LAURIE BAKER

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					                              LAURI BAKER




                              Structural
                              Systems
  SUBMITTED BY:-                    ASSIGNMENT III
  Y B KAVYA REDDY – 080105
D LOWKYA CHATURIKA - 080113
                                        INTRODUCTION
   Laurence Wilfred "Laurie" Baker (2 March 1917 – 1 April 2007)
    was an award-winning British-born Indian architect, renowned
    for his initiatives in cost-effective energy-efficient architecture and
    for his unique space utilization and simple but beautiful aesthetic
    sensibility. In time he made a name for himself both
    in sustainable architecture as well as in organic architecture.
   He went to India in 1945 in part as a missionary and since then
    lived and worked in India for over 50 years. He obtained Indian
    citizenship in 1989 and resided
    in Thiruvananthapuram(Trivandrum),
    Kerala, since 1970, where he later set
    up an organization called COSTFORD
    (Centre of Science and Technology for
    Rural Development), for spreading
    awareness for low cost housing.
   In 1990, the Government of India awarded
    him with the Padma Shri in recognition of
    his meritorious service in the field of architecture.
                                   EDUCATION



   Baker studied architecture at Birmingham Institute of Art and
    Design,Birmingham and graduated in 1937, aged 20, in a
    period of political unrest in Europe.
   His initial commitment to India had him working as an
    architect for World Leprosy Mission, an international and
    interdenominational Mission dedicated to the care of those
    suffering fromleprosy in 1945.
   As new medicines for the treatment of the disease were
    becoming more prevalent, his responsibilities were focused on
    converting or replacing asylums once used to house
    the ostracized sufferers of the disease - "lepers".
   Baker had no choice but to observe and learn from the
    methods and practices of the vernacular architecture.
                                     LEARNING

   . He soon learned that the indigenous architecture and
    methods of these places were in fact the only viable means to
    deal with his once daunting problems.
   Inspired by his discoveries (which he modestly admitted were
    'discoveries' only for him, and mere common knowledge to
    those who developed the practices he observed), he began to
    turn his style of architecture towards one that respected the
    actual culture and needs of those who would actually use his
    buildings, rather than just playing to the more "Modern-istic"
    tunes of his paying clients.
                                       PHYLOSOPHY



o   One of his influences has been Mahatma Gandhi, for him proper
    development can be done if raw material is brought from a place
    in a range of 5-10 kms.
o   Laurie Baker’s architecture was a contemporary version of the
    vernacular.
o   He draws a creative sustenance from the environment in which he
    works, absorbing vernacular patterns of construction and individual
    styles of living to such a degree that he is able to give his clients.
o   The forgotten vernacular techniques were used in his design.
o   He criticized the works of Le Corbusier, his structures were
    characterless.
o   Another inspiration for him has been ordinary men.
                                   ARCHITECTURAL STYLE


   Throughout his practice, Baker became well known for
    designing and building low cost, high quality, beautiful homes,
    with a great portion of his work suited to or built for lower-
    middle to lower class clients.
    His buildings tend to emphasize prolific - at times virtuosic -
    masonry construction, instilling privacy and evoking history
    with brick jali walls, a perforated brick screen which invites a
    natural air flow to cool the buildings' interior, in addition to
    creating intricate patterns of light and shadow.
   Another significant Baker feature is irregular, pyramid-like
    structures on roofs, with one side left open and tilting into the
    wind.
                                  ARCHITECTURAL STYLE

   Baker's designs invariably have traditional Indian sloping
    roofs and terracotta Mangalore tile shingling with gables and
    vents allowing rising hot air to escape.
    Curved walls enter Baker's architectural vocabulary as a
    means to enclose more volume at lower material cost than
    straight walls.
   Baker's architectural method is one of improvisation, in which
    initial drawings have only an idealistic link to the final
    construction, with most of the accommodations and design
    choices being made on-site by the architect himself.
   Compartments for milk bottles near the doorstep, windowsills
    that double as bench surfaces, and a heavy emphasis on
    taking cues from the natural condition of the site are just
    some examples.
   This saves construction cost as well, since working around
    difficult site conditions is much more cost-effective.
                                  ARCHITECTURAL STYLE



   Baker created a cooling system by placing a high, latticed,
    brick wall near a pond that uses air pressure differences to
    draw cool air through the building.
   Various features of his work such as using recycled material,
    natural environment control and frugality of design may be
    seen as sustainable architecture or green building with its
    emphasis on sustainability.
   His responsiveness to never-identical site conditions quite
    obviously allowed for the variegation that permeates his
    work.
                                  CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

   The upturned, horned roofs of buildings as found in Kerala
    are the direct result of the people of those places, they knew
    that hot air rises & allowed it to travel upwards from the low
    eaves to the openings at the ends of the high ridge.




