fashion by jain4000

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Celebrity Fashions started as a small 50 machine factory with 72 people on
14th April 1988 in Mylapore, Chennai. It started with the name Celebrity
Designs Pvt Ltd. Company was started by Mr. V Rajagopal, who served as an
IPS officer for almost a decade before he resigned to start the company.
Company was incorporated on April 28, 1988 as Celebrity Fashions Private
Limited under the Companies Act, 1956. In the year 1998, it became a
deemed Public Company. Subsequent to the amendment to the Companies
Act 1956, company reverted back to the status of a Private Limited Company
in the year 1999. It became a Public Limited Company on September 12,
2005 and subsequently the name changed to Celebrity Fashions Limited.

Celebrity Fashions is among India’s top men's wear manufacturers. Celebrity
Fashions Ltd today is one of India’s leading garment exporters with its own
menswear brand, Indian Terrain. The fact that some of the world’s top
designer and fashion brands source out of Celebrity Fashions is testimony to
the company’s expertise and experience in international standard clothing
design, production, quality and warehousing.

Celebrity Fashions, with its headquarters in Chennai, India is uniquely
located to handle contracts for all kinds of garments in the latest international
trends. Celebrity fashions Ltd, MEPZ unit was acquired in March 2006 from
Ambattur Clothing Unit. This is the largest unit in India which is dedicated
entirely to bottoms of all kinds. MEPZ unit is the headquarters consisting of
around 4000 workers. The other three units of Celebrity group in Chennai are
located   at   Thiruvancherry    that   has    a   centralised   washing    unit,
Narayanapuram that has a centralised fabric and trim store and Poonamallee.

Celebrity Fashions, Poonamallee unit commenced operations on 21st
February 2005 when it took over SPAN EICHER. This unit specializes in
men’s and women’s tops. It is a 100% exports oriented unit with a workforce
of 700 workers.

                                        2           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                       GROUP MILESTONES

1998 – Celebrity Designs Pvt. Ltd., Mylapore

1992- Celebrity Fashions – Velachery

1996- Celebrity Fashions – Chrompet

1998- Celebrity Fashions- Pallikaranai

1999- Celebrity Fashions- Porur Unit I

2000- Celebrity Fashions- Thiruvanchery

2000- Indian Terrain Clothing – R.A. Puram

2002- Centralized Trims / Fabric stores – Narayanapuram

2003- Celebrity Fashions – Porur Unit II

2004- Celebrity Fashions – Narayanapuram

2005- Celebrity Fashions – Poonamallee

2006- Celebrity Fashions – MEPZ, bottoms

2006- Celebrity Fashions – Irungattokotai

                                       3        Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                            CELEBRITY’S GOALS

   To become a powerful apparel business set up, effectively moving in the
    value chain, achieving greater economies of scale and tapping the world
    market with its unique styling.
   To integrate the domestic brand and the international export business with the
    capacity to adapt itself to the demanding product specifications for both
    international markets and the branded domestic market
   To continuously upgrade and benchmark systems and processes to achieve
    and exceed customer satisfaction.
   To maintain high standards of investors relations, corporate governance and
    work place practices.

                        CELEBRITY’S STRENGTHS

   Strong management team and motivated and efficient work force
   Experienced team with industry specific knowledge
   Strong infrastructure setup
   Experience with cost-plus engagement models
   Delivery capabilities
   Commitment to quality
   A de risked business model
   Strong customer base
   20 years of experience in Garments.
   Geographical Location (Manufacturing Units Near to seaport)
   Strong Domestic brand, Indian Terrain

                                            4           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                     COMPANY PROFILE

Company                   :           Celebrity Fashions Ltd, Poonamallee

Address                   :           Celebrity Fashions Ltd,
                                      No. 72/1 Senneerkuppam Village,
                                      Poonamallee High Road,
                                      Chennai -600056

Capacity                  :           4300 garments /day

Buyers                    :           Eddie bauer
                                      Kohls Corporation - USA
                                      Malbro classics

Unit Type                 :           100 % E.O.U/ Public Listed Company

Products                  :           Men’s and Women’s Shirts

Total Factory Area         :          38000 Sq feet

Production Lines              :       8

Commencement of Operations :           February 2005

Total Workforce               :        700

                                  5             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

       Merchandising department

            PDC department

     Production planning department

            I.E Department

      Fabric and Trims main store
            (CTS and CFS)

        Fabric and trims sub store

             Cutting section

         Ticketing and bundling

            Sewing section

            Finishing section

             Quality control



                   6            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

Factory Manager            -     Mr. Victor Premrajan
Assistant HR               -    Mr. Uma Maheshwaran
Production Manager         -     Mr. Haridoss
Production Coordinator     -     Mrs. Smitha
Production Coordinator     -     Mr. Selvam
Production Coordinator     -     Mrs. Naresh
Cutting Incharge           -     Mrs. Rajeshwari
HR. Executive              -    Mrs. Premlatha
Quality System reporting   -     Mrs. Premlatha
Management Trainee         -     Mr. Navin
Industrial Engineer        -     Mr.Elumalai Rajan A.
Commercial Executive       -    Mr. Hari Babu
M/C Maintenance            -     Mr. Ramesh
Needle Maintenance         -     Ms. Bhanbagwalli
Trims-incharge             -    Mr. Thirunavkarasu
Cashier                    -     Mr. Jeevanandam

                                      7             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

     8   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

The merchandising department acts as a link between the buyer and the
company and ensures the timely delivery of the order. The major functions of
the merchandisor are:

   1. Order booking
   2. Costing
   3. Development of samples
   4. Communication with the planning department
   5. Communication with sourcing team
   6. Following operations

Process Flow

                                 Receive Tech


                               Organize Fabric,

                                Prepare Patterns

                               Prepare Samples

                                Receive approval
                                from buyer, send
                                    for bulk

                                      9            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Every season the garment merchandiser receives 30-40 Techpacks from
various buyers. These techpacks contain information about the garment down
to the very last detail. 4 copies of these techpacks are made for the following:
   o Industrial Engg Dept
   o CAD Dept (Pattern)
   o Sampling Dept
   o Self

Factors considered during Costing are:
   o Fabric Cost
   o Trims Cost
          For Sewing
          For Packing
   o Cost of Manufacture (CM) - overheads added here.
   o Up charge (profit margin)
   o Washing
   o Processing e.g. Over dyeing

Fabric Merchandiser is in charge of purchasing the fabric, for sampling as well
as bulk purposes.
Trims Merchandisers are in charge of purchasing the trims. There are
different merchants for organizing interlining, thread, packing material, buttons
and zippers etc. The garment merchandiser then fills pattern request forms
and sampling request forms and executes the styles for sampling. There are
various types of samples made based on the criteria that need to be noted
from the sample. Based on the issues that crop up during sampling, changes
are made, re submits are made over and over again, until the required look
and feel of the garment is achieved.

A final sample called the sealer sample or the pre production sample is made
which is sent to the factory for bulk production. During production, if any
shortage in fabric or trims or any other problems arise, the merchant is
informed, and they acquire more fabric or trims, or under extreme conditions,
inform the buyer for an extension in delivery date.
                                       10             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
           Format for recording mini marker details for costing

Style                                                                                 Matching
        Date   Pattern   SAM   Size   Shrinkage    Purpose   Fabric   Width   Parts              Marker
No.                                                                                   Stds

                                              11             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

 Costing                          Order                         Fit Sample

                                   PP Approval
 Pattern Grading                                                PP Sample

                             Size set (selected
                              roll all size all

Resize set and pattern                               Different pattern
     amendment                                       Version shrinkage

                          Pilot run selected shrinkage
                         range 10 -100 pcs all size all


                            Re- pilot with pattern

                                         12           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
   1. Making patterns for samples
   2. For sample markers, production markers
   3. For checking
   4. For templates to be used in production.

