on road system
goes up. This requires a pragmatic policy shift to discourage private
modes and encourage public transport.
•Delhi has experienced phenomenal growth in population in the
last few decades. Its population has increased from 6 million in
1981 to almost 15 million today.
•For want of an efficient mass transport system, the number of
motor vehicles had increased from 0.5 million in 1981 to more than
4 million today.
•The result is extreme congestion on Delhi roads, ever slowing
speeds, increase in road accidents fuel wastage and environmental
pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two
thirds of the atmospheric pollution.                                4

• E Sreedharan took over as the managing director of Delhi Metro Rail in the year 1997
• Tow doubts raised
         was it worth the effort?
         Equally important, would it finish on time?
• subway railway system in a crowded metropolitan city isn’t easy
• A large number of utilities like water pipes, sewerage lines, telephone and electric
    cables need to be relocated to facilitate the construction work; people have to be
• India’s first metro project in the eastern city of Kolkata took more than 25 years to
In the case of Delhi, as many as 35 studies have been done on the transport problems of
Delhi since 1950 – and a number have suggested the Metro Rail for a solution in Delhi


 • Planning for the metro started in 1984, when the Delhi Development
   Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for
   developing a multi-modal transport system for the city.

 • The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up the
   Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) in 1995.

 • Construction started in 1998, and the first section,
          on the Red Line, opened in 2002,
          followed by the Yellow Line in 2004,
          the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009,
          the Green and Violet Lines in 2010.

 • Subsequently, these lines have been extended and new lines are under
   construction in Phase II of the project, including the Delhi Airport Metro
   Express whose opening has been postponed until December 2010 due to
   safety concerns.
                 First       Last               Length                            Rolling
   Line                             Stations                   Terminals
              operational Extension              (km)                              stock

              December      June 4,                      Dilshad
Red Line                               21      25.1                    Rithala   23 trains
              24, 2002       2008                        Garden

Yellow        December     September
                                       34      45        Jahangirpuri City       45 trains
Line          20, 2004       3, 2010

              December     October                       Noida City    Dwarka
Blue Line                              44      50                                59 trains
              31, 2005     30, 2010                      Centre        Sector 21

              January 8,                                 Yamuna        Anand
                              —        6       6.25
              2010                                       Bank          Vihar

Green         April 3,
                              —        14      15.1      Inderlok      Mundka 13 trains
Line          2010

              October 3,                                 Central       Sarita
Violet Line                   —        13      15                                29 trains
              2010                                       Secretariat   Vihar           7

•The Structures-Stations, Tunnels, Elevated Via-Duct
•The Rail Track
•The Rolling Stock
•Electrical Systems-Traction and Low Voltage Supply
•Train Control & Signaling Systems
•Telecommunication Systems
•Ticketing Systems


• Twenty-two kilometers of the metro project are up and running
• Not only has the DMRC has stuck within the completion targets, some stretches have
   finished six months ahead of time and the entire project is expected to be completed
   by December 2005
• To finish the project faster, work was going on three fronts simultaneously:
           utility diversion,
           barricading and
           actual civil construction
Already, the Delhi Metro project rivals similar services in London, Seoul
and New York.

• The station air-conditioning and ventilation system in tunnels have been planned to
  meet the rigorous climatic conditions of Delhi. The coaches are all air-conditioned.

• Ticketing is fully automatic. Contact-less smart cards serve the purpose of tickets for
  metro passengers.

• All entrances of the metro stations should be controlled through
  automatic flap gates through which 45 to 60 passengers can exit
  and enter per minute
• The entire fare collection system should be monitored through a
  central commuter in the operational control Centre of the DMRC.

But the real marvel of the Delhi Metro project stems from two
• First is the way in which a foreign dependent project has been
  localized and re-engineered
• This was done by roping in Indian companies as consortium
  members at each stage of the project.
Over the course of the seven-year venture, several capabilities have been acquired by
the Indian partners
• 2002 Indian engineering firm Bharat Earth Movers Ltd signed a contract with South
   Korean firm Rotem for manufacturing rust-proof and has fibre-reinforced interiors
   steel coaches within India under a transfer of technology agreement.
• A year later, Bharat Earth Movers (BEML) released the first rake comprising two
   engines and four trailer coaches. By 2005, BEML will supply 180 coaches.

Alongside the manufacturing practices, project management processes have also been
transferred seamlessly
• When the metro project started, a five-member consortium managed it.
 Four of them were global firms:
• Pacific Consultants International,
• Railway Technical Services and
• Tonichi Engineering Consultants from Japan, and
• Parson Brinkerhoff International from the US
• Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) was the only Indian consultant.

• for the final stretch of the metro project, DMRC and RITES are confident enough to
  navigate the venture from here alone, even though the third stretch will pass through
  some of the most congested areas of Delhi.
• DMRC’s domain expertise acquired over the last seven years is now being used to
  develop feasibility studies for other metro projects
The studies include
• route alignment,
• utility mapping, and
• projected demand for transport in the next five decades,
• soil testing,
• environmental impact and
• system designing


‘‘We (DMRC and its partners) have acquired the expertise for most of the work.
• We have always wanted to have a more patriotic approach in our work and are proud
   that we can do the job ourselves in such little time,’’ says DMRC managing director E.
   Sreedharan said in a recent interview.

