Prepared By- Department Of Orthopedic & Traumatology,
Dr. Md Nazrul Islam Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital,
MBBS, M . sc. (B M E). Dhaka-1207. Bangladesh.
• Sensory root involvement : pain,
• Motor root involvement : muscle
weakness, paresis (loss of power) of
muscle, muscle wasting.
• Autonomic root involvement : Loss of
bladder and bowel control known as
cauda equina syndrome which requires
immediate medical or surgical
Risk factors that Pt cannot change-
• Being middle-aged or older.
• Being male.
• Having a family history of back pain.
• Having had a previous back injury.
• Having had a previous back surgery.
• Being pregnant.
• Having had compression fractures of the
• Having spine problem from birth(congenital)
Risk factors that Pt can change-
• L2,3,4-Quadratus femoris
• L5—Medial hamstring
• Pin prick-primarily spinothalamic
• Vibration/position sense-Dorsal
columns Vibration tested with
256cps fork Position on 3-4th digit
Incepta Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Special Thanks to -