For tops LECTRA is used and for bottoms GGT Gerber is used. The
functions of the CAD department are:
      The department receives a pattern request form from the sampling
       department every time a new pattern is to be made.
      The pattern maker consults the tech pack and makes the pattern.
      This is then digitized, reprinted after naming and cut.
      The digitized patterns are amended, graded and used for making
       markers for costing and also for the production markers.
      This is the pattern that is used for making templates also.
      Every time there is a change or amendment in the pattern, the pattern
       version alphabet is changed. For example from A to B.
      There is a team that works exclusively on making templates for
      The patterns are also printed on white sheets for sending to buyers for

      Digitizing is done on a digitizing board. This board is electronic and the
       pattern pieces are pasted on it.
      Then the digitizing mouse is used to input the points, the grain line and
       trace the pattern into the computer.
      Usually this pattern is not completely accurate and amendments are
      Future amendments are then made on this digitized pattern and
       directly printed; this reduces the work of the manual pattern maker.
      Even allowance for shrinkage is done on the digitized pattern on
       Gerber software.
                                          13         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
      There is an input menu on the board, which is used to digitize piece.
   The following is an example to digitize a front pattern
       1. Start piece
       2. Piece Name FRT *
       3. Piece cut X2*
       4. Rule table (S) *
       5. Grain line AA *
       6. Corner ABOD9
       7. Notch AC1
       8. Select Point A
       9. Close piece
       10. Internal Label (S)
       11. All internal marks: ABOD9
       12. To end *
       13. End input.

There are 10 technicians for bottoms and 10 for tops.

                                       14          Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

The buyer places the order, along with Product Development Request form.
The marketing department then communicates with the Product Development
Centre. The function of the PDC department is to analyze the fabric
consumption, SAM calculation, the critical method involved in the style and
trims details. In the Product Development Request form, the fabric details are
filled by the merchant.

Proto Sample
The first sample made after order confirmation is Proto sample. This sample
is made of the closest matching fabric and trims and is for the purpose of
identifying the overall look of the style and to obtain a clear understanding of
the style. The garment is produced in the base size (M) as asked by the
merchandiser. 2-3 pieces are made for proto sample one for SMS (color wise)
and other for Presentation sample.

Fit Sample

Comments from the merchandiser are received regarding the shape, size and
fullness. Fit sample is based on the measurement list. Only base size given
by the buyer is made and fit is checked on mannequins. This sample is also
done on the substitute fabric as proto sample. The main factors that are
considered are:

       a. Perfect style

       b. Quality

       c. Measurement.

Different buyers have different fits, based on which samples are requested in
each fit.

First Iteration: Similar to the first fit sample, new fit sample of the basic size
is made with few changes according to the comments and new techpack sent
back by the buyer. Again, third or may be fourth fit sample can be made as

                                       15            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Second Iteration: Similar like second fit sample new fit sample of the basic
size is made with few changes according to the comments and new techpack
sent back by the buyer. If the sample is approved the buyer confirms the order
to merchandiser and the specifications of the fabric and trims along with the
techpack are sent back to the merchant. In another case merchant sends up
to ten swatches of fabric for the approval for the bulk production. Finally, the
approval of the fabric and trims is decided by the mutual understanding
between the buyer and merchandiser.

Salesman Sample
These samples are made for the purpose of testing customer reaction to the
various styles in various colors. In many cases these samples are placed in
different retail stores and based on the average reaction, the buyer places
orders for bulk production. At the factory the salesman samples are referred
to as mini bulk.

Garment Process Test

GPT (Garment Performance Test) sample: two or three garments are sent for
the GPT test. GPT test consists of:

      Seam slippage

      Tearing strength

      Button Pulling

In case samples fail in above test, production is not allowed. Therefore in the
next GPT sample weaknesses of the garment are avoided and approval is
taken from the Lab.

The initial or first yardage is sourced from the mill during this period.

Sealer Sample/Pre-Production Sample

Sealer sample is sent back by the buyer after the approval of size set sample.
Seal is attached on this sample and it is maintained in the production
department, finishing department and QA for the requirements and the quality
parameters. Once the sealer sample is received industry is not allowed to
make any changes in the garment and this sample should only be followed as
the standard for production.
                                        16             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Size set: In this stage of sampling, actual fabric is used to stitch the garment.
If the fit sample is approved, buyer size set is produced in all colors and all

          o Original trims and accessories are used.

          o Four sets each of size are made.

          o If not approved then again size set is made.

Pilot run: 25 pieces are cut in each colour and each size. 5-5 pieces on each
size and each colour are offered to the buyer’s QI’s.

TOP sample: The buyer Q.A. picks up one size or all set of sizes from the
first bulk production. It is considered to be the perfect sample with respect to
all sizes and all colors. In the base size the sample produced should be

                        One set to the buyer

                        One set to buying office

                        One set as a counter with the merchant,

                        IF NOT APPROVED, then again top sample is

                        IF APPROVED, then bulk production of the garment

Shipment Sample: Before the shipment buyer Q.A. picks up the carton
randomly and check for the quality. Shipment can only happen after of the
approval over shipment sample.

The workforce of PDC department is 170. There are 90 operators for

                                       17           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

Production planning and control is the backbone for the factory as it
coordinates with all the departments and maintain smooth flow of all the
materials. The main objective of PPC department is to collect information
about the factory’s committed capacity and available capacity. It also prepares
production plan of a particular order prior it reaches size set. It prepares
master plan to all departments and sending to them to respective
departments. This plan contains the following details:

   Style
   Date
   Color and size ratio
   Total Order quantity
   Fabric Source
   Color and size ratio
   Total Order quantity
   Bill of Material

It updates the factory plan on day to day basis and to make schedules of the
functions to be performed by each department, providing a detail schedule of
the start and end dates of cutting, production, finishing and packing.
The 8-weeks rolling plan is prepared by this department which consists of the
dates on which a particular style has to be loaded on a particular line.

                                       18            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Process Flow

                               2 Months Planning

                    PPM Meeting (Pre production Meeting)

                     Shrinkage Study (Shrinkage Report)

                           Pattern making (Size Set)

                        Size Set Garments to Washing

                               Size Set Approval

                                    Pilot run

Cutting Schedule
The master plan gives the cutting department the information on how many
pieces of what color, size and fabric should be cut. They are also provided
with a week’s plan of all the orders running in each production line and the
quantity of pieces to be fed to the corresponding lines daily.

Sewing Schedule
This schedule is provided to the Production incharge to keep them updated
with their daily production targets. The schedule lets them keep track of how
many garments have been completed, and also the number of days and
garments remaining to be sewn for a particular style.

Washing Schedule
The planning department sends a washing schedule to the washing

                                       19            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

There is a small HR department headed by Mr Uma Maheshwaran as
Assistant HR Manager. The department has many functions like attendance,
Payroll, training, recruitment and welfare. This department keeps a track of
the attendance and leave of the employees that is used for deciding on the
salary of the workers. A welfare officer is also there who takes care of the
needs of the workers and plays a vital role in motivating them and creating
awareness among them. There is a welfare department which is a part of H.R.
department. It works for the workers of the company. The awards and the
programs done by the welfare department are:

       Star of The Month: It is the award given for the efficiency and work to
     the workers. It is given to one operator from each line, one from collar
     section, one from cutting room, one from finishing and one from quality
     department. The criteria for this award are:

    o 100% attendance
    o Discipline
             Subordination
             Absenteeism
             Efficiency
             Silence
    o       Late hours
    o   Attendance for 1 yr.

 POP Corner: POP stands for Pride Ownership Passion.
     It is held monthly. In this the operators are given information regarding
     garment industry, eco-friendliness and CTPAT. CTPAT stands for
     Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism and is encouraged by U.S.
     buyers. There is a mascot named Neela doll for this program.