   They understood and applied principles of insulation; then
    roofing materials formed hollow cellular protective layers.
                               CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES




o Using corbelling instead of a lintel above the frame, this
  reduces the cost of the R.C.C lintel.
o Using less number of bricks to make a wall of same thickness
  and providing cavities in between for insulation.
                                      CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES


   He used jalis which had many advantages, such as ventilation,
    enough light, less material required.




   Reducing the unnecessary cost of a window with a shutter.
   Using ‘jali’ in his walls for proper cross ventilation, enough sun
    light etc
                                             INNOVATIONS




Baker creates a variety of textures   Laurie Baker used material from other
and patterns by simple                demolished structures. Wood planks from
manipulation of the way in which      an old boat jetty. He even used old bottles
bricks are placed in the wall.        in a structure, which gives a different effect.
                                       ADVANTAGES
Filler slab : Advantages:
    20-35% Less materials
    Decorative, Economical & Reduced self-load
    Almost maintenance free
    25-30% Cost Reduction
Jack Arch :
    Energy saving & Eco-Friendly compressive roofing.
    Decorative & Highly Economical
    Maintenance free
Masonry Dome :
    Energy saving eco-friendly compressive roof.
    Decorative & Highly Economical for larges spans.
    Maintenance free
Funicular shell :
    Energy saving eco-friendly compressive roof.
    Decorative & Economical
    Maintenance free
Masonry Arches :
    Traditional spanning system.
    Highly decorative & economical
    Less energy requirement.
                                         PROJECTS
   Projects ranging from fishermen's villages to institutional
    complexes, low cost mud housing schemes to low cost cathedrals.
   Centre for Development Studies, Ulloor, Trivandrum, 1971.




   Houses at Archbishop Compound, Pattom, Trivandrum, 1970.
   K.N.Raj's residence, Kumarapuram, Trivandrum, 1970.
   House for R. Narayanan, Golf Links, Trivandrum, 1972-73.
   Mitraniketan, Vellanad, Trivandrum - 1970
   House for Dr A.Vaidyanathan, Kumarapuram, Trivandrum.
   House for Leela Menon, Golf Links, Trivandrum, 1973-74.
   House for Beena Sarasan (an Income Tax officer), Kowdiar,
    Trivandrum, 1989.
                                         THE HAMLET




   An architects personality is reflected in the way he designs his
    own house.
   1st built a single room hut of timber. It housed the library of
    medical books & also as B.R, L.R, D.R & study.
   The site was highly contoured and rocky, but baker did not
    disturb even a single rock or a tree, so it is popularly named
    as “right in the rocks”.
   A house was built on the lower contour for the 4 nieces who
    moved to Trivandrum.
   One more house was built for his son Tilak which faced the
    trees.
                                     SITE SELECTION




 ‘The Hamlet’ has been built on a steeply contoured site.
   The incursion of structures on the site is not felt.
   Baker has managed to confine this building to an area that is
    easily accessible& yet secluded by the heavy foliage.
   The journey to Bakers home is like from a concrete jungle of
    Trivandrum to the freshness & shade of the suburbs.
   This is remarkable and unique house built on a plot of land
    along the slope of a rocky hill, with limited access to water.
                                ARCHITECTURAL
                                FEATURES


   STEPS DIRECTLY CUT IN ROCK
   ENTRANCE HAS SMALL SITTING AREA FOR GUESTS
   THE WALL IS DECORATED FROM BROKEN POTTERY, PENS,
    GLASS
   A CALLING BELL FOR VISITORS TO ANNOUNCE THEIR
    PRESENCE
   USE OF NATURAL LIGHT
   NEVER CUT TREES INSTEAD ADAPTED HIS DESIGN
    ACCORDINGLY
   INNER COURTYARD …CLOSE TO NATURE
   ARCHES LED INTO A BEAUTIFUL OPEN ROOM
   COURTYARD HAS MANY GARDENS AND PONDS
   PITCHED ROOF MADE OF MANGALORE TILES
   BAKER’S FONDNESS OF ARCHES
                            ARCHITECTURAL
                            FEATURES



