EASTERN GARDENS

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					                       Persian garden
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    Eastern gardens
O   -Persian Gardens
D   -Mughal Gardens
U   -Chinese Gardens
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O                      Presented by:
N                      www.archidude.com
                              Persian garden
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    Marked the beginning of “Modern Garden Architecture”.
                                                 Persian garden
I   •   Persian Garden Style evolved after the Egyptian Style of gardening.
N   •   The Persian garden was an answer to the aridity of the local climate
        where the high walled garden and the shady trees with its air cooled
T       by streams and fountains, was a simple recipe for paradise.
R   •   Pools reflecting the image of the sky and the garden

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                       Naghshe Jahan Square Isfahan
                                           Persian garden
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    •   The word ‘paradise’ originally is believed to have meant a
R       hunting park in Persian and it is still a Persian word for
O       garden.
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    •   The Persian garden is resolutely formal and is an
U       elaboration of the Egyptian Plan.
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    •   In larger gardens subsidiary canals subdivided the garden..
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                                         Persian garden
I   FORMAL AND INFORMAL GARDENS
N   •   The style or Persian gardens can be both formal and
        informal. The formal gardens are the type found in
T       front of palaces, and are geometric in their layout.
R       Cyrus' garden, the Chahar Bagh, meaning four
        gardens, consisted of four squares within a square - a
O       quadripartite ground-plan.
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    • A example of informal
U     gardens are the family
C     baghs found on the
T     outskirts    of  major
      Iranian cities such as
I     Tehran.
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                                   Pasargadae Palace.
                                            Persian garden
    •   The fundamental layout of all Persian architecture is the
C       division of space into four quadrants, a form originating in
O       the Fifth Century B.C. First found in the Parthian
        constructions of Tchahâr-tagh, linking the square plan of
N       the Zoroastrian temple to the circular form at the base of the
C       cupola via the use of the architectural device known as the
        pendentive.
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P   •   This four-part archetypal element can be found transposed
T       into other fields of artistic expression as well.
                                             Persian garden
    • Small jets of water made sounds such that water was heard and
F     seen.
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    • Tall Chenar trees shaded the centre while the edge of the garden
A     was lined with cypress, pine, poplar, date palms, almonds,
T     orange and other fruit trees.
U   • Flowers were sometimes planted along the canals or in the long
R     grass under trees. Tulips, iris, primula, narcissus, evening
      primrose, violets, carnations and jasmine have been mentioned
E     in literature
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                                         Persian garden
    •   A high surrounding wall.

F   •   Straight tile-lined channels of water.
E   •   Bubbling fountains.
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T   •   Trees for shade and fruit.
U   •   A Pavilion or gazebo.
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    •   Strong emphasis on flowers in beds and pots.
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                                               Persian garden
    • The garden offers the passer-by a series of spaces ideally suited to
      solitary meditation, while pleasing the senses.
    • It offers the warmth of the sun and the freshness of its shade, the
E     whispering of breezes in the leaves and the murmur of running water
L     in the channels, the song of birds, the perfume of flowers, the bursts
      of colour.
E   • The garden can be easily converted into a place of conviviality when
M     the occasion arises, and can accommodate musicians and dancers.
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                                                 Shalimar Bagh:
                                                 Place for musicians and
                                                 dancers to perform.
                                       Persian garden
E                                  • The paving tiles on every
L                                    surface and their pattern
                                     provided colour in the garden.
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    • Low hedges line flowerbeds
      near the gazebo.
                                           Persian garden
    • The Moghuls made the grandest of these gardens in the 16th and
      17th century in India.

    • The Shalimar Bagh in Kashmir shows a similar layout. Shah Jahan
      built it in 1642. However, these gardens lacked a high compound
      wall in India.
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A   • Persian Garden Architecture was then followed by Italian and
      French Garden Architecture…
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                                           Shalimar Bagh in Lahore
        Shalimar Bagh in Kashmir
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                  Mughal garden
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    “Mughal gardens create Paradise On Earth”.
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    •    Built     by        Mughals
                                           Mughal garden
        According             Islamic
N       architecture.
T   •    Influenced     by    Persian
R       gardens.
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    •    The founder of Mughal
D       empire     Babur    started
U       building    gardens     ,he
C       favouritly           called
        CHARBAGH.
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I   •    His son didn't take much
O       interest in gardens. Akbar
        built few gardens in Delhi.
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    •    But it was Shah Jahan
        who enhanced the Mughal         RAM BAGH MUGHAL GARDEN, AGRA
        architecture and  floral
        design.
                                               Mughal garden
p
           Symbiotic relationship between the kinetic water and
H          plants, and the static stonework and the rigid plans.
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O   NISHAT BAGH
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                                                 Mughal garden
    • Formal      and      symmetrical
F     design.

