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					                              MODULAR CO-ORDINATION

    •   IN MODULAR COORDINATION, THE BASIC MODULE IS TO BE ADOPTED.

    •   AFTER ADOPTING THIS,FURTHER WORK IS NECESSARY TO OUTLINE SUITABLE RANGE OF MULTI MODULES
        WITH GREATER INCREMENTS,OFTEN REFERRED TO AS PREFERRED INCREMENTS.


A SET OF RULES AS DETAILED BELOW WOULD BE ADEQUATE FOR MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF
CONVENTIONAL & PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION.

THESE RULES RELATE TO THE FOLLOWING BASIC ELEMENTS:-

•         THE PLANNING GRID IN BOTH DIRECTIONS OF THE HORIZONTAL PLAN SHALL BE:
1.        15 M FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS,
2.        3M FOR OTHER BUILDINGS

•         THE PLANNING MODULE IN THE VERTICAL DIRECTION SHALL BE 2 M FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS & 1 M FOR
          OTHER BUILDINGS.

•         PREFERRED INCREMENTS FOR CILL HEIGHTS, DOORS, WINDOWS AND OTHER FENESTRATIONS SHALL BE 1
          M.

•         IN CASE OF INTERNAL COLUMNS, THE GRIDLINE SHOULD COINCIDE WITH THE CENTRE LINES OF COLUMNS.
          IN CASE OF EXTERNAL COLUMNS & COLUMNS NEAR THE LIFT AND STAIRWELLS, THE GRIDLINES SHALL
          COINCIDE WITH CENTRE LINES OF THE COLUMN IN THE TOPMOST STOREY.
                                     COMPONENTS

THE PREFERRED DIMENTIONS OF PRECAST ELEMENTS SHALL BE AS FOLLOWS:

FLOORING AND ROOFING SCHEME:- PRECAST SLABS AND OTHER STRUCTURAL ROOFING UNITS:

•       LENGTH:- NOMINAL LENGTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 1M.
•       WIDTH:- NOMINAL WIDTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.5 M ; &
•       OVERALL THICKNESS:- OVERALL THICKNESS SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M.

BEAMS

•       LENGTH:- NOMINAL LENGTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 1 M.
•       WIDTH:- NOMINAL WIDTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M ; &
•       OVERALL DEPTH:- OVERALL DEPTH OF THE FLOOR ZONE SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M.

COLUMNS

•       HEIGHT:- HEIGHT OF COLUMN FOR INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER BUILDINGS 1 M ; &
•       LATERAL DIMENSIONS:- OVERALL LATERAL DIMENSIONS OR DIAMETER OF COLUMNS SHALL BE IN
        MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M.

WALLS

•       THICKNESS:- NOMINAL THICKNESS OF WALL SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M.
     STAIRCASE:-

     •         WIDTH:- NOMINAL WIDTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 1 M .

     LINTEL

     •         LENGTH:- NOMINAL LENGTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 1 M.
     •         WIDTH:- NOMINAL WIDTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M ; &
     •         DEPTH:- DEPTH OF THE FLOOR ZONE SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.1 M.

     SUNSHADES/CHAJJA PROJECTIONS

     •         LENGTH:- NOMINAL LENGTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 1 M ; &
     •         PROJECTION:- NOMINAL LENGTH SHALL BE IN MULTIPLES OF 0.5 M.




PREFABRICATION SYSTEMS

THE WORD ‘SYSTEM’ IS REFERRED TO A PARTICULAR METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS USING THE
    PREFABRICATED COMPONENTS WHICH ARE INTER-RELATED IN FUNCTIONS AND ARE PRODUCED TO A SET
    OF INSTRUCTIONS.


THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS, AMONG OTHERS, ARE TO BE CONSIDERED IN DEVISING A SYSTEM:
1.       EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF SPACES ;
2.       STRAIGHT AND SIMPLE WALLING SCHEME ;
3.       LIMITED SIZES AND NUMBERS OF COMPONENTS ;
PREFABRICATION SYSTEMS

•   LIMITED OPENINGS IN BEARING WALLS ;
•   REGULATED LOCATIONS OF PARTITIONS ;
•   STANDARDIZED SERVICE AND STAIR UNITS ;
•   LIMITED SIZES OF DOORS AND WINDOWS WITH REGULATED POSITIONS ;
•   STRUCTURAL CLARITY AND EFFICIENCY ;
•   SUITABILITY FOR ADOPTION IN LOW RISE AND HIGH RISE BUILDINGS ;
•   EASE OF MANUFACTURING, STORING AND TRANSPORTING ;
•   SPEED AND EASE OF ERECTION ;
•   SIMPLE JOINTING SYSTEM .
THE EXTENT OF PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION DEPENDS ON THE EXTENT OF THE USE OF PREFABRICATED
COMPONENTS, THEIR MATERIALS, SIZES AND THE TECHNIQUE ADOPTED FOR THEIR MANUFACTURE AND USE
IN BUILDINGS


TYPES OF PREFABRICATION COMPONENTS

• WALLING UNITS.
• ROOFING & FLOORING UNITS.
• MISLLANEOUS.
TYPES OF PREFABRICATION COMPONENTS
 • WALLING UNITS:-
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COLUMNS.
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE WALL ELEMENTS.
 LARGE PANEL FABRICATORS.
 PREFABRICATED BRICK PANEL UNIT.