• An important reason why DMRC’s skills are being taken to other cities is the cost factor.
• At a presentation made to the Andhra Pradesh government in 2003, Sridharan pointed
  out that the cost of a 39.45 km metro project in Hyderabad was estimated at US$ 712
  million at April 2003 prices, which translated into a per km cost of US$ 18 million.
• “The cost of the Delhi metro project at US $2.3 billion for 66 kms of tracks is higher
  since most of the technology has been sourced from abroad,” Mr Sridharan said during
  the presentation.
• DMRC not only brings in experience and lower costs, it also shows the rest of India and
  the world how to put together a world-class project within a world- class timeframe.
• The Project implementation period compressed from 10 years to 7 years.

Planned extensions
Several extensions to the Delhi Metro network have been planned.

Phase III

Phase III, tentatively composed of six routes covering 69.57 kilometres
(43.23 mi), has a 2015 deadline. The following routes have received
Cabinet clearance and are expected to commence construction by the end
of 2010.

In addition, a 13.8 km (8.6 mi) long extension of the Violet Line from
Badarpur into Faridabad in neighbouring Haryana at a cost of 2,533 crore
(US$ 574.99 million) has received budgetary and other clearances, and
construction is set to begin in October 2010.

                     Route          Terminals           Length            Stations
 Opening Date
                                New Delhi – IGI
December 2010   Airport Express Airport – Dwarka 22.7 km (14.1 mi)    5
                                Sector 21
                                 Sarita Vihar –
December 2010   Violet Line                       5.16 km (3.21 mi)   3
                                 Kirti Nagar –
March 2011      Green Line                       3.32 km (2.06 mi)    2
                                 Ashok Park Main
                                 Anand Vihar –
June 2011       Blue Line                         2.5 km (1.6 mi)     2
Phase IV

• Phase IV has a 2020 deadline, and tentatively includes further extensions to
  Sonia Vihar, Reola Khanpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Ghazipur, Noida Sector 62,
  Gurgaon and Faridabad, having a total length of 108.5 km (67.4 mi).

• Apart from these lines in Phases I to IV, plans have been mooted to construct a
  new line from Noida Sector 62 to Greater Noida which will intersect Indraprastha
  – Noida Sector 32 line.

• The Ghaziabad Development Authority is planning to extend Delhi Metro lines
  deeper into Ghaziabad in three phases, including the extension of the Blue Line
  from Anand Vihar to Vaishali, and subsequently to Mehrauli via Indirapuram, as
  well as the extension of the Red Line from Dilshad Garden to the new Ghaziabad
  bus stand.

• The independently operated Gurgaon Metro, if built, will also interchange with the
  Delhi Metro.

                     Delhi Metro Rail

                 Financial and Feasibility Report

A Presentation by;

Raj Shah

Roll No. : 323

MBA(Tech.) - Manufacturing

•   Introduction
•   Need for Metro
•   Project costing
•   Benefits of Metro
•   Financial Evaluation
•   Conclusion
               The Urgent Need
• Delhi, the capital city of India, is one of the fastest
  growing cities in the world with a population of 13
  million as reported in the Census of India Report for
  the year 2000.

• Until recently, it was perhaps the only city of its size in
  the world depending almost entirely on roads as the
  sole mode of mass transport.

• The increase in road length is not at par with the
  phenomenal growth in the number of vehicles on
  roads in Delhi.
                   The Urgent Need
• Delhi has now become the fourth most polluted city in the world,
  with automobiles contributing more than two thirds of the total
  atmospheric pollution.

• In this context, the decision of the Government of India to develop
  a mass transport system for Delhi providing alternative modes of
  transport to the passengers was most appropriate.

• The first concrete step in the launching of an Integrated Multi Mode
  Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) for Delhi was taken when a
  feasibility study for developing a multi-modal MRTS system was
  commissioned by the Government of the National Capital Territory
  of Delhi (GNCTD)
          Overview of Costing
• The construction of the first phase of DM was
  spread over 10 years during 1995-96 to 2004-
  05 while that of the second phase, which
  started in 2005-2006 is expected to be
  complete by 2010-11.

• The total capital cost of DM at 2004 prices for
  Phase I and Phase II are estimated as Rs.
  64,060 and Rs. 80,260 million, respectively.
Overview of Costing
         Financial Costs and Benefits
                of the Metro
• It is important to examine the financial feasibility of
  DM before actually taking up its economic appraisal.

• The financial evaluation of a project requires the
  analysis of its annual cash flows of revenue and costs
  considering it as a commercial organization operating
  with the objective of maximizing private profits.

• The financial capital cost of DM represents the time
  stream of investment made by it during its lifetime.
              Financial Costs and Benefits of
                         the Metro
• The investment expenditures made by the project in one of the
  years during its life time constitutes the purchase of capital goods,
  cost of acquisition of land and payments made to skilled and
  unskilled labour and material inputs for project construction.

• The operation and maintenance cost of the project constitutes the
  annual expenditure incurred on energy, material inputs for
  maintenance and payments made to skilled and unskilled labour.

• The investment goods and material inputs used by the project are
  evaluated at market prices, given the definition of market price of a
  commodity as producer price plus commodity tax minus
  commodity subsidy. If the government gives some commodity tax
  concessions to DM, they are reflected in the prices paid by DM for
  such commodities.
Sources of Funding
                         Sources of Funding

•   More than 60 percent of the funds required for investment are raised as debt capital.

•   Around 30 percent of total investments of DM are raised through equity capital with the
    Government of India (GOI) and GNCTD having equal shares in it.

•   The remaining 10 percent of the investments of DM will be covered out of the revenues it earns.