E   • Mughal       gardens       would
      originally       have       taken
A     advantage        of     naturally
T     occurring streams flowing from
      the mountains, channelling the
U     water into canals for pleasure
      and decoration near to the
R     palaces,       in      geometric
      quadrants       according       To
E     Paradise mentioned in Koran,
      then flowing on down to
S     irrigate crops in adjacent fields.

    • The focal point is always an
      arrangement of canals edged
      with stone or brick.
                                           Rashtrapati Bhavan, Mughal garden
                                              Mughal garden
    •   Typically, two water channels cross each other, dividing the
F       garden into four quarters.

E   •   A central pool or pavilion marks the centre of the garden.
A   •   Water is also used in cascades and fountains, and is appreciated
T       for its air-cooling properties.

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                               Pinjore garden
                                          Mughal garden
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    •   Scented flowers, in formal symmetrical beds, were
E       important.
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    •   Trees, such as plane and cypress, emphasise the lines
T       and create a background to rose beds bordering the
        streams
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R   •    On forts and     hillsides,   elaborate   terraces   were
        constructed.
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    •   Paths were usually raised above ground level.
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    •   The overall effect is one of complete calm and delight.
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                                               Mughal garden
    • Numerological and zodiacal significances- number 8 and 9 were
L     considered auspicious.
I   • Often seen in octagonal pools.
    • To replicate paradise on earth, they used running water and a pool to
G     reflect the beauties of sky and garden.
I   • Trees of various sorts, some to provide shade merely, and others to
      produce fruits; flowers, colourful and sweet-smelling.
O   • Birds to fill the garden with song; the whole cooled by a pleasant breeze.
    • The local tradition of white fragrant night flowering plants was adopted
U     by the Mughals and these were planted near open pavilions and also
S     near residential buildings of the garden.


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T                                  Humayun's Tomb
                                         Mughal garden
    • The complex is set around a
      large     300-metre      square
      charbagh or Mughal garden.
    • The    garden    uses     raised
E     pathways that divide each of
X     the four quarters of the garden
      into 16 sunken parterres or
A     flowerbeds.
M   • A raised marble water tank at
      the center of the garden,
P     halfway between the tomb and
L     gateway with a reflecting pool
      on a north-south axis, reflects
E     the image of the mausoleum.
    • Elsewhere, the garden is laid
      out with avenues of trees and
      fountains

                                             Taj Mahal
    • The Taj Mahal garden is
                                     Mughal garden
      unusual in that the
      main element, the tomb,
      is located at the end of
      the garden.
E   • The use of symmetry
      and pattern can be seen
X     in     the     relationship
      between sunlight and
A     shade,       plants    and
      water, and light and
M     dark tones. The effect is
      that of a Persian rug
P     leading to the entrance
      of the mausoleum.
L   • Early accounts of the
      garden      describe     its
E     profusion of vegetation,
      including        abundant
      roses, daffodils, and
      fruit trees.
    Mughal garden

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                  Mughal garden
    NISHAT BAGH