                                        20          Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
 Sociable build Soldiers: Thanksgiving cards are given for expressing the
   feeling of gratitude for others. The person who gets the maximum number
   of thanks giving card is awarded.

 Creche: Creche facility is also provided to the workers for their children.
   The children are taken proper care and evening tea and teaching are also
   imparted to them.

                                       21         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                   FABRIC AND TRIM STORAGE

Trims and fabric store is centralized for three units of celebrity fashions i.e. for
Narayanapuram, Poonamallee and Thiruvancherry unit. They are located at
Narayanapuram unit.

                      CENTRAL TRIM STORE (CTS)

The trims used for tops only are stored at CTS. The major functions of CTS
are to receive, check and issue the trims and keeping the balance trims in red
tag area.

CTS incharge – Mr. Harikrishnan

The process flow of CTS is as follows:

      Bill of material is received from Mepz unit.
      Purchase order is made and sent to the respective suppliers
      Receiving department of CTS receives the order. The lead time for
       imported trims is 25 days and that for the trims sourced from local
       market is 5 – 10 days.
      The trims are checked for quality as well as quantity by the quality
       checking team of CTS.
      Work order is received from the head office according to which the
       trims are issued to the respective factories.
      Trim card is made and sent to the head office for approval.
      Daily trim report(TDR) is made and sent to the head office.

                                         22            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Types of trims

        Main label
        Main size label
        Size label
        Size and content label
        Wash care label
        Country of origin label
        Placket label
        Pocket label
        Side seam label


        32 L
        28L
        24L
        22L
        20L
        18L
        16L
        14L

        MOP
        Horn
        Snap
        Rivets
        Derings
        Ring snap
        Pearl snap
        Chalk buttons(dyeable)
                                   23   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
       Chain poly
       Core-spun polyester
       Filament
       Viscose

Packing trims
       Back support
       Collar patti
       Butterfly
       PVC patti
       Pins
       Clips
       Tissue paper
       Polybags
           Master polybag
           Flat polybag
           Stand up polybag
           Hanger pack
       Hang tag
       Common tag
       Price tag
       Loop lock
       Stapping roll
       Gum tape
       Cello tape
       Tag and bullet

Inspection and checking

         Threads ticket number is checked.
         Threads article number is checked for colour.
         Thread quantity is checked
                                       24         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
       Embroidery thread – 9000m per box
       Spun polyester thread – 6000 m per box
       Poly-poly – 10,000 m per box

    Buttons are checked for their “L” size.
    1L= 1/40 inch.
    Shade and color of buttons is checked
    Type of button is checked
    1 gross of buttons is counted and weighed and then whole packet is
      weighed to check the quantity of buttons.
    20 L button – 3 gross/packet
    18 L button – 12 gross/packet
    16 L, 14 L buttons – 20 gross/packet

    labels are checked for print, content , type of label andd quantity
    Main label - shows brand name or logo.
    size label – shows the garment size s,m,l,xl etc.
    wash care label – describes the wash instructions.
    Content label – describes the fabric content. Example, 67% cotton,
      33%- polyester etc..
    Origin label – it describes the country of origin.

    Elastic comes in different sizes(width) and colours.
    10% of total quantity is checked.
    Width and type of elastic are checked

Two types of polybags are used as per the specification of the buyer
    Polypropylene
    Polyethylene

                                       25           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
The trims are received at the receiving area, the carton numbers are checked
and the receipt is signed. The cartons are kept at quarantine area. They are
then opened and the trims are checked at the QC inspection area. If defective
trims are found then the number of defectives are informed to the
merchandising department at head office who in turn ask the supplier to
replace that amount.
After checking the trims are kept in the respective racks. A card containing the
number of trims according to style and buyer hangs at every rack. It helps in
keeping track of the amount of trims left in that rack.
The threads are kept according to the suppliers and shade. Labels are kept in
cartons that carry the buyer name, style number and the type of label.
Packing trims are kept according to type and the buyer. Trim tapes and
elastics are kept buyer wise. The balance trims are kept at red tag area.
 The trims are issued according to the work order to the respective factories
and also to the trim sub store of the Narayanapuram unit.

Total work force in CTS
Staff – 8
Workers – 12

Sourcing regions
    Permar agency , Nerkundram , chennai
    LR associates, cholai, Chennai
    Coats India, vellacherry , Chennai
    Brilliant labels, Hong kong
    Max trade, Hong kong
    Downtown buttons, Hong kong

                                        26            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                         CENTRAL FABRIC STORE

Fabric is received from the supplier according to the purchase order by the
receiving person. The fabric is then kept in the quarantine area. The roll are
issued for cutting of bits for shrinkage test and for preparing shade band. After
this the fabric rolls are inspected according to 4 pint grading system. The rolls
are inspected in perching machine and the takka are inspected on the
checking table. The passed fabric rolls are then kept on pallets and then kept
on racks according to the buyer and style no. Fabric is issued at the issuing
areas to the respective factories according to the work order. It is issued along
with the Non- Commencable Bits (NCR bits), pink copy (fabric inspection
report) and summary reports.
After the receipt of the fabric, three processes are followed:

Shrinkage test:
       Fabric bit is cut to a size of 50 cm X full width in every roll.
       Fabric bit is cut into 50 X 50 cm
       The bit is overlocked and marked with roll number and warp direction
       Marking is done as per the shrinkage template ie.. 35 X 35 cm
       Taking of washing standards for the particular style from the business
       Washing bit is taken as per the wash recipe required for the style.
       For washing, bits are sent to Thiruvancherry unit.
       Pressing is done as per the style requirement
       Fabric bits are then relaxed for 4 hrs. after ironing as per lab
       Shrinkage percentage in both warp and weft for every roll is

Shade bands
       Shade blanket is cut 12” X 12”.
       Shade blanket is sent to washing along with approved wash standard.
       Shade segregation is done after wash

                                          27             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
      Shade band is made with both washed and unwashed bit of each
      Three set of shade band is sent to business for approval.
      Center to selvedge variation and selvedge to selvedge variation is
       checked in spectralight shade matching cabinet according to the light
       specified by the buyer.
      The different types of lights available are : daylight, cool white
       light(u35), uv light, horizon light.
      Cool white u35 is used for A&f

Fabric inspection
      Fabric face side swatch card is sent to business unit for approval.
      Details covered in face side card are:
          o Wash specification
          o Pressing standards
          o Fabric quantity
          o Hand feel
          o Pattern

      Fabric is checked lotwise as per 4 point system
      100% fabric is checked for lot quantity below 500 mt.
      30% of fabric is checked for lot quantity above 5000 mt and if lot fails
       100% checked.
      Samples of all defects found is washed and tested.
      Unwanted sample of defects is given to cutting department for panel
      Green sticker is for fabric roll that passed the inspection and red sticker
       for the fabric that failed.
      Fabric roll are inspected in perching machine and takka are inspected
       on checking tables.

                                         28          Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
 4 point inspection system
Length of defect in fabric(either length or width)             Points

Up to 3 in. (7.5 cms.)                                         1

Over 3 in. (7.5 cms.) up to 6 in (15 cms.)                     2

Over 6 in. (15 cms.) up to 9 in. (23 cms.)                     3

Over 9 in. (23 cms.)                                           4

Holes and openings(largest dimension)

1 in. (2.5 cms.) or less                                       2

Over 1 in. (2.5 cms.)                                          4

Rejection Criteria
         Type of fabric              Roll points          Shipment points

50s count and above            18                    14
Denim and twills               26                    19
Mill     made/   auto     loom 26                    19
Chambray         and      seer- 30                   24
                               38                    28
Linen and blends
Power loom fabrics             36                    27

After the completion of the above three processes, 100% shrinkage and
shade details – rollwise is sent through mail to VP operation, factory manager,
merchandiser, cutting department incharge, technical department, sourcing

                                        29         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
department and planning department. Then the fabric is issued to cutting as
per the work order. The lead time for one style to pass these three processes
is 7 days.
Wash evaluation test for Kohls
Wash evaluation test is done in which three intermediate washes are given to
the garment according to the AATCC 135 std. Drying condition is minimum 25
minutes. The garment undergoes conditioning for 4 hrs at 24º c and 65% RH.
One washed and one unwashed garment is hanged on Wash Evaluation
Quick View Board and check for smoothness, seam and pilling standards by
comparing the garments with the standard photographs. This test is done on
the garments that come out of the pilot run.