•   As reported in RITES (1995a), the DM had been provided with the following concessions by GOI to
    make the project viable, namely :
    (a) The cost of land equivalent to Rs. 2180 million has been provided as an interest free
    subordinate loan by GOI/GNCTD to be repaid by the DM within 5 years after the senior debt is
    repaid fully by the twentieth year of taking the loan
   (b) The risk associated with the exchange rate fluctuations is borne by government in case of
    foreign debt,
    (c) The DM is exempted from payment of income tax, capital gains tax, property tax and customs
    duty on imports,
   (d) The DM is permitted to generate resources through property development over a period of 6-20
    years and
   (e) No dividend is paid on GOI share of equity till the senior debt is repaid fully by the twentieth
Cost Estimate of DM (Phase I)
Fare Sensitivity of Ridership
       on the Metro
Estimates of Daily Passenger Trips
       by Metro (in lakhs)
   Estimates of Financial Flows of
        Revenue Earned by
DM (Phases I and II) During its Lifetime
      Measurement of Economic Costs and
             Benefits of Metro

• Reduction in the number of vehicles on road
• Savings in fuel consumption
• Reduction in air pollution
• Savings in passenger time
• Savings due to fewer accidents
• Savings in vehicular operating costs due to the
  decongestion effect
• Savings in Capital and Operating Cost of
  Diverted vehicles
          Reduction in the number
            of vehicles on road
   The economic benefits from the reduced number of
   vehicles on Delhi roads due to the Metro could be
   identified as the following:
•Savings in Foreign Exchange due to reduced Fuel
• Reduction in Pollution
• Savings in Time for all passengers using Metro and Roads
• Savings in Accidents
• Savings in Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) due to decongestion
   for residual traffic
• Savings in Capital and Operating cost of diverted vehicles
• Savings in the cost of Road Infrastructure
            Savings in fuel consumption

• There are savings in fuel consumption (inclusive of both CNG and petrol)
  due to the diversion of a part of the Delhi road traffic to Metro and
  reduced congestion to vehicles still operating on the roads.

• There is an inter-fuel substitution of petrol and CNG to electricity that
  could result in savings of foreign exchange and a reduction of air pollution.

• RITES (2005a) has estimated the total reduction in CNG due to the traffic
  of buses diverted to the Metro (Phases I & II) during the year 2011-12 as
  39.65 million kg.
• Similarly, the fuel saved due to the diverted traffic of cars and two-
  wheelers is estimated as 138.35 and 25.70 million litres respectively.

• When these fuel savings are valued at 2004 prices (Rs. 18/kg for CNG and
  Rs. 38/litre for petrol) the corresponding fuel savings for cars, two-
  wheelers and buses are Rs. 5260, 9770 and 710 million, respectively.
Savings in fuel consumption
            Reduction in air pollution

• Fewer vehicles and the decongestion for the residual traffic on
  Delhi roads due to Metro could lead to reduced air pollution.

•    The distance saved due to decongestion is estimated by multiplying
    the time saved with the speed of a vehicle in a decongested

• An estimate of the pollution reduction by a vehicle in this context
  could be obtained by multiplying the distance saved by the relevant
  emission coefficient for different pollutants for each category of

• The cost of conversion of vehicles from Euro II norms to Euro IV
  norms are also taken under consideration
Reduction in air pollution
         Savings in passenger time

• The savings of travel time of passengers traveling by
  the Metro instead of by road are calculated as the
  product of the number of passengers traveled daily and
  the time saved on the average passenger lead in Delhi.
                    Savings due to
                   fewer accidents
• The Road User Cost Study (CRRI, 2002) later updated by Dr.
  L. R. Kadiyali et. al. in association with the Loss Prevention
  Association of India provides estimates of the cost of
  various accidents on road.

• Components like gross loss of future output due to
  death/major injury, medical treatment expenses, legal
  expenses, administrative expenses on police, insurance
  companies and the intangible psychosomatic cost of pain
  were included in the estimation.

• In the case of buses and other public vehicles, the loss due
  to lay off period and unproductive wages paid to the crew
  are also included.
 Savings due to
fewer accidents
             Savings in vehicular
               operating costs
• Annual vehicle operating cost is substantially reduced
  due to the higher speed of vehicles and consequently
  lesser hours on road.

• It is estimated as the product of the residual traffic,
  time saved on average lead per vehicle annually and
  the vehicle operating cost per hour.

• According to RITES (2005b), the value of this
  component for the year 2011-12 is Rs. 15040 million.
              Other Benefits
• Creation of over 1000 temporary skilled jobs.
• Creation of 500 permanent skilled jobs.
• Employment to about 10000 unskilled
• Development of areas near to metro.
• Bringing the NCR nearer to the city.

• The Delhi Metro planned in four phases is part of an Integrated Multi
  Mode Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) planned for dealing with
  the fast growing passenger traffic demand in Delhi.

• It provides an alternative safe and comfortable mode of transport by
  rail to a large fraction of passengers using the road transport in Delhi.