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    • Nishat Bagh is a Mughal
      garden built on the eastern
                                         Mughal garden
N     side of the Dal Lake, close to
      the Srinagar city.
I   • ‘Nishat Bagh’is a Hindustani
S     word, which means "Garden of
      Joy," "Garden of Gladness" and
H     "Garden of Delight”.
    • Even though the layout of
A     Nishat Bagh was based on the
T     basic conceptual model of the
      Chahar Bagh, it had to be
      remodelled      to     fit   the
B     topographic and water source
      conditions at the site chosen in
A     the Kashmir valley.
G   • A rectangular layout with east-
      west length of 548 metres and
H     width of 338 metres was
      adopted.
    Mughal garden
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    • Nishat Bagh as laid out now
                                         Mughal garden
      is a broad cascade of
N     terraces lined with avenues
I     of chinar and cypress trees,
      which     starts    from    the
S     lakeshore and reaches up to
H     an artificial façade at the hill
      end.
A   • Rising from the edge of the
T     Dal Lake, it has 12 terraces
      representing twelve Zodiacal
      signs.
B   • There are, however, some
      similarities      with      the
A     Shalimar Bagh, such as the
      polished stone channel and
G     terraces.
H   • The source of water supply
      to the two gardens is the
      same.
    Mughal garden
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    • Built in an east-west direction,
      the top terrace has the Zenana
N     garden while the lowest terrace is
I     connected to the Dal Lake.
    • Water flows down in a cascade
S     from the top to the first terrace at
H     the lake level.
    • The water flow from one terrace to
A     the next is over stepped stone
T     ramps that provide the sparkle to
      the flow.
    • At all the terraces fountains with
B     pools are provided, along the
      water channel.
A   • At channel crossings, benches are
      provided for people to sit and
G     enjoy the beauty of the garden
H     and the cascading flows and
      fountain jets.
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                                      Chinese garden
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    The Chinese garden, also known as a Chinese classical garden,
                       recreates natural landscapes in miniature.
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                                                          Chinese garden
N                                              •   The style has evolved for more than three
                                                   thousand years, and includes both the
T                                                  vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and
                                                   smaller gardens built by scholars, poets,
R                                                  and former government officials.
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    •The classical Chinese garden is
T   enclosed by a wall and has one or more
I   ponds, a rock garden, trees and flowers,
O   and an assortment of halls and pavilions
    within the garden, connected by
N   winding paths and zig-zag galleries.
    •By moving from structure to structure,
    visitors can view a series of carefully-
    composed scenes, unrolling like a scroll
    of landscape paintings.
                                                  Chinese garden
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      • "Borrowed scenery"
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      • Concealment and surprise.
I     • Multiple functionary.
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    “Even though everything [in the garden] is the work of man, it must appear to
                          have been created by heaven...”
                 – Ji Cheng, Yuanye, or The Craft of Gardens (1633)
    The beginnings                    Chinese garden
H                    – The earliest recorded Chinese gardens
                       were created in the valley of the Yellow
I                      River, during the Shang Dynasty (1600-
S                      1046 B.C).
                     – These gardens were large enclosed parks
T                      where the kings and nobles hunted game,
O                      or where fruit and vegetables were grown.
                     – There were three types of gardens,
R                      namely, you, pu and yuan.
Y                    – You was a royal garden where birds and
                       animals were kept, while pu was a garden
                       for plants. Whereas yuan was a garden
                       enclosed in walls and had a pavilion, a
                       pond and trees in it.
                     – Famous garden: Shaqui, or the Dunes of
                       Sand (most famous features of this garden
                       was the Wine Pool and Meat Forest )
    Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD)                 Chinese garden
    • Under the new Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) Emperor Wu of Han
H     built a new imperial garden, which combined the features of botanical
I     and zoological gardens, as well as the traditional hunting grounds.
    • Notable garden was the Garden of General
S   • Immense landscape garden with artificial mountains, ravines and
T     forests, filled with rare birds and domesticated wild animals.

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R    Tang Dynasty (618–907), First Golden Age of the
Y    Classical Garden
    • The Emperor Xuanzong built a magnificent imperial garden, the Garden of
      the Majestic Clear Lake.
    • The new gardens, were inspired by classical legends and poems.
    • A notable example was the Jante Valley Garden.
    • During the Tang Dynasty, plant cultivation was developed to an advanced
      level.
      Song Dynasty (960–1279)                    Chinese garden
H • The Emperor Huizong of Song (1082–1135), a
    scholar himself, integrated elements of the
I   scholar garden into his grand imperial garden.
    His first garden, called The Basin of the Clarity
S   of Gold, was an artificial lake surrounded by
T   terraces and pavilions.

O
R Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368)
Y                                       • An excellent example was the Lion
                                          Grove Garden in Suzhou. It was built
                                          in 1342, and took its name from the
                                          collection of fantastic and grotesque
                                          assemblies of rocks, taken from Lake
                                          Tai. Some of them were said to look
                                          like the heads of lions.
     Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)                   Chinese garden
H • Famous gardens:
I    – Humble Administrator's Garden:
       principle of ‘borrowed view’.
S    – Lingering garden: tall limestone rocks
T      symbolising mountains.