Fabric receiving - 1 staff
                      3 workers
Fabric checking – 1 incharge
                      22 checkers
Inspection machines – 6 machines
                          12 checkers (2 for each machines)
Library – 1 staff
Testing lab – 1 lab technician
               3 workers

Fabric sourcing regions
      Arvind mills
      Adihi textiles ,Mumbai
      A&EZ corporation, Chennai (lining fabric)
      Ganitex Pvt. Ltd. , New Delhi
      Global textile Pvt. Ltd. , New Delhi
      Hitima Textiles , Andheri( Mumbai)

                                       30           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                     CUTTING DEPARTMENT

Cutting department receives the fabric from the Central Fabric Stores, which
is situated in the Narayanapuram unit. CFS (Central Fabric Stores) issues the
fabric according to the work order and the amount of fabric available ready for
use. The received fabric is stored in the racks infront of the cutting
department. There is one fabric and trims incharge for maintaining records
regarding the incoming and outgoing of fabric and trims.

There are total 85 operators amongst which 5 are cutters and 80 are
assistants. The total floor area of cutting department is 3750 square feet. It
has 5 spreading tables. The installed cutting capacity is 2000 - 2500

                                      31           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

            Shrinkage Study

      Pattern Required in Size Set

             Size Set Cut

      Marker Consumption Approval

         Work Order Received

            Fabric Received






             Ready cutting

            Panel Checking

            Damage Cutting



                  32           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

                                 Storage in the Rack

                                  Issuing in the line


   Check the lot nos. of the received fabric.
   Layer the lot wise fabric for cutting to be cut in desired ratio.
   Check layer height.
   Select approval pattern for cutting and confirm style no., width etc.
   Lay the pattern and cut the layer.
   Inspect the top, middle, and bottom Panels for the cutting accuracy.
   Number the panels with lot no., size, and panel no.
   Bundle the numbered panels.
   Issue to the production lines.

                                          33            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Spreading or laying is done completely manually in the unit. The laying
workers receive the laying details which contains all the details required for
laying the fabric. The workers go and get the fabric from the storage racks. If
the fabric is in folded form, then the fabric is kept under the laying table on a
sheet to prevent the fabric from getting dirty. If the fabric is in roll form then
either it is unwound from the roll form or otherwise the roll is placed using a
rod on one end of the table.
Normally there are three people involved in the process of spreading. One
person stands on the end of the table and pulls the fabric from the underside
and releases it for spreading. The other two persons carry the fabric from one
end to the other. The spreading process goes as a cycle. The cycle is
mentioned below:

   Worker standing on the end of the table pulls the fabric from the underside
    of the table using both hands and releases it for spreading.
   One of the other two workers carries the end of the fabric till the other end
    of the lay. The other worker holds a wooden stick in one hand and moves
    with the other worker on the other side of the table.
   The end of the fabric is matched with the end of the lay.
   After that both the workers move towards the other end. One of the
    workers not carrying the stick moves ahead of the other one and matches
    the selvedge of the fabric with the edge of the lay. And the other worker
    follows while settling the fabric using the wooden stick. Meanwhile the
    worker standing near the end cutter spreads both the arms to spread the
   After they reach the end one worker makes a small cut with scissors on
    the fabric layer and the other worker tears the fabric with his/her hands.
   After that, again both the workers move towards the other end with the
    edge of the fabric and the whole cycle is repeated again and again till
    required number of layers is not laid.

                                        34           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
When a thaan or roll of fabric finishes in between laying, the end bit is cut,
measured, recorded and kept separately. Big end pieces are used later in
single piece or two piece marker. The smaller end bits are used to replace
defective pieces.
The same is applicable for the interlining and lining which are followed by
manual marking and band knife cutting.

After the lay is ready, the marker is made manually by keeping the patterns on
the lay and weights are kept. The patterns are received from the head office
and are stapled on a thick sheet to prevent tearing of patterns. A sticker
indicating size, lot number and name of the part is stuck on top layer of each
part in the lay before cutting. This is for easy identification of the parts after

After all the adjustments are made and the lay is ready for cutting, cutters
start cutting the lay using straight knife. Block cutting is done for checks and
stripes. Most of the notches are made using the straight knife only. The power
for cutting machine is received from the overhead power line.

After the pieces are cut, the required pieces are refolded one by one
manually. Refolding is done for matching purposes and also to ensure the
straight grain where ever required for example in front placket, yoke, etc.
Some other problems like bowing, etc in the fabric are also removed during
this time.

After the refolding of parts, they are laid again for ready cutting.

After the pieces are refolded, many of the parts are to be cut exactly as per
the patterns. Bigger parts like fronts, back, etc are cut using straight knife
blade and the smaller parts like plackets, yokes, etc are cut using band knife

                                        35             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
machine. Extra care is required during this process as a small mistake can
leave all the pieces damaged.

After all the pieces are re-cut, they are taken for ticketing. A normal hand held
ticketing machine is used for this purpose. Ticketing is done on the pieces
according to the ticketing placement decided in PPM. A sticker contains the
size and a continuously increasing number. The number on the ticket can be
3 – 4 digits.
Different colored tickets are used like white, blue, yellow, green and pink. The
numbering starts from 1 for every color in one style

The cut parts are checked by keeping the pattern over them. Top, middle and
bottom panels of every lay are checked.
All the cut pieces are checked one by one for defects. All the defective pieces
are taken out and recorded by the workers. Workers checking the cut parts
have been told of what kind of defects to look for and of how much intensity.
The mend able defects are mended by the weavers, else the defective parts
are replaced using the end bits of same color and shade. Defective pieces are
kept separately and can be used for cutting smaller pieces if required.

All the pieces which require fusing are sent to the fusing section in the cutting
room. It has two Continuous Fusing Machines. Cuff, placket, welt pocket
pieces, collar, collar band etc are normal parts which require fusing. The parts
and the interlining are sandwiched between two tissue papers and fed in the
fusing machine. After the fusing is done, the parts are removed from the
tissue paper. They are bundled and sent back to cutting room.

                                       36              Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
After that all the parts from the lay are divided into the bundles. Each bundle
is folded into a roll and tied with waste fabric. Very small pieces are kept
within the bundle of bigger pieces viz., Sleeve placket pieces are kept in the
bundle of sleeve. Each bundle is attached with a small card containing
information about that bundle:
   Lot number
   Style
   Size
   Quantity
   Color and Shade
   Serial number
   Name of the part

After bundling the bundles are kept in the racks in the cutting room. The
feeding helpers from the sewing lines take the bundles from these racks. One
worker in the cutting room records the number of bundles sent to the cutting

Band Knife – 02
Straight Knife – 10
Ticketing Machines – 05
Fusing Machines – 02

There are various types of files and records maintained in the Cutting section
at different stages. They are discussed below:

   Fusing Test Report
   Damage replacement report
   Continuity card
   Fabric summary sheet

                                      37           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
   Work Order File
   Fabric shrinkage report
   Lay quality report
   Pattern position report
   Cut panel report
   Cutting issue slip
*ref:refer annexures

                              38   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                     SEWING DEPARTMENT

The Production department comprises of 8 production lines. Progressive
Bundle System is the production system used. Total number of operators in
this department is 297. There are total 8 supervisors. The sewing department
occupies an area of 12792 square feet. Total 339 machines are there in this
The department is divided into collar and cuff sections, kaja button section
and the main assembly line.