• The financial cost-benefit ratio of the Metro is estimated as 2.30 and
  1.92 at 8 percent and 10 percent discount rates respectively while its
  financial internal rate of return is estimated as 17 percent.
                 DIVPREET SINGH

                   ROLL NO. 320

• Project Risk Assessment is an integral part of Project Risk
  Management which primarily comprises of cost and
  schedule uncertainties and risks.
• These risks can be assessed or measured in terms of
  likelihood, impact and consequences.
• For a complex mega infrastructure project like construction
  of an underground corridor for metro rail operations, risk
  assessment should be mandatory during the conceptual
  and feasibility phase of the project
• The decision making authorities of the project should take
  appropriate decision pertaining to the adoption of the
  mitigation measures for reducing the likelihood of
  occurrence of the identified risks involved in the project
• These risks can be assessed or measured in terms of likelihood,
  impact and consequences. The most appropriate way of dealing
  with the project risk is treating it as a function of likelihood and
  impact [Risk = f (likelihood, impact)]
• Finally, as risk is a component which cannot be eliminated, suitable
  risk mitigation measures are to be suggested which will enable to
  reduce the identified project risks.
• The major activities of the underground corridor construction
  consist of feasibility studies, design, traffic diversion, utility
  diversion, survey works, soldier piling and king piling works, timber
  lagging works, soil and rock excavation, construction decks, steel
  struts, rock anchors, subfloor drainage, waterproofing, permanent
  structure works, mechanical and electrical installations and
  backfilling and restoration works.
• A proper risk mitigation plan if developed for
  the identified risks, it would ensure better and
  smooth achievement of project goals within
  specified time, cost and quality parameters.
• It would also ensure better construction safety
  throughout the execution and operational
  phase of the project.
           Risk Analysis by Expected Value
                   Method (EVM)
• The Base Time Estimate (BTE) and Base Cost Estimate (BCE) of all the
  major activities of the project and also for their work packages have been
  calculated as per the detailed construction drawings, method statement
  and specifications for the works collected from the project.
• The corresponding expected failure time or Corrective Time (CT) for each
  activity and their expected failure cost or Corrective Cost (CC) has been
  tabulated. The Likelihood of failure (Li) of each activity as per the feedback
  from the questionnaire survey from the experts has also been tabulated.
• This value ranges from 0 to 1. The corresponding Weightage (Wi) of each
  activity has also been obtained from the feedback of the questionnaire
  survey circulated among the experts. The summation of the weightages
  should be equal to 1. ie. “Wi = 1. The weightages can be based on Local
  Priority (LP) where the weightages of all the activities of a particular work
  package equals to1. For Global Priority (GP) the weightages of all the
  interrelated work packages of the project equals to 1
• The Risk Cost (RC) and Risk Time (RT) of the activities of the different work
  packages of the project can be obtained from the following relationship:
   Risk Cost (RC) = Corrective Cost (CC) x Likelihood of failure (Li) -----------(1)
  Risk Time (RT) = Corrective Time (CT) x Likelihood of failure (Li) -----------(2)
• Composite Likelihood Factor (CLF) = L1(W1) + L2 (W2) + L3 (W3) + ……… + Ln
  (Wn) = Σ Li
• Composite Impact Factor (CIF) = I1(W1) + I2 (W2) + I3 (W3) + ……… + In (Wn)
  = Σ Ii Wi
• Where Ii and Wi are the Impacts and Weightages respectively of the ith risk
  source of the activities of a work package. The values of Ii ranges from 0 to
  1 and Σ Wi = 1.
• Risk Consequence / Severity (RS) = Li x Ii ----------(5)
  Here Li and Ii are Likelihood and Impact respectively of the ith risk
  source of a work package.
• Risk Consequence / Severity can also be expressed as:

• Risk Consequence / Severity (RS) = CLF + CIF – CLF (CIF) ----------(6)
• The Risk Consequence derived from this equation measures how
  serious the risk is to project performance. Small values represent
  unimportant risks that might be ignored and large values represent
  important risks that need to be treated.
• Probable Cost (PC) = BCE + RC + Opportunity Cost -----------(7)
   Probable Time (PT) = BTE + RT ----------(8)
• Details of the project of underground corridor of metro rail taken as case
  study for Project Risk Management is described as below:
• Scope of work: Design and construction of underground Metro Corridor
  MC1B from Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT) to Central Secretariat (Delhi)
  with 6 underground stations and twin tunnel system. The underground
  stations include Delhi Main, Chawri Bazzar, New Delhi, Connaught Place,
  Patel Chowk and Central Secretariat.
• Client: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC)
• Contractor: International Metro Civil Contractors (IMCC JV) This is a joint
  venture of five companies as stated below: DYWIDAG (Dykerhoff &
  Widman AG, Germany) with 9% shares. L&T (Larsen & Toubro Ltd, India)
  with 26% shares SAMSUNG (Samsung Corporation, South Korea) with 26%
  shares IRCON (IRCON International Ltd, India) with 9.5% and SHIMIZU
  (Shimizu Ltd, Japan) 9.5% shares.
•   Consultant: General Consultants (GC) Type of contract: Design Build Turnkey
    Contract Contract Period : April 2001 to March 2006 Total project cost: Rs. 1800
    Crores. Length of route : 6569 m Tunnel (by Tunnel Boring Machine [TBM] ) –
•   Tunnel (by Cut & Cover method) – 937m
•   Station boxes – 1821m
•   Depth of stations: 15 – 20 m below ground level
•   Typical width of stations : Average 20m
•    Typical length of stations: 275m to 300m Design life: 120 years for underground
    structures and 50 years for super structures
•    Major scope:
•                                   m
    Excavation (soil) : 10,90,000 cu‎ .
•                                   m
    Excavation (rock): 2,15,000 cu‎ .
•                             m
    Concreting : 3,00,000 cu‎ .
•   Reinforcement : 47,500 MT
•   Strutting : 24,500 MT
  Identification and Classification of Risks Involved in
         Construction of Underground Corridor
• The risks identified at each phase of the project and its
  subsequent work packages and activities are classified as
• FPR : Feasibility Project Risk
• PEPR 1: Pre execution Project Risk – Design Risks
• PEPR 2: Pre execution Project Risk – Technology Risks
• EPR 1: Execution Project Risk – Risks in traffic diversion
• EPR 2: Risks in utility diversion works
• EPR 3: Risks in survey works
• EPR 4: Risks in soldier piling and king piling works.
• EPR 5: Risks in timber lagging works.
• EPR 6: Risks in soil excavation works
• EPR 7: Risks in rock excavation works
•   EPR 8: Risks in installation of construction decks
•   EPR 9: Risks in installation of steel struts
•   EPR 10: Risks in installation of rock anchors
•   EPR 11: Risks in shotcreting and rock bolting works
•   EPR 12: Risks in subfloor drainage works
•   EPR 13: Risks in waterproofing works
•   EPR 14: Risks in diaphragm wall construction
•   EPR 15: Risks in top down construction
•   EPR 16: Risks in permanent structure works
•   EPR 17: Risks in mechanical and electrical installation works
•   EPR 18: Risks in backfilling and restoration works
• Similarly for Feasibility, Design, Development and Execution
  Phase, tables have been formulated for identification of the
  risks involved in the respective work packages along with
  their likelihood and weightages as obtained from the
  questionnaire survey. Considering all the work packages,
  the major type of risks identified for the underground
  corridor project can be grouped and listed as follows:
• Delay in Approval of Detailed Project Report (DPR)
• Land Acquisition risks
• Design Risks
• Technology Selection Risks
• Approval and Permit Risks
• Joint Venture Risks
•   Financial and Investment Risks
•   Political Risks
•   Environment Related Risks
•   Geo-technical Risks
•   Major / Minor Accidents during Execution
•   Unforeseen Heavy Rains
•   Force Majeure Risks like Flood, Fire, Earthquake etc.
•   Labor Agitation and Strikes
•   Inflation Risk
•   Delayed Payment from Client
•   Delayed Payment to Subcontractor
Application of EVM for Risk Analysis
• RC = Li x CC = 0.1 x 42,75,000 = Rs. 4,27,500. RT = Li x CT = 0.1 x 50 =
  5 days
• Similarly the Risk Cost (RC) of the entire feasibility phase or work
  package can be calculated as the summation of the RC of all the
  activities of the work package ie Rs. 4,27,500 + 12,15,000 + …… +
  26,512.5 = Rs. 2,63,62,888. The Risk Time (RT) for this feasibility
  phase or work package is the total risk time along the critical path
  ie. 5 + 6.9 + 11.25 + 6.25 + 1.3 +22.8 + 29.25 + 24 + 12.25 + 3 + 0.5 =
  122.5 days
• Thus for this work package, Probable Cost (PC) = BCE + RC +
  Opportunity Cost = 22,00,00,000 + 2,63,62,888 + 44,00,000
  (assumed 2% of BCE) = 25,07,62,888. Further, the Probable Time
  (PT) = BTE + RT = 530 + 122.5 = 652.5 days. Thereby it is observed
  that the PC is about 13.98 % higher than BCE and PT is 23.11 %
  higher than the BTE.
  Risk Severity Analysis using Concept of CLF and CIF

• he product of likelihood and impact of a risk
  can be considered as the severity of that risk.
  This concept can be extended for multiple risk
  sources in a work package the likelihood and
  impact of which can be expressed in terms of
  CLF and CIF respectively.
• Risk severity analysis has also been carried out
  by PERT analysis and the outcome of both
  EVM and PERT analysis in terms of severity of
  the major work packages of the project is
  presented in table 6.
Proposed Risk Assessor Model
• TRANSFER OF RISK-This can be done using
  contractual incentives, warranties, or penalties
  attached to project performance, cost or
  schedule measures. It is to be noted that entire
  transfer of risk is impossible and transfer of one
  kind of risk may inherit another kind of risk
• AVOID RISK-The risk management team should
  make the project authorities aware that it is
  always better to reduce risk to an acceptable
  level than to attempt to completely avoid the
  contingency planning the consequences of the
  identified risks are anticipated and detailed plan
  of action is prepared for mitigating these risks.
• ACCEPT RISK-For risks for which impacts or
  consequences are not severe, and if the cost of
  avoiding, reducing or transferring the risk exceeds
  the benefit, then it may be advisable to accept
  the risk

• In present research work it has been found that the
  numbers of major and minor risks involved during the
  construction of the project from the feasibility to
  completion of the execution, are large and if not treated or
  mitigated properly, the probability of successful completion
  of the project within stipulated time and cost frame will
• As per the analysis carried out by EVM based on the expert
  questionnaire survey the probable project cost for the
  sample stretch under analysis (530 m, cut and cover tunnel
  connecting Patel Chowk to Central Secretariat station,
  Central Secretariat Station Box and 180m cut and cover
  over-run tunnel) is about 23.90 % higher than the base cost
  estimate of the project
• According to basic assumption made for the analytical procedure
  adopted, the maximum permissible cost over-run for the project is
  25 %, thus if proper Project Risk Management is not carried out by
  the authority, the project will result in cost over-run and time over-
  run which will ultimately reduce the feasibility of successful
  completion of the project
• Hence considering the results of all the analysis carried out in this
  research work it can be concluded that for complex infrastructure
  projects like that of an underground corridor construction about Rs.
  8.8 lakhs per day per station would be incurred extra if proper risk
  management is not followed to mitigate the anticipated risks
• The proposed Risk Management Model will definitely benefit the
  future anticipated metro projects in Indian cities like Chennai,
  Mumbai, Chandigar, Ahmedabad and ongoing projects of Delhi,
  Kolkata and Bangalore metro.
• The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system in the Delhi
  that is built and is operated by the Delhi Metro Rail
  Corporation Limited (DMRC).

