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GRADERS

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					                                                          GRADERS
       1.        GRADERS ARE MULTIPURPOSE MACHINES
                 USED FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES
       2.        A GREADER’S PRIMARY PURPOSE IS
                 CUTTING AND MOVING MATERIAL WITH THE
                 MOLDBOARD.
       3.        THEY ARE RESTRICTED TO MAKING
                 SHALLOW CUTS IN MEDIUM-HARD
                 MATERIALS
       4.        GRADERS SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR
                 HEAVY EXCAVATION.
       5.        RANGE FROM ABOUT 125 TO 250
                 HORSEPOWER.
       6.        IT CUTS DITCHES TO ABOUT 3 FEET IN
                 PROGRESSIVE PASSES.

             A GRADER CAN MOVE SMALL AMOUNTS OF
                MATERIAL BUT CANNOT PERFORM DOZER-
                     TYPE WORK BECAUSE OF THE
                 STRUCTURAL STRENGTH AND LOCATION
                         OF THE MOLDBOARD.

             GRADERS ARE CAPABLE OF WORKING ON
                      SLOPES AS STEEP AS 3:1




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                        GREADER OPERATIONS

            •    GRADING AND SHAPING SURFACES.
            •    DITCHING AND BANK SLOPING.
            •    MAINTAINING ROADS, RUNWAYS, PARKING LOTS AND SIMILAR SURFACES.
            •    LEVELING AND CROWNING ROADS, PARKING LOTS, ETC. LIGHT PLANING
                 OF IRREGULAR SURFACES.
            •    LIGHT SOIL STRIPPING (NOT EXCAVATION).
            •    LIGHT SPREADING OF LOSSE FILL.
            •    BACKFILLING DITCHES
            •    SNOW REMOVAL
            •    SCARIFYING OPERATIONS (BREAKING UP CERTAIN HARD SOILS, ASPHALT,
                 PAVEMENT, ETC.




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                                          COMPONENTS OF A GRADER




                                                                                               SCARIFIER
                                                                                               LOG




                                               MOLDBOARD /
                                               BLADE



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                   THE COMPONENTS OF THE GRADER THAT ACTUALLY DO THE
                   WORK ARE THE MOLDBOARD(BLADE) AND THE SCARIFIRE.




                        MOLDBOARD
            •     THE MOLDBOARD,COMMONLY
                 REFFERED TO AS BLADE,IS THE
                 WORKING MEMBER OF GRADER.
            •    A ROTATING CIRCLE CARRIES THE
                 MOLDBOARD,THROUGH
                 SOPHISTICATED HYDRAULICS,THE
                 MOLDBOARD CAN BE PLACED
                 INTO MANY POSITIONS EITHER
                 UNDER THE GRADER OR TO THE
                 SIDE.
            •    THE ENDS OF THE MOLDBOARD
                 CAN BE RAISED OR LOWERED
                 TOGETHER OR INDEPENDENTLY
                 OF ONE ANOTHER.




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                                                 MOLDBOARD ANGLE
                •THE MOLDBOARD CAN BE ANGLED(POSITIONED) AT ALMOST ANY ANGLE TO
                THE LINE OF TRAVEL,PARALLEL TO THE DIRECTION OF TRAVEL,SHIFTED TO
                EITHER SIDE,OR RAISED INTO VERTICAL POSITION.




                                                     MOLDBOARD PITCH

            •     FOR NORMAL WORK,THE MOLDBOARD IS KEPT NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PITCH
                  AJUSTMENT,WHICH KEEPS THE TOP OF THE MOLDBOARD DIRECTLY OVER THE
                  CUTTING EDGE HOWEVER THE TOP OF THE MOLDBOARD CAN BE LEANED FORWARD
                  OR BACKWARD.
            •     WHEN LEANED FORWARD THE CUTTING ABILITY OF THE MOLDBOARD IS DECREASED
                  AND IT HAS MORE DRAGGING ACTION.
            •     IT WILL TEND TO RIDE OVER THE MATERIAL RATHER THAN CUT AND PUSH.
            •     A FORWARD PITCH IS USED TO MAKE LIGHT ,RAPID CUTS AND TO BLEND MATERIALS.
            •     WHEN LEANED TO REAR, THE MOLDBOARD CUTS READILY.