                      FROM PRODUCTION MANAGER

                      RECEIVE OPERATION BULLETIN &
                             LAYOUT FROM IE

                               MAKE SIZE SET

                         RECEIVE CUT PARTS FROM
                             CUTTING DEPT.

                        LINE SETTING & PILOT RUN

                       BALANCE LINE ACCORDINGLY

                      FILE THE PRODCUTION STATUS

                                    39           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

An hourly report is maintained in registers by helper girls, who go around to
every operator to find out their production for that hour. This then updated on
a board kept for each line to show their hourly as well as cumulative
production. A report of Work in Progress is collected from individual operator,
who then informs the situation to the Production Master, Production
Managers. The quality reporters compile the inline checking reports, end line
checking reports as well as the production status so that it is made into
comprehensive reports for the whole day for review. An hourly production
status is been sent to Factory Manager, who monitors the work flow.


There are various types of files and records maintained in the sewing section
at different stages. They are discussed below:

   Line Balancing File
   Hourly Production per Operator
   Incoming Bundles
   Hourly Production Line wise
   Daily Production Line wise
   Production status (Style wise)
   Production and Attendance Details File
   Daily Factory Status Report (DFSR)

*REF: refer annexures

                                      40           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

   To Rate the operators for pay purposes.
   To make the operation bulletin
   Line Balancing
   Work station layout
   Work Study
   Method study
   Capacity planning.

Operations Bulletin
   Contains the elemental break down of all the operations.
   The operations are classified into loops, waist band, backs, fronts and
   The bulletin contains the following details.
   Date
   Style
   Description
   Total SAM
   No of operators
   Expected efficiency
   Pcs / machine
   Expected output / Day/Shift
   Pieces / hour
   Parts Description
   M/c Sam
   Manual SM
   Operation requirements / hr
   Work places
   M/c type
   Feed type
   Attachments

                                        41         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Line Balancing
Initial line balancing is done taking into account the SAM values stored in the
sewing database. This information is included in the operation bulletin. The IE
department acts as an advisory body in resorting chronic bottle necks. In the
case of absenteeism then the line supervisor and the Industrial engineer work
together to balance the line.

   Line wise efficiency
   Factory efficiency
   Daily production details
   Time Study Report

*ref: refer annexures

                                      42           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

                          Process Flow



                          Issue Job Card

       Dry Processing                         Wet Processing

       Grinding                               Desizing
       Blasting                               Enzyme wash
       Tagging…                               Stone/ Rubber ball
FAIL                    PASS                  Acid wash

                                              Hydro Extractor


                                                   Audit           FAIL

                                  43       Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
The garments sent to this department are sorted by shade, the purchase
order, and style and stored in the respective bins.
      Consequently based on the planning schedule, the garments are sent
       for the wash programs.
      The wash recipe is set by the washing executive for the first lot, and
       carried out for the all the garments in that particular style, fabric and
      All dry processes are performed before the wet processes except in the
       case of grinding where it is done before the softener treatment.
      After washing, the garments are put into the hydro extractor to drain
       out the water from the garments.
      Subsequently, the garments are dried in tumble drier to remove any
       traces of wetness. Drying takes about an hour depending upon the
      Finally, all the garments are checked 100% for visual defects such as
       strikes, patches, shade mismatch etc. The defective pieces are sent for
       rework and the good pieces are sent to the finishing department.

                          Tumble Dry machines

                                       44             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Sand Blasting

It a type of dry process which is used to give a faded and worn out look to the
garment. To achieve this effect sand is blown at a pressure between 3 to 6
bar depending on the intensity of fading and type of fabric.

                         Sand Blasting Machine

           Dust collector of the Sand Blasting Machine

                                       45           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
This is a process where the garment is gathered and tagged in different
places. Due to this, during the wet processing the tagged areas do not get
affected by the chemicals / enzymes/ stone so only that area retains the fabric
color, thereby giving it a dark and light effect.

It is a dry process. Here the garments are grinded so as to give it a torn look.
Generally after grinding the garments are given a softner wash.

Enzyme Wash
Enzymes are proteins and are present in all living cells. Enzymes speed up
chemical processes that would run very slowly. They are non-toxic and can be
readily broken down. Enzymes are used in textile processing, mainly in the
finishing of fabrics and garments. They help to soften the fabric and lighten
the colour.

Stone Wash
It is the process in which pumice stones are added to wash cycle to abrade
the garment and to loosen the color. They are mainly used for denims.

Softener Wash
This wash is done so as to give the garment a good hand feel to the garment.
There are two kinds of softeners.
      Silicon
      Cationic

                                         46         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Effluent Treatment Plant Process Flow

                                                    Raw Effluent

                                                   Receiving sump

                                                  Equalization Tank

                                                    Flash Mixing

                                                  Flocculation Tank

      Filter Press       Concentrate              Clarification Tank

                          Filtrate                 Sand Filter Tank
                        Concentrate        Back
  Sludge For Disposal                             Dual Media Filter
                                                  Carbon Filter Tank
                                                   Ultra Filtration
                                                  Reverse Osmosis
                                                    Treated Water
                                                      For Reuse

                                      47            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Receiving Sump
This is a small tank like structure where the wash out water from the washing
machine come and collected under gravitational force. From this sump the
effluent is pumped into the equalization tank. In this stage all the rags, sticks,
and stones etc are removed using a physical screen.

                    Overview of Effluent Treatment Plant

Equalization Tank
The objective of equalization is to minimize or control fluctuations in
wastewater characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for
subsequent treatment processes. To maintain BOD and COD airator are used
in this tank. The functions of this tank are:
      To help adequate pH control or to minimize the chemical requirements
       necessary for neutralization.
      To prevent high concentrations of toxic materials from entering the
       biological treatment plant.
      To get a normal water temperature
      To get a homogeneous mixture of the effluent.

The effluent is retained in this tank for 8 to 12 hours.

                                        48            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Flash Mixer
This is a small tank where the effluent is mixed with alum / mixed sulphate
salts at 100 to 500 mg/l. and lime at 100 to 500 mg/l. The effluent is agitated
so that the following chemical are mixed properly. They are added for ph
adjustment. The retention time in this tank is about 1 min.

                                Lime storage tank

Flocculation Tank
Here Polyelectrolyte are added at 1-2 mg/l . The retention time in this process
is about 30 min. Flocculation is a process of gentle and continuous stirring of
coagulated water for the purpose of forming flocs through the aggregation of
the minute particles present in the water. It is thus the conditioning of water to
form flocs that can be readily removed by settling or filtration.

Clarification Tank
This is a tank where all the heavy molecules are allowed to settle at the
bottom (sedimentation process). Then the water on top is allowed to flow into
the sand filter and the effluent concentrate is sent for filter press.

Filter Press

                                         49            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Filter press is used to further concentrate the effluent to form semi solid
sludge.Filter press operate by applying very high pressure to the cake (from 5
to 15 bars and sometimes even more). After this the sludge is dried and
stored in sacks. The back wash of the press is sent back to the equalization

                                 Filter press
Sand Filter
Sand filter is used to remove the suspension materials and impurities in water.
The filter can remove the suspension materials.

                                      50           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Media Filter
A media filter is a type of filter utilizing a bed of sand, crushed granite or other
material to filter water.

Activated Carbon Filter
It helps to remove the following substances
      Organic, non-polar substances
      Halogenated substance: I, Br, Cl , F
      Odour
      Yeasts and various fermentation products

Ultra Filtration
In this stage the water is forced against a semi permeable membrane.
Suspended solids and solutes of higher molecular weight are retained while
low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane.