O
R Qing Dynasty (1644–1912)
Y
                                         • Famous gardens: the Summer
                                           Palace in Beijing and the Old
                                           Summer Palace eight kilometers
                                           north of Beijing.
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A
                                                                     Chinese garden
R   •   Artificial mountains and rock gardens:
D         – The mountain peak was a symbol of virtue, stability and
E             endurance in the philosophy, of Confucius and in the I
              Ching.
N         – During the Qing Dynasty, the Ming rock gardens were
              considered too artificial and the new mountains were
              composed of both rocks and earth.
E   •   Water:
L         – A pond or lake is the central element of a Chinese
              garden.
E
          – The main buildings are usually placed beside it, and
M             pavilions surround the lake to see it from different
E             points of view.
    •   Flowers and trees:
N         – They represent nature in its most vivid form, and
T             contrast with the straight lines of the architecture and
              the permanence, sharp edges and immobility of the
S             rocks.
          – Trees: pine, bamboo, chinese plum, pear, apricot,
              peach, pomegranate, willow.
          – Flowers: orchid, peony, lotus.
                           •     Lobby
                                                            Chinese garden
                                  – A lobby is where guests are met, feted, invited to marvel
S                                   at exotic potted plants, or entertained with theatrical
T   •   Corridor
                                    performances.
R        – The corridor comprises the center piece of a garden. It not
U           only serves as a link between buildings, but also partitions
C           up the space.
                           • Parlour
T
                                  – This was where the patriarch of a family lived or where
U                                   family celebrations were held. The parlor is mostly
R                                   located on the axis of an entire complex, with a well-
E                                   conceived design and elegant interior decoration.
    •   Waterside kiosk
S
         – It is used to decorate the shore of a lake or a river, and
           adds a touch of appeal to the surroundings.

                       •       Bridge
                                – The bridge is not only a means of transportation but
                                   also serves to beautify the environment and
                                   incorporating the surrounding scenery into the picture.
                       •   Storied chamber/pavilion
                                                        Chinese garden
                               – The storied chamber is a house with more than two
S                                floors. It is often used as bedroom or reading room,
T                                or simply for marveling at the scenery.
R   •   Pagoda
U       – The pagoda is a major Buddhist building. In a garden
C         it often appears in the center of the entire layout,
T         and is an element for the creation of new scenery.
U
                           •    Kiosk
R
                                 – The kiosk is where one stops to take a rest or enjoy
E                                  the scene, and forms a scene on its own. Kiosks
S                                  vary in size and style.
    •   Wall
         – The wall, serving as a screen built of brick, stone or
           rammed earth, comes in a variety of shapes, such
           as cloudy walls and flowery walls. Windows are
           often let into the wall to create shifting scenes of
           captivating beauty.
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    Humble Administrator's Garden    Chinese garden
O                                    World Cultural Heritages
T                                   The Garden to Linger In
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G   Garden of the Master
A   of Fishing Nets
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D                                   Huanxiu (Circular Grace)
E                                            Mountain Villa
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                                             Chinese garden
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    • A Chinese garden was not meant to be seen all at once.
O   • Beautiful disorder and anti-symmetry.
N   • Everything is in good taste, and well arranged.
C   • Chinese classical gardens varied greatly in size.
L   • Surrounded by a wall, usually painted white, which served as a
      pure backdrop for the flowers and trees.
U   • A pond of water was usually located in the center.
S   • Many structures, large and small, were arranged around the pond.
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    Eastern
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    gardens
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              FOMAL STYLE   INFOMAL STYLE
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                                                Eastern gardens
    • Zoroastrian Heritage by K. E. Eduljee.
R
E   • The Persian Garden: Echoes of paradise.
F
E   • Gardens of Persia by Penelope Hobhouse.
R
E   • Perspectives on Garden Histories by Michel Conan.

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    • The Mughal Garden: Gateway to paradise by James Dickie.
C
E   • The Classical Gardens of Shuzou by Chaoxiong Feng.
S
    • Chinese Gardens by Lou Qingxi.
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