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 The term "module" derives from the Latin "modulus" as a diminutive of
    "modus", i.e., measure. Module is thus a term, starting from its original meaning
    of small measurement, utilized in the sphere of constructions to identify the base-
    measurement, or the base-form, in relation to which a complex structure is
    conceived, organized, designed and built.
   Standard unit of size used to coordinate the dimensions of buildings and components.
    With the module it was possible to verify the proportioning of a building mainly from
    the perceptive and aesthetic points of view, and its definition was totally independent
    of the characteristics of the materials utilized or of reference to dimensions correlated
    to the human body.
   With industrialization, the theme of the module was collocated even more precisely
    within the context of so-called modular coordination.
   The concept of module takes on the specific meaning of fundamental dimensional
    element to be assumed as common reference, both in the design process and in the
    production process of industrial nature.
   A module can be defined as a basic dimension which could for example form the basis
    of a planning grid in terms of multiples and submultiples of the standard module.
                            Basic Terminology
                                                     Basic module M = 100 mm
                                                     The smallest module to be used to
                                                     coordinate position and size of
                                                     components, elements and
                                                     installations, related by reference 3D
                                                     points, lines and planes

                                                     Multi-Module 3M, 6M, 9M, 12M . .
                                                     Planning modules for main
                                                     dimensions of framework : span,
                                                     storey height etc.
                                                     Sub-Module M/2, M/4
                                                     For sizing of components requiring
                                                     increment smaller than M

Horizontal planning module              Mh = 3M (300mm)
The horizontal planning module for structural framework is based on the functional
requirements of the building and the components to be used for economic design.
Vertical Planning Module              Mv = 1M (100mm)

Reference System
  Basic Modular Grid For small scale drawings to
 clarify relationship between components - 1M x 1M.

 Multi Modular Grids Formed with intervals
of multi modules squares with same intervals or
rectangular used in key plans, showing layouts and
positioning of main building components.
Tartan Grids Interrupted modular planning
Grid band of interruptions are regularly spaced in both
Directions band of interruptions can be modular or non

                                     Modular Grid &
                                     Modular Components

                                       1. modular planning grid is used mainly for the
                                       design structural framework.
                                       2. modular component must normally be kept
                                       within its modular zone but technical
                                       considerations may require certain connections
                                       which entail the components exceeding their
                                       modular zones eg. tongue and groove, bolted
                                       3. with simple, uniform modular components,
                                       there is no conflict with the modular grid, however
                                       at connections, either grid must give way or
                                       special non modular components must be used.
•Modular coordination is a concept of coordination of dimension and space, in which
buildings and components are dimensioned and positioned in a term of a basic unit or
module, known as ‘1M’ which is equivalent to 100 mm.
Structural Grid –
Used to locate structural components such as beams and columns.

Planning Grid -
Based on any convenient modular multiple for regulating space requirements such as

Controlling Grid –
Based on any convenient modular multiple for location of internal walls, partitions dc.

Basic Module Grid –
•Used for detail location of components and fittings.
•All the above grids, being based on a basic module, are contained one within the other
and are therefore interrelated.
•These grids can be used in both the horizontal and vertical planes thus forming a three
dimensional grid system.
• If a first preference numerical value is given to M dimensional coordination is
Modular Brick Masonry
•The listed dimensions of
modular masonry units are
"nominal'', and are equal to
the manufactured or
specified dimension plus the
thickness of the mortar joint
with which the unit is
designed to be laid.
•For example, the
manufactured length of a unit
whose nominal length is 12
in. would be 11 1/2 in. if the
unit were designed to be laid
with 1/2 in. joints, or 11 5/8
in. for 3/8 - in. joints.
•Grid locations of mortar joints in walls constructed with various modular units when the
walls are centered between grid lines.
•It can be seen that all grid lines coincide with horizontal mortar joints for only the 2 - in.
and 4 - in. nominal heights, thus providing 4 - in. flexibility.
•A symmetrical grid location for walls is usually preferred to an unsymmetrical position.
•The fact that alternate grid lines coincide with the mortar joints provides a simple rule for
determining the location of a grid line with respect to the masonry at any point above or
below a given reference grid line.
                                                      •Any grid line which is an even multiple
                                                      of 4 - in. from the reference line will have
                                                      the same relative position with respect to
                                                      the masonry coursing.
                                                      •This simple rule greatly simplifies the
                                                      checking of course heights, particularly
                                                      for lintels, where it is usually essential
                                                      that the head of the opening coincide with
                                                      a horizontal mortar joint.

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