• The first section of the Delhi Metro was opened on
  December 24,2002. It became the second
  underground rapid transit system in India, after
  kolkata. The Delhi Metro has a combination of
  elevated, at-grade and underground lines.
• Planning started in 1984

• DMRC was set up in1995 by Gov of India and DDA

• Construction started on 1st october ,1998

• The first section on red line was inaugrated by the
  then PM of India,Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 24
  december 2002
           The miracle project
• The entire Phase I of the project was completed
  in December 2005, on budget and almost three
  years ahead of schedule, an achievement
  described as "nothing short of a miracle" by

• Dr. E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of the
  Metro during the Phase I construction, was
  declared "Indian of the Year for 2007" by CNN-
  IBN news channel.
                 Work in progress
• Phase II consists of 127 km of new rail, of which the following
  sections are under construction. This phase has completion
  deadline of 2010.

• Yellow Line southwest
• Central Secretariat - QutubMinar - (Gurgaon)27.45
  kms,19Jun 2010

• Unnamed south
• Central Secretariat - Nehru Place - 20.04kms,15Sep 2010

• Blue Line west
• Dwarka (Delhi) Sector 9 - Sector 21 - IGI
  Airport,6.26kms,3Sep 2010
Blue Line east
• Mayur Vihar - NOIDA Sector 32 City Centre15.0711Aug

Airport Express

• New Delhi Railway Station - Indira Gandhi International
  Airport - Dwarka (Delhi)22.46kms,Sep 2010

Blue Line (branch) east - Vaishali (Ghaziabad)2.572kms,Mar
• Most of the work on phase II is completed

• Delhi airport metro express’s opening is
  postponed to december 2010 due to safety
                  First              Last
        Line   operational       Extension

Red line       December 24,      June 4, 2008
Yellow line    December 20,      September 3,
               2004              2010
Blue line      December 31,      October
               2005              30,2010
               January 8, 2010      -

Green line     April 3, 2010        -
Violet line    October 3,           -
• The Red Line-inaugration of various sections:
• Tis Hazari – Trinagar (later renamed Inderlok)
  on October 4, 2003,

• Inderlok – Rithala on March 31, 2004, and

• Shahdara – Dilshad Garden on June 4, 2008.
              The yellow line
• It connects jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre

• The first section between Vishwa Vidyalaya
  and Kasjmera Gate opened on December 20,

• Kashmere Gate – Central Secretariat opened
  on July 3, 2005
• On 21 June 2010, an additional stretch from
  QUTUB MINAR to HUDA City Centre in Gurgaon
  was opened

• Chattarpur stn on this line opened on August 26,

• Due to delay in acquiring the land for
  constructing the station, it was constructed using
  pre-fabricated structures in a record time of nine
  months and is the only station in the Delhi metro
  network to be made completely of steel.
                  Blue line
• The Blue Line was the third line of the Metro
  to be opened, and the first to connect areas
  outside Delhi
• The first section of this line between Dwarka
  and Barakhamba road was inaugurated on
  December 31, 2005,
• subsequent sections opened between Dwarka
  – Dwarka sector 9 on April 1, 2006,
• Barakhamba Road – Indraprasthaon
  November 11, 2006,
• Indraprastha – Yamuna bank on May 10,
• Yamuna Bank –Noida city centre on
  November 12, 2009,
• Dwarka Sector 9 – Dwarka sector 21 on
  October 30, 2010
• A small stretch of 2.76 kilometres (1.71 mi)
  from Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21
  was inaugurated on October 30, 2010
                 Green line
• Opened in 2010, the Green Line was the first

• connects Mundkawith Inderlok

• An interchange with the Red line is available at
  Inderlok station via an integrated concoursege
  corridor of the Delhi Metro
               Violet line
• The Violet Line is the most recent line of the
  Metro to be opened
• Inaugurated on October 3, 2010, just hours
  before the inaugural ceremony of the 2010
  Commonwealth Games, and connects the
  Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium which was the
  venue for the opening and closing ceremonies
  of the event
• Completed in just 41 months
Routes under construction
• The Airport Express line runs for
  22.7 km (14.1 mi) from New Delhi
  Railway Station to Dwarka Sector
  21, linking the Indira Gandhi
  International Airport
• Originally scheduled to open
  before the 2010 Commonwealth
  Games, the line failed to obtain the
  mandatory safety clearance, and
  was rescheduled to open by the
  middle of November 2010
• The line is still to be completed with its final
  safety inspections and get clearances which is
  scheduled in December 2010
          Phase III extensions
• The following routes have received Cabinet
  clearance and are expected to commence
  construction by the end of 2010:

• Central Secretariat to Red Fort (6.8 km)
• Rajouri Garden to Mukundupur (12.4 km)
• Jahangirpuri to Badali (3.4 km)
• Three lines are still pending approval:

• Anand Vihar to Dhaula Kuan (25.66 km)
• Malviya Nagar to Kalindi Kunj (11.64 km)
• Ashok Park to Delhi Gate (9.64 km)
                  Phase IV
• Phase IV has a 2020 deadline, and tentatively
  includes further extensions to Sonia Vihar,
  Reola Khanpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Ghazipur,
  Noida Sector 62, Gurgaon and Faridabad,
  having a total length of 108.5 km (67.4 mi)
                           Implementing a project requires a lot of
attention specially in the field of risk management.
     Similar concepts we will be observed here.The drawbacks ,its
solution ,its future references should be dealt with.
                             Construction work on the project
commenced on October 1, 1998. The entire project was divided
into 4 phases. Further, these lines were divided into sections :-
                                 Phase I
  Line        Stations                        Terminals             Rolling stock

 Red Line       21        25.1     Dilshad Garden         Rithala    23 trains

                                                     HUDA City
Yellow Line     34        45        Jahangirpuri                     45 trains

                                     Noida City     Dwarka Sector
                44        50
                                      Centre             21
Blue Line                                                            59 trains[

                 6        6.25      Yamuna Bank     Anand Vihar

Green Line      14        15.1        Inderlok        Mundka         13 trains

Violet Line     13        15                         Sarita Vihar    29 trains
                                 Phase II
       Route                    Terminals                    Length            Stations

                    New Delhi – IGI Airport – Dwarka
■ Airport Express                                      22.7 km (14.1 mi)   5
                    Sector 21

■ Violet Line       Sarita Vihar – Badarpur            5.16 km (3.21 mi)   3

■ Green Line        Kirti Nagar – Ashok Park Main      3.32 km (2.06 mi)   2

■ Blue Line         Anand Vihar – Vaishali             2.5 km (1.6 mi)     2
                           PHASE III
Routes                                  distances

Central Secretariat to Red Fort        (6.8 km)

Rajouri Garden to Mukundupur           (12.4 km)

Jahangirpuri to Badali                  (3.4 km)

Anand Vihar to Dhaula Kuan             (25.66 km)

Malviya Nagar to Kalindi Kunj          (11.64 km)

Ashok Park to Delhi Gate                 (9.64 km)

                     Delhi Metro Project is the biggest urban
intervention in India since Independence in 1947.

            1.Project had to be executed in very difficult
urban environments.

                               It faced the challenge of relocating a large
number of utilities like water pipes, sewerage lines, telephone and
electric cables to facilitate the construction work, apart from the
overwhelming challenge of relocating people.

               2.Being in the capital city all actions under close
scrutiny of WIPs
              This project required close attention as there were various
links interconnected for creating a route
                3. Strong calculations were necessary
     The power generated ,or the force of the
metro trains on the supporting pillars had to be calculated
carefully as it may create damage to the surroundings if
                4     Soil Erosion and Disposal
     Runoff from unprotected excavated areas, quarry sites,
and underground tunnel faces can result in excessive soil
erosion, especially in areas where excavation is susceptible to
erosion. The excavation of soil is done mainly for cut and
cover and tunneling and foundations.
                    5.      Solid Waste
   The range of solid waste during construction is varied, including
large quantities of earth, construction spoils (concrete, bricks)
waste materials such as metal, scraps, plastic, and paint scrap
(from utilities, welding and electrical works, and contractor
camps). Leakage from used lube oil, paint, and chemical containers
could be a potential source of water pollution.
                    6      Impact from Noise
       The baseline noise levels are likely to increase during the
preconstruction and construction phases of the activities involving
site clearing and construction operations. During construction,
there may be high noise levels as a result of pile driving and the
use of compressors and drilling machinery. Diesel generator (DG)
sets, vent shafts, and loading and unloading activities all contribute
to the increase in the ambient noise level.
                      7.          Impact on Water Quality
         Water requirement for the construction are met from bore
wells along the route alignment. Spillage of earth, used water from
stone crushing, oils and greases, sewage waste, chemicals, and
concrete agitator washings can pollute water if they leach into
surface and the underground water.

         High total suspended solids is a primary concern in regard
to water quality, considering its use in washing, dust suppression,
and other construction activities.
                     Compensatory Afforestation
              Through refinement of the alignment and the moving
of smaller trees, DMRC succeeded in reducing environmental
degradation. Because an extensive amount of green cover is affected
during the site-clearing operation (the construction phase), a manual
count of the existing trees on every median has been carried out to
identify the number of the trees that are likely to be affected and/or
cut during the construction phase.
              For every tree cut during construction, the DMRC is
planting ten trees as compensatory afforestation. The Metro has
undertaken compensatory afforestation with an 83 percent survival
rate at Isapur, Najafgarh, Kakraula, and other sites.
       It is paying for the planting and fencing of indigenous tree
species in two other sites. DMRC’s environmental policy statement
emphasizes conservation and enhancement of green cover.
                          Dust Control
          Installing of dust screens and hoardings alongside
the construction area and doing regular water sprinkling during
material movement are proving to be beneficial.

            Full-height fences, barriers, and barricades were
erected around the site to control dust during excavation.
During transportation of debris and much from construction
sites, trucks were covered and loaded with sufficient free
boarding space left at the top to avoid spills through the
tailboard or sideboards.
                             Noise Control
             Noise control can be achieved by means of
automation, protective devices, noise barriers, soundproof
compartments and control rooms, and job rotation.

               A site-specific noise-monitoring control plan guides
noise management and alters the scheduling to minimize noise. For
elevated corridors, a track structure without ballast is supported on
two layers of rubber pads to reduce noise and vibrations. In addition,
baffle wall for the parapets has been constructed up to the rail level
to reduce sound levels.
                       Water Management
             Wastewater from the construction site is not
discharged from the site into water bodies by the contractors. Any
water obtained from dewatering systems installed in the works is
reused for construction purposes or discharged to the drainage.