Reverses Osmosis
It is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration
through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a
pressure in excess (osmotic pressure). The membrane here is semi
permeable, meaning it allows the passage of solvent but not of solute. The
membranes used for reverse osmosis have no pore, the separation takes
place in a dense polymer layer of only microscopic thickness. In most cases

                                        51            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
the membrane is designed to only allow water to pass through. This process
requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration side of the
membrane, usually 2 - 14 bar.

                                     52            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

Finishing section is responsible for trimming, checking, mending, ironing, and
packing the garments. Finished garments are received from Washing Unit.
There are total 100 checkers/ironers/packers and 3 supervisors. The total
floor area of finishing department is 9355 square feet.


                  Garments received from washing

                          Sleeve Placket Marking

                           Collar down Marking

                Sleeve Placket Button Hole & Buttoning

                          Extra Button Attaching

                      Collar down Button Attaching

                               First Checking
              (uncut threads, raw edges, broken stitches)

                               Final Checking
         (fabric defects, shade variations, hand feel, stains)

                         Measurements Checking

                                       53           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                            Needle Detecting

                             Thread Checking


                         Presentation Checking


                            Packet Stickering

                               Poly Bagging

                           Shade Segregation

                              Carton Making

                              Carton Packing

                             Carton Auditing

                             Final Inspection

After the garments are received from washing, the collar down buttoning and
sleeve placket buttoning is done. Then the first checking is done in which the
garments are checked for uncut threads, raw edges and broken stitches. The
third step is final checking in which garments are checked for fabric defects,
shade variations, stains, hand feel and balancing of garment then the
measurements are checked against the specification sheet. It is a 100%

                                     54            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
checking    where       critical   parts’   measurements   are   checked.   A   few
measurements which are checked are as follows:
   Collar Length
   Placket Width, length
   Pocket placement & measurements
   Sleeve Length
   Side seam length
   Button Placements

The garments from Measurement Checking are fed into the trimming section,
where the unwanted or extra threads protruding from the garments are
trimmed off with the help of a trimmer. The stained garments are sent to the
Stain removing section where the stains (oil, print, mark) are removed by
using guns with White Petrol and chemicals. The weaving defects are also
mended by a weaver.
The garment is then sent to the thread sucking machine for the complete
removal of trimmed thread. Then it’s moved to the ironing section. The ironed
garment is sent to the packing section where the garments are packed with
the poly bag. Before packing, the garments are tagged with the appropriate
bar code, tag, label etc. and finally the presentation of the garment is
inspected. If it’s not meeting the requirement, then it is sent back to the ironing
section for re-ironing. The quality inspection is done according to the AQL
level prescribed by the buyer.


Checkers: 50
Measurement checkers: 8
Presentation checkers: 5
Assistant: 1
Stain removal: 2
Alteration tailors: 6
Kaja button tailors: 10
Button markers: 7

                                             55        Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Reporters: 3

Crunch pack:    Abercrombie & Fitch
Stand up pack: Timberland
Flat pack:      LLBean
Hanger pack:    Kohls

Carton sizes:
LLBean:         25 ˝×15˝×12˝ (20-50 pcs)
Timberland:     21˝×15˝×12˝ (18 pcs)
                15˝×11˝×6˝ (6 pcs)
                21˝×15˝×8˝ (12 pcs)
Academy:        90˝×15˝×27˝ (hanger pack)
Kohls:          23˝×19˝×7.5˝ (12 pcs)

                                       56   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

Each and every garment is checked for quality issues at various stages
starting from cutting till packing. Defective garments are sent for mending at
the mending section within the finishing section. But if the defect is not
mendable, the defective garments are sent back to the production floor to the
responsible production line.

All the garments are passed through the metal detector for detecting any
metal particles inside the garments. Garments with metal parts are directly
thrown in the bin provided next to the metal detector. The AQL (Acceptable
Quality Level) is 2.5.

    Lot size or                             level
    quantity to          1.5                      2.5                  4
       audit        Inspect    Accept     Inspect       Accept   Inspect    Accept
 Less than 151         8         0            5            0        13         1
     151-280           8         0            20           1        13         1
     281-500           32        1            20           1        20         2
    501-12,00          32        1            32           2        32         3
   1201-3,200          50        2            50           3        50         5
   3201-10000          80        3            80           5        80         7
  10001-35000         125        5           125           7       125        10
 35001-150000         200        7           200          10       200        14
     5000000             315    10           315         14        315        21
 5000001& over           500    14           500         21        315        21

                                        57          Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Quality in Cutting

Pre spreading quality checks
1. Cutting department has a big responsibility in taking care of quality
   because once fabric is cut, it cannot be corrected at all and the losses by
   losing fabric are high. Every piece re cut costs the factory.

2. The ratio of sizes made during the cut order plan is to minimize fabric loss.

3. The fabric width is constantly checked and the roll width is already noted
   by the warehouse, and always fabric with same width are spread in the
   same lay and issue of fabric is done in such a way by the cutting

4. The takka number of fabric of same shade and same width is obtained
   from the material management system which has the data that the
   warehouse has stored about every takka in the database.

5. The cuttable width of the fabric is always ½” more than the marker made.

Spreading quality checks
1. Perforated paper is laid on the table before spreading fabric to ensure that
   the lay does not get distorted or fabric is not damaged while moving the
   lay towards the cutter.

2. The lays are laid taking care of machine capacity in terms of spreaders
   capacity, cutters capacity and the optimum height to ensure clean cutting
   without adversely affecting the machines.

3. The laying is done taking care that the takkas of one shade are laid in one
   lay. Any shade variation is noted on the lay slip, and a paper is laid
   between the layers to indicated change in shade.

                                       58            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
4. The laying is done only after the QC of the cutting department checks the
   lay length setting, and the fabric width.

5. The spreaders (operators) have been taught to set fabric tension on the
   spreaders and it is ensured that the fabric is laid tension free and it does
   not lean.

6. The spreaders ensure that any holes or major defects evident on the fabric
   if noticed is immediately cut off and the removed.

7. The number of plies spread is entered into the spreading machine and
   hence never goes wrong, same way the nap is also entered.

8. The spreaders also ensure that in every roll at least 5 meters of fabric is
   kept away as end bit.

9. The spreaders make sure to mark on the end bits the takka number and
   the length of end bit so that re cuts from the same takka is easy

After Spreading Quality checks:
1. The lay length,
2. Cuttable width of fabric,
3. Width of marker,
4. Grain of marker,
5. Pieces of marker,
6. Number of pieces of marker,
7. Pattern matching with hard pattern,
8. Number of plies,
9. Lay height,
10. Nap direction,
11. Any skew ness on the fabric lay

                                       59          Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Pre cutting Quality checks
This is done for both the machine and for the lay. The lay is checked to see if
the lay is the same as the file entered in the cutting machine for cutting. The
marker is checked to confirm which lay is being cut, and noted. The marker is
checked if the blade plunging details have been given, if the byte setting has
been done.

The cutting assembly and blade is checked for change if needed. The
compressed height of the lay is checked. The lay is checked if it is properly
covered with plastic The power processor settings ensure quality in the pieces
during the cutting process. The factors considered are:

a. Cutting sequence -The setting of the cutting sequence is done
   considering the grip of the vacuum, in order to avoid slippage between
   plies the pieces with bigger surface area are cut first.

b. Blade direction - Setting the blade direction is important as a quality
   requirement while cutting parts containing the crotch etc. eg: the right front
   and the left back should be cut anti – clockwise and vice versa, to ensure
   uniformity in cutting.

c. Blade Plunge - Setting the blade plunge forms a critical area as well
   which involves setting the starting point, joining the parts, reducing the
   gaps and thereby producing neater cutting. Another option is the lift-and-
   plunge for sharp curves and right angled pieces.