   GABLES FOR PROPER AIR CIRCULATION AND
    VENTILATION
   SIMPLE YET BEAUTIFUL WINDOWS
   GRILL MADE OF BITS AND PIECES
   CONICAL STRUCTURE USED
   COST EFFECTIVE BAKER’S WINDOW
   LOUVERED WINDOW TYPICAL OF BAKER’S TYPE
   STAINED GLASS EFFECT
   WATER TANK FOR STORING RAIN HARVESTED WATER
   MATERIAL USED FROM UNCONVENTIONAL SOURCES
   FAMILY EATS IN KITCHEN
   ELECTRICITY WIRING IS NOT CONCEALED
                                                   DESCRIPTION
                                Baker was very fond of beautiful
                                carvings which were usually lost
                                when old traditional Kerala
                                houses were destroyed to make
                                ‘modern’ ones




This niecerie was built for
baker’s four nieces



                                                        Even the dog has a well placed jali
                                                        to let the morning light filter in


                              The large Kerala-style
                              window at the end of
                              the bedroom provides
  The Dog House And The       both light and a good
  round-shaped Niecerie       view
                                                   DESCRIPTION

                              The Baker’s bedroom
                              resembles a long railway
                              compartment




The niecerie and
doghouse




                           Bird’s Eye View Of The Hamlet


                                                 This door is made from two traditional old
                                                 Kerala doors when an old building was
A closeup of the carving                         torn down which Baker bought and joined
                                                 together to create this unique door
                                               DESCRIPTION

                                                         The decoration is
                                                         made from broken
                                                         pottery, glass and
                                                         ceramic


The steps leading up to the
front door of the hamlet




                              The entrance has a small
                              sitting area for guests
                              and family
 The wall is decorated
 with waste materials
 creatively
                                  DESCRIPTION

           Baker has cut the step directly
           into the rock face of the sloping
           plot of land




Entrance




                                               A calling bell for visitors to
                                               announce their presence




           A view from the opposite
           side. The roof of the garage is
           done with filler slab
                                              DESCRIPTION
Creative
use of                      Use of natural light in exteriors
waste
materials
to form
grills




                                                            Use of natural light in interiors




                                                                Use of natural
                                                                ventilation in
  A view from the inner                                         the courtyard
  courtyard into the room
                                             DESCRIPTION

                                                Picture of the round room
                         Some more
                         instances to
                         how Baker
                         utilises light to
                         his advantage




                                               Baker always designed to
                                               utilize sunlight effectively
Baker extensively                              and minimize the need for
used arched to lend                            artificial lighting
structural strength to
his buildings
                                             DESCRIPTION

                                                Baker never cut down
                                                trees, instead adapted his
                                                plans, building around
                                                them




The tower: it was
built for his guests




                                                   All the ventilators, doors
                                                   and windows were
                                                   designed according to
                                                   ancient designs of
               Baker’s fondness for arches
                                                   kerala
                                                         DESCRIPTION




   Inner courtyard: Baker
   always lived close to nature


                                                                    The courtyard
                                                                    garden has many
                                                                    trees and a pond
                                                                    giving a feeling of
                                          The jalis filter in the   being very close to
                                          morning light             nature



The arches lead into a lovely open room
                                                DESCRIPTION

                               Creative wall fixtures




An improvised Baker’s
grill made of bits and                                  Stained glass effect
pieces including a piece
of clutch plate




Water tank for storing rain harvested water                 A jali wall
                                              DESCRIPTION

                           Gables for proper air
                           circulation and
                           ventilation
                                                    Baker’s building were
                                                    always close to nature




These conical structures
are often used by Baker
for air circulation




                                 Arches: Another
                                 Baker favourite
                                               DESCRIPTION


                               A traditional
                               Kerala window




Typical traditional tiling
used in South India
mostly in areas where                                      Another cost effective
sloped                                                     Baker window

                             Simple yet beautiful windows of Baker’s type
                             made from waste wooden planks and grills
                             made of thrown away metal pieces


                                                                Thank You

				
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