 • ROOFING & FLOORING UNITS:-
 REINFORCED CONCRETE WAFFLE SLAB/SHELLS.
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLAB UNITS.
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE HOLLOW CORE SLAB.
 PRECAST JOISTS AND PLANKS FOR FLOORING AND ROOFING.
 PRECAST JOISTS AND TRUSSED GIRDERS.
 PRECAST LINTELS AND CHAJJAS.
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE TRUSSES.
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED ROOF PURLINS.


 MISLLANEOUS:-
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CHANNEL UNIT.
TYPES OF PREFABRICATION COMPONENTS
 MISLLANEOUS:-
 REINFORCED/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS.
 HOLLOW/SOLID BLOCKS AND BATTENS.
 LIGHT WEIGHT/CELLULAR CONCRETE SLABS.
 PRECAST CONCRETE L-PANEL UNIT.
 PREFABRICATED BRICK PANEL UNIT.
 PREFABRICATED SANDWICHED CONCRETE PANEL, &
 PRECAST FOUNDATION
 THERE MAY BE OTHER TYPES OF COMPONENTS WHICH MAY BE USED WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE
 AUTHORITY.
 THERE ARE TWO CATEGORIES OF OPEN PREFAB SYSTEM DEPENDING ON THE EXTENT OF PREFABRICATION
 USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION
 PARTIAL PREFABRICATION SYSTEM:-
 • THIS SYSTEM IS BASICALLY USES PRECAST ROOFING AND FLOORING COMPONENTS AND OTHER MINOR
 ELEMENTS LIKE CHAJJAS, KITCHEN CILLS IN CONVENTIONAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
 •THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM COULD BE IN THE FORM OF IN-SITU FRAMEWORK OR LOAD BEARING WALLS.
 FULL PREFABRICATION SYSTEMS:-
 • IN THIS SYSTEM ALMOST ALL THE STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ARE PREFABRICATED.
 • THE FILLER WALLS MAY BE OF BRICK/BLOCK MASONRY OR OF ANY OTHER LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIAL.
Depending on the extend of prefabrication this system can be full prefab system
 & partial prefab system.

PRECAST WALLS
• Based on structural functions can be –
        • Load bearing
        • Non load bearing
        • Shear walls.
• Based on construction can be –
         • Homogeneous walls – could be solid, hollow
           or ribbed; and
         • Non homogeneous walls – composite or
           sandwich panels.
• Based on location & function can be
         • External walls – may be load bearing or non
           load bearing.
         • Internal walls – resistance against vertical /
           horizontal loads, fire,etc.                        WALLING UNITS
PRECAST FLOORS
• Based on composition, can be –
         • Homogeneous floors – could be
           solid, cored, waffled or ribbed;
         • Non homogeneous floors –
           multilayered with combination of
           light weight concrete or
           reinforced / prestressed concrete,
           with filler blocks .


• Based on the way load transferred,
        • One way system – transfers loads to supporting members in one
          direction only.
                 E.g – channel slabs, hollow core slabs, channels & ties
                 system.
        • Two way system – imparting loads on the four edges.
                 E.g. – two way ribbed or waffle slab.
STAIRCASE SYSTEMS
•Consist of single flights with inbuilt risers and treads.
•Flights are normally unidirectional transferring loads
to supporting landing.
Metal balusters-

•Plastic-coated embossed black
•chromium-plated
•2.5 cm in diameter:
                                                                 STANDARD STAIRCASE
                                                              COMPONENT TO RISE 2660 MM




                                                             LAYOUTS OF SOME TYPICAL
                                                                 STAIRCASE UNITS
BOX TYPE SYSTEM
•Room sizes are prefabricated and erected on site.
•Toilet and kitchen blocks could be prefabricated and erected at site.