Post cutting Quality check

The cut pieces are checked for even cutting by checking the top, middle and
bottom pieces with hard patterns for match. Any discrepancy is immediately
corrected by trimming off before sending to bundling.

                                       60            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Panel checking
All the main panels of the garments are checked 100% for fabric and cut
defects. Re cuts are done with the end bits immediately Small parts are
checked randomly, pocketing fabric etc are also checked only randomly.
Fusing is cut and stored buyer wise, style wise in a separate section in bins
that is then issued to fusing machines. The number of plies is ensured while
ticketing using the starting and ending numbers. To ensure that no mix up in
size or shade happens, a lot that is cut is never broken and is moved till the
end as a single lot. Number of bundles is counted. Random number of
bundles is taken out, and pieces are checked for defects, thoroughly for all

Quality in Sewing
In line quality checks

1. The In line quality check points are decided by the IE department and by
   the quality department.

2. They are placed strategically at the end of sub assemblies and after critical

3. In the manual lines, this is done by helpers.

4. The QC’s note these defects in a quality inspection format, where the
   location of defect, type and number found in an hour and in a shift is

5. The in line QC’s check the inside as well as outside of the garment
   thoroughly in the way its done using the same protocol and sequence to
   ensure they don’t miss anything. This consistency of checking is ensured
   in the training department

6. The In – line QC’s check for stitching defects, stains, fabric defects etc.

                                       61            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
7. If they miss checking it can become critical as some defects may not be
    rectifiable and in such cases the loss may be great.

End line quality checks
The End line quality checkers are one of the most important people in
deciding whether the garment will rejected at a later stage. If the end line
checkers let some defects unnoticed and send the pieces to the next process,
the defect could become worse and lead to rejections. Thus catching a defect
as soon as it occurs, and finding its cause so that it doesn’t occur further is
the key to maintaining quality. The end line quality checkers along with overall
line checkers who occasionally pick random pieces and measure and check
for defects are majorly responsible for catching defects, and also help in
appraising the efficiency of in-line checkers. The end line checkers check the
garment thoroughly and only the pieces that are passed go to the next stage
of production.

The sewing sections have much more level of quality control than the cutting
section. Quality control is normally achieved by following methods:

   Inline inspection
   End line inspection


Each production line has continuous quality checking (100 %) at various
points where more quality control is required. In this unit there are 2-3 inline
checkers in one production line. Normally they are placed at following
   Collar checking
   Cuff checking
   Sleeve checking
   Back checking
   Front checking

                                       62           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
   Feed off arm checking
   Collar attach checking

These checkers belong to the quality department as such but are considered
to be a part of production department. These checkers are placed within the
line. They have slanting tables with light on top. They have to work in the
standing position. Every bundle has to pass through the checker. Checker is
supposed to check each and every piece and return the defective piece back
to the concerned operator.


End line inspection, as the name implies, is done at the end of the production
line. The person assigned this job belongs to the quality assurance
A table similar to the one provided to the inline checker. This person is
supposed to check each and every piece that is being produced in the line. In
this factory, there is one person for end line inspection in each production line.

All instructions regarding checking are pasted above the table of the end line
checker. After checking the pieces, the checker puts the approved pieces in a
plastic bin under the table. From there, the pieces are taken for finishing.
Records regarding number of pieces sent to finishing, number of defective
pieces, etc is maintained at this location. At this point, only major things are
checked and all the parts are not checked very closely for defects. The End
Line inspection involves preparing SPC- Attributes Control Chart.

                                       63            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
                           QUALITY SYSTEM


     Receive Head ends of the fabric to be supplied by the suppliers for all
      the buyers style-wise and arrange for shade and shrinkage tests.
     Make cards with fabric cutting for face side for the bulk fabric receipts
      and obtain approval from the BMC. The face side approvals must be
      handed over to cutting dept via issues section.
     Upon the receipt of fabric offered for mandatory inspection by the
      fabric receiving section, necessary bits for shrinkage and Shade
      purposes to be removed from the marked rolls and send the same to
      lab and washing sections for the purpose of shrinkage test and shade
     Shrinkage test for unwashed program to check for 10% and all wash
      programs for 100% of fabric received.
     Make shade bands for washed bits and unwashed bits and forward the
      same for BMC approval/comments. The quantity against each shade
      should be mentioned in the shade card.
     Organize 100% fabric mandatory inspection make checking report on 4
      point system. The checking reports are to be sent to the BMC
     All fabric in the roll form should be checked on fabric checkmate
      machines, fabrics in takka form, lining and pocketing fabrics to check in
      the tables meant for that purpose.
     Monitor the fabric checking in the fabric checkmate machines; collect
      the cutting of various fabric defects to be sent along with the NCR.
     Mark the rejected fabric rolls with a red tape and keep separately and
      inform the same to the issues section.
     Prepare NCR (non conformance report) as per the specified format.
      The summary of defects with points mentioned, and any major defect
      has to be highlighted by grading the fabric in the report. The BMC or
      any competent person’s comments /advice on the NCR to be carefully
      monitored and the same to be communicated to the factory effectively.

                                      64           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
     Hand over the face side card, NCR, shrinkage report and shade bands
      to the fabric issues section for favor of forwarding the same to
      production units.


     Receive the total receipts from the receiving section with the copy of
      the documents.
     Receive the master trim card with specimens from trim-receiving
      section with complete details like description, color, quantity, supplied
      from, P.O. number, date of receipt, style etc., and upon verification by
      the Trims-In-Charge. Forward the same to the BMC via the manager
      warehouse. Proper register is to be maintained in this connection.
     The minimum qty. to be checked is 10%, subject to enhancement
      advice by the BMC. At times it may be even 100%.
     The QC report must highlight the rejections, damages, shortages and
      the qty unchecked etc.
     The trims QC section is the custodian of all the approval cards sent by
      BMC. The approval cards must be accessible at any point of time to
      refer any dispute/clarification.
     All the checked items must be kept in an area allotted for that purpose
      and plastic pallets have to be used for storing at the QC area.
      However, the checked goods, including rejections are to be forwarded
      to the issuing sections within 24 hours of checking. All checked cartons
      must have proper identification for traceability.

Cutting QC

     Cutting QC inspects the lay against the hard patterns. If any defect is
      found immediately informed to the pattern department to rectifying the
     In cut panel, the top ply is checked with hard pattern for cutting
      perfection (TOL ± 1/8”) middle and bottom plies with the top ply.

                                         65          Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
     To ensure that all notches are in correct position as marked in the hard
     In numbering area, to ensure that the cut panel identification numbers
      are in sequence.
     In fusing, the fusing quality includes setting the fusing temperature,
      pressure and time based on the type of fabric and interlining as per the
      instruction given in the tech pack.


     Quality     manager/garment    technician   must   identify   the   critical
      checkpoints and it is highlighted during preproduction meeting.
     Line QA explains the key areas to the checkers against approved
     To ensure the machine setting against approved mock-ups.
     Line QA analyzing the checkers report about critical defects. If any
      defect is found from the 7 panels, the QA will stop the operation and
      the red disc will hang at the concerned sewing machine.


     End of line checkers carry out 100% inspection on hourly production of
      the line.
     Follow visual SOP attached on the inspection table.
     Must have relevant training about the defect analysis prior to carryout
      any end of line inspection.


     Roving QC to visit each operation and inspect 7 pieces recording all
      relevant details on the roving QC daily report.
     The roving QC must start everyday by analyzing the previous day
      reports to prioritize the critical areas of problem on which he has to
      conduct the inspection.