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                                                         SCARIFIER
           •    MATERIAL TOO HARD TO CUT WITH
                THE MOLDBOARD SHOULD BE BROKEN
                UP WITH THE SCARIFIER.
           •    A SCARIFER IS AN ATTACHMENT HUNG
                BETWEEN THE FRONT AXLE AND THE
                MOLDBOARD.
           •    IT IS COMPOSED OF A SCARIFIER LOG
                WITH REMOVAL TEETH.THE TEETH CAN
                BE ADJUSTED TO CUT TO A DEPTH OF
                12 in.
           •    WHEN OPERATING IN A HARD
                MATERIAL,IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO
                REMOVE SOME OF THE TEETH.A MAX
                OF FIVE TEETH MAY BE REMOVED
                FROM THE LOG.
           •    IF MORE THAN FIVE TEETH ARE
                REMOVED ,THE FORCE AGAINST THE
                REMAINING TEETH COULD SHEAR
                THEM OFF.



                •WHEN REMOVING TEETH,TAKE THE CENTER ONE OUT FIRST,THEN ALTERNATELY
                REMOVE THE OTHER FOUR TEETH.

                •THIS BALANCES THE SCARIFIER AND DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD EVENLY.




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                                                  PLANING SURFACE




                       •     MOLDBOARD CAN BE SET AT AN ANGLE TO PLANE OFF
                             IRREGULAR SURFACE AND USE THE RESULTING
                             MATERIAL TO FILL LOW SPOTS.
                       •     CUT ENOUGH MATERIAL TO KEEP SOME IN FRONT OF THE
                             MOLDBOARD.
                       •     MOVE THE LOOSENED MATERIAL FORWARD AND
                             SIDEWAYS TO DISTRIBUTE IT EVENLY.

                       ROAD AND EMBANKMENT FINISH WORK AND SHALLOW DITCH
                            CONSTRUCTION ARE BASIC GRADER OPERATIONS.



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                                               ROAD MAINTENANCE




                      •     KEEP ROAD IN GOOD CONDITION.
                      •     GRADERS ARE THE BEST MACHINES FOR MAINTAINING
                            ROADS.
                      •     THE MOST EFFICIENT METHOD OF ROAD MAINTENANCE IS
                            TO USE SUFFICIENT GRADERS TO COMPLETE ONE SIDE OF
                            A ROAD AND THE OTHER SIDE IS LEFT OPEN FOR TRAFFIC.
                      •     ORDINARILY LEVELING AND MAINTAINING A SURFACE IS
                            DONE BY WORKING THE MATERIAL ACROSS THE ROAD
                            FROM ONE SIDE TO THE OTHER.


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                                                            DITCH CUT
         •     DITCHING CUTS ARE DONE IN SECOND GEAR AT FULL THROTTLE.
         •     THE TOE OF THE MOLDBOARD SHOULD BE IN LINE WITH THE
               OUTSIDE EDGE OF THE LEAD TIRE.




             CLEANING DITCHES
             TO REMOVE UNWANTED MATERIAL
             THAT WAS PUSHED INTO THE DITCH
             DURING THE BANK SLOPE
             OPERATION,PLACE THE MOLDBOARD
             IN THE SAME POSITION AS USED FOR
             THE DITCHING CUTS

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                                        CREATING A BANK SLOPE

            •    SLOPING THE BANK ON A
                 ROAD CUT PREVENTS SLOPE
                 FAILURE.
            •    IT ALSO PREVENTS
                 EXCESSIVE EROSION OF THE
                 BANK THAT COULD FILL THE
                 ROADSIDE DITCH.
            •    MAKE CUTS AS CLOSE TO THE
                 DESIGN SLOPE AS POSSIBLE
                 TO PREVENT HAVING TO
                 MAKE ADDITIONAL PASSES.
            •    THE MATERIAL CUT FROM THE
                 OUTER SLOPE IS INITIALLY
                 CAST INTO THE BOTTOM OF
                 THE DITCH AND MUST BE
                 REMOVED LATER.




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