                                   PREFABRICATED UNITS
                                   BEING ASSEMBLED ON SITE

                                                            MODULAR OFFICE MADE
                                                            UPOF USING
                                                            PREFABRICATED UNITS




                          A MODULAR
                         HOUSING UNIT
                         DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Structure should be analyzed as a monolithic one and the joints in them designed
to take the forces of a equivalent discrete system.
Resistance to horizontal loading shall be provided by having appropriate moment
and shear resisting joints or placing shear walls in two directions at right angles.
The individual components shall be designed, taking into consideration the
appropriate end conditions and loads in accordance with “structural design,
section 1 loads, forces and effects”
Members should also be designed for handling, errection and impact loads that
might be expected during handling & errection.
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
The below mentioned recommendations should be kept in mind for ensuring
stability of such structure.
•Adequate buttressing of external wall panels is important since these elements
are not fully restrained on both sides by floor panels.
    •Note : external wall panel connections are the weakest poinrs of aa precast
    panel building.
                   DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS CONTD…


•Provide restraint to all load bearing elements at the corners of the building.
    These elements & the external ends of cross wall units should be stiffened
    either by introducing columns as connecting units or by jointing them to non
    structural wall units which in emergency may support the load.
•In prefabricated construction, the possibility of gas or other explosions which can
remove primary structure shall be taken into account.
•Provision in design to reduce the probability of progressive collapse is essential
in buildings of over six storeys and is of relatively higher priority than for buildings
of lower height.
•Ensure that any local damage to a structure does not spread to other parts of the
structure remote from the point of mishap and that the stability is not impaired.
•Additional protection may be required in respect of damage from vehicles.
•The designer should maintain a close liaison( communication) with the builder/
contactor regarding the errection procedures to be followed.
                         DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

•Provide proper connection to avoid the failures during construction time i.e,
    •Pack of cards type collapse – absence of restraining elements, such as
    partitions, cladding or shear walls , means that the structure is not stable.
         •Precaution – joint required to resist moments and shears during
         errection stage.
    •One element falls during errection and lands on an element below – due
    to further loading on lower element a chain reaction of further collapse is set.
         •Precaution – the detail of the unit and its seating should be sufficiently
         robust to withstand maximum stresses.
CONSIDERATIONS TAKEN IN COMPONENTS PLANNING


 • Modular co-ordination

 • Repetition                      • Economical

 • Component weight                • Higher productivity

 • Standardization                 • Hassle free construction

 • Design                          • Quality housing

 • Integration of components       • Environmental friendly

 • Integration of other building
 • services
MODULAR CO-ORDINATION

•. MODULAR GRID
       Storey height = 2.8m
        Maintain consistency in components height

• HORIZONTAL GRID DIMENSION
      Maintain the same except at living room for
      different unit types
REPETITION

• FAÇADE

  - clean & simple ½ height façade

  - identical throughout the overall
height with slight modification at the
wall junction at some floors for
architectural treatment.
COMPONENT WEIGHT

 WALL

 •Numerous large wall
 panels.

 • Length of wall range
  .
 from 1.5m to 9.8m

 • Use hollow core wall
 concept
   -reduce the weight
   -reduce no of
 components


 • Max hollow core wall length = 5.5m (weight 5.8 tons)
HOUSEHOLD SHELTER
•CASE I – SINGLE UNIT



                        Component 1

                        Weight = 3 tons
                        Repetition = 302




                            Component 2

                            Weight = 8 tons
                            Repetition
                             Base = 224
                            Modify = 78
TYPES OF PRECAST COMPONENTS

     TYPICAL FLOOR         ABOVE ROOF

1      Beam             Ferrocement roofing slab

2      Duct                       Plank

3    Façade Ring               water tank

4 Household shelter            Roof fascia

5     Partition               Screen wall

6     Plank                 Water tank beam

7 Prefab bathroom             Water tank stump

8    Refuse chute

9    Staircase flight

10     Wall
STANDARDIZATION

•. Structural member                      •Non-structural member

.      Slab - 150, 175 & 200mm thk        . Façade - 100mm thk
.      Beam - 300 x 450, 500 & 600mm      . Infill wall - 100mm thk
.      Wall - 300mm thk                   . Partition wall - 75mm thk

.
    . PRECAST PRESTRESSED PLANKS

    . Standard width : 0.4, 1.0 & 2.4m

    . Additional width : 0.8 & 1.5m

    . Thickness : 70mm for 150thk slab
                  90mm for 175thk slab
                  110mm for 200thk slab
. PRECAST HOLLOW CORE WALL

• Standardized core size = 500mm

• Standardized end details

•Standardized the mesh details in the core wall skin
DESIGN

FLOOR SLAB SYSTEM

• Unprop plank

• Cast in situ reinforced
  structural topping



WALL JOINT

Wall to wall

• Standardized reinforcement
  and castellated profiles
•Loop and dowel bar connection
Wall to façade

•      No external formwork
•      Loop and stitch bar connection
WATERPROOFING OF HORIZONTAL JOINT

				
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