               Adequate sanitary facilities and appropriate refuse
collection and disposal systems are maintained. All water and
waste products (surface runoff and wastewater) arising on the site
shall be collected and removed from the site via a suitable and
properly designed temporary drainage system.
Evaluation Of Delhi Metro Rail
                       Influence zone
• Public transport service has to meet the needs of commuters
• This includes accessible stations, minimum affordable time loss at
  interchanges, safer and reliable services.
• 500 m. is an ideal walking distance,
• population residing along the metro within walking distance has the
  highest accessibility to metro.
• the area within 500 m from the metro corridor is 31% (198.5 sq.km. out of
  the 640 sq.km. of total urban area) of Delhi thus, after the implementation
  of the complete system 69% area of Delhi will remain beyond walking
  distance of metro.
• Expansion of metro influence zone beyond 31% will have to rely on
  feeder system.
• This is not easy because of the inherent transfer costs and wait
  times at interchanges
• phase 1, Shahadara – Barwala metro line of length 23.8 km has
  Population residing within 0.5 km can reach metro by walking but
  people residing at more than this distance have to use rickshaw or
  feeder bus
• Population residing within the area of walking distance is 3,46,560
  for the corridor length of 23.8 km
• Total length of metro line is 198.5 km, applying the same
  methodology for accessible population as line 1, total population
  residing within the distance of 0.5 km is 28,90,426.
• This is approximately 2.2 % of the total population of Delhi.
• Trips originating in the region of 0.5 km distance i.e. walking distance is
  approximately 3,74,939 for metro length of 23.8 km. Applying same
  weight to the total length of 198.5 km, number of trips originating in the
  region of 0.5 km distance is 31,27,117. This shows that only 31,27,117
  trips can be shifted to metro if all the persons have destination along the
  metro corridor.
Feeder service and an integrated ticket
• If a very good, coordinated, well-organized feeder system is provided to
  the Metro, accessibility of metro will increase.
• DMRC is planning for an integrated ticket.
• If the integration works out, the same ticket will be valid in metro trains as
  well as buses.
• However, this will translate to higher rider-ship only if commuters are
  willing to accept the added transfer time and transfer costs.
• One of the Metro stop is Sahadra railway station, it is at walking distance
  from Sahadra railway station and Sahadra bus terminal but people
  traveling through this may not take benefit of metro due to restrictions on
  carrying luggage in metro trains
• Many passengers coming and going through railway station and bus
  terminal have a luggage with them as it is connected to long distance
• Metro is not available to them.
• Parking place outside the Metro station has been provided but non-metro
  user can also use it.
• To encourage people to use Metro there should be a separate parking
  place for the monthly pass holders.
• Total length of 198.5 km of metro rail will cost Rs.10751/- Crores
  (excluding taxes and duties) and metro has not mentioned anything about
  the maintenance cost.
• maintenance cost of metro rail is as much as the original cost.
• It should have been considered in the cost evaluation, as it needs a large
• Already 100% cost overrun is estimated for first phase of the metro (Rs.
  12000 crores instead of Rs. 6000 crores estimated for first phase in 1996.)
          LINE 1 & 3 OF DMRC
                    TENDER DOCUMENT
    TENDER Notice No:DMRC/S&T/Radio Towers/10-12
Name of the Work: Annual Maintenance of Radio towers
 for Two years at various stations for Line 1 & 3 of DMRC
   Sale of Tender Documents: 15/09/2010 to 07/10/2010
              between 10:00 hrs to 17:00 hrs. &
        08/10/2010 up to 14:00 hrs. (Working Days)
 Date for Receipt of Tenders: 08/10/2010 up to 15:00 hrs.
Date & time of Opening of Tender: 08/10/2010 at 15:30 hrs.
                   ELEGIBILITY CRITERIA
1. Work Experience:
Bidder should have experience of having satisfactorily completed/executed of similar
type of works as detailed in the bid document and should have successfully
installation and commissioning during last 5 years as on 31st August 2010 and
should be either of the followings:-
(a) Three similar completed works costing not less than Rs 6,33,776/-*
(b) Two similar works costing not less than the Rs 7,92,220/-*
(c) One similar completed work costing not less than Rs.12,67,552/-*
(* - This value shall be computed by taking into account various items such as
maintenance of Radio Towers)
Order copies of works executed along with their satisfactorily completion letter
should be provided by Bidder.
2. Financial Standing (Annual Turn Over):
        Applicant should have average Annual Turnover of Last Three
audited financial years not less
than Rs.6,33,776/-
The work should be completed within Two Years (731 Days) from
the date of issue of acceptance letter. No extension shall be
granted to the contractor unless the reasons are beyond his control
and the engineer in-charge is satisfied with the reasons.
4. Tender document consists of the following:
• Notice Inviting Tender
• Instructions to Tenderers
• Special Conditions of Contract.
• Bill of Quantities
5. Employer’s General conditions of contract are deemed to be part of tender
6. The Contract shall be governed by the tender documents.
7. The Tenderer may obtain further information in respect of these tender
documents from the office of Deputy General Manager/S&T at 6th Floor, Right
Wing, Metro Bhawan, 13 Fire
Brigade Lane, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi-110001.
8.DMRC reserves the right to accept or reject any or all proposals
without assigning any reasons.No tenderer shall have any cause of
action or claim against DMRC for rejection of his proposal.

                                         Dy. General Manager / S&T-I
                                              Metro Bhawan 6th floor
                                         Left wing Barakhamba Road,
                                                   New Delhi 110001

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