                                      66           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
      The problems found in the inspection should be immediately informed
       to the line supervisor for corrective action.
      While inspecting each operator’s pieces, the operator technical
       standard must be used to carry out a comparison and to ensure that
       everything is a standard requirement

      Ten garments are randomly pulled out from the hourly production from
       each line and carryout the audit. If any defects found from the 10
       garments the entire hourly returned to the concerned line checker for
       checking the entire hourly production.


      To carry out the random audit in the finished product passed by the
      To ensure that the critical measurements are within the tolerance.


      Final audit is done as per buyer sampling plan.
      Every 250, 500 or 1000 pieces lot is inspected by the internal QA on a
       daily basis.
      Measurement audit is compulsory in the batch wise/lot wise inspection.
      Auditors on a daily basis to ensure packed goods are meeting AQL
       standards and approved to be offer to external QA’s for final inspection
       of goods.
      Final statistical auditor assists the nominated QA, who is responsible to
       ensure all the departments are following the buyer specifications and
       standards in the concerned departments.

                                        67             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

After the packaging of the garments, the cartons are put over a strapping roll
machine and they are wound by a strap. After this these cartons are arranged
buyer wise and kept in the quarantine area and are ready to be dispatched.
The process flow of dispatching is as follows:


                           (Central freight station)

                             Customs clearance

                         Goods put in the container

                              Closed container

                               Goes to harbor


Different buyers have their nominated forwarders for shipping the goods. They
are as follows:

Timberland: APL
Kohls: ECMS (expeditors)
Academy: ECMS (expeditors)
Eddie Bauer: ECMS (expeditors)

                                      68           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
These buyer countries and their code dealt by the company are
EU - Europe
AP - Asia Pacific
AN - Argentina
VE - Venejuela
PA - Panama
BZ - Brazil

Software called Sean pack system is used to print the stickers for the
Timberland Buyer that uses xml files to print the barcode on the stickers. In
this system, the pack one system is used that takes the input of the p.o. and
then generates the code.

                                       69           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

     70   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

AIM: - To observe and understand the processes of the cutting room,
improvise the SOP and to find out the problems and suggesting the feasible
solutions for the same.

Scope of the Project: - The scope of this project was to observe the cutting
room for two weeks and get thorough understanding of all the processes
going on there. We had to find out the problems in those processes and
suggesting the feasible solutions for those problems. Finally, we had to
improve the Standard operating procedure being followed in the cutting room
of the company.

      Study all the processes starting from spreading to fusing and then
      Note down the causes due to which problem is occurring and that is
       decreasing the productivity of the cutting room.
      Think of the possible solutions and document the same.
      Understand the standard operating procedure being followed.
      Suggest the improved standard operating procedure.

                                      71            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)


 Marker making




  Ready cutting




  Issue to line

       72         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)


1. The takka used for spreading are kept on a mat on floor due to which
   workers have to apply more force to pull the fabric for laying. Moreover the
   workers pass over the takka which leads to soiling of the fabric.

   The takka can be kept on a table which will help the workers in laying and
   the fabric would also not get dirty.

2. At the time of laying, the spreading operators remove tension using a
   wooden stick but this does not removes the creases on the layer and they
   often leave the layer with creases and fabric bulging at some places. This
   leads to some parts being cut smaller or larger then the actual size and the
   operators have to do the sizing of the parts with scissors. Bowing also
   occurs due to uneven tension.

   As the unit mostly gets the order for checks or plaids, so pin table can be
   used. By using the pin table bowing and check matching problem will be
   solved and the cost incurred will be overweighed by the reduced number
   of processes and it will decrease the chances of panels being cut big or
   small. It will prove a good return on investment for the company.

3. The end cutting of layers is done manually which causes uneven ends,
   disturbs the tension and leads to weakening of yarns at the end of the

   End cutter can be used for cutting the end of each layer which will
   uniformly cut the fabric.

4. The defects are unprocessed at the time of spreading

                                          73        Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
   While spreading the full fabric can be seen by the workers which is a good
   opportunity to spot the defects, so at this time defects can be marked
   using stickers and the lay number in which the defect occurred can be
   noted down, so that at the time of panel checking the defects are not

5. The end bits that are left after spreading are kept without writing any
   identification on them.

   The takka number and the lay from which the end bit is left can be written
   on the end bit. This will ensure the cutting of the defective part from the
   same takka avoiding the shade variation between the parts of a garment.

6. The varying width of fabric causes wastage. Marker is made to the cut able
   width of fabric, but due to the varying width of fabric 2-3% is wasted as
   end of ply losses and as fabric represents 40-50% of the cost of fabric, so
   wastage in spreading should be eliminated.

This can be done by establishing standards for ends wastage and the
practices in cutting room should be regularly monitored and there should be
tight control over ply ends maintained. It is better to plan markers according
to the varying width of the fabric and to sort the pieces in batches according to
the measured width –additional labour cost are outweighed by the material

Marking and Cutting

1. After making the marker the number of parts are not counted and checked
   due to which some parts are missed out from the marker and that have to
   be cut separately from the end bits.

   The pattern pieces should be counted and verified. The grain line should
   also be checked.

                                       74           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
2. The cut parts that are to be refolded or bundled are stored under the table
   which leads to soiling, crushing of parts. The parts are kept under any
   table due to which sometimes workers have to search. The space under
   the table is also not utilized to its full capacity.

   The racks can be made under the tables which will help in keeping the
   parts systematically. The curtains can be made from the unused fabric end
   bits and can be used at the sides of the table to keep the parts neat and

3. The big panels are heavy and it is difficult for workers to move them from
   one table to other alone, due to which they have to take the help of some
   other worker which causes disturbance.

   Trolley can be used for movement of heavy panels. It will help workers to
   move the parts alone without disturbing the other operators.

4. For drilling the garment parts, everytime the operators have to bring the
   cardboard and fix it on the table where drilling has to be done due to which
   time and resources are wasted. This is done to prevent holes on the table.

   A cardboard can be fixed in hanging form on one edge of every cutting
   table which can be lifted up and used at the time of drilling.

5. After band knife cutting, the cut parts are kept on the table itself. For
   collecting the cut parts the ticketing operator has to come to take those
   pieces as it hinders the movement of pieces on the band knife table.

   A rack or table can be installed near the band knife machine, so that after
   cutting the parts can be kept there.

                                          75              Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
Tickets used for different sizes are same which may lead to mixing of sizes.

   Different colors can be used for different sizes which will avoid the mixing
   of sizes.

1. Sometimes tickets are removed from the garment parts which lead to
   mixing and mismatching of parts.

   Tickets with good adhesive can be used which won’t remove while
   handling of parts.

2. The workers sticks the unused or damaged tickets on the table which
   leaves the gum stain on the table and these tickets can also stick to other

   A polybag should be hanged on the edge of the table near the worker and
   the worker should be told to dispose the tickets in the polybag.

Assorting and Bundling

1. The bundles ready for sewing are kept in racks. Every rack should contain
   a card on which the buyer, style number and number of bundles of each
   part in that rack should be written. Every time a bundle is added or taken
   should be recorded on the card.

                                      76            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

1. In the cutting room every operator should be allocated a specific job. This
   will facilitate the supervisor to evaluate each operator according to his job
   and it will be easy to identify the performance levels of the operators. The
   operators would also be responsible for the work they do and it will in turn
   increase their efficiency.

2. As the company is now planning to follow the lean manufacturing, 5S
   should be followed as it is a part of lean. It is a method of maintaining
   clean and organized work place. The operators should be educated about
   this and posters should be put in order to make them understand the
   objectives of 5S.

   Kaizen box should be installed in order to get ideas and suggestions from
   the employees and workers for improving the workplace.

                                      77            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

   Check the lot nos. of the received fabric.

   Maintain lay length given in CAD marker leaving 2 cm allowance at two


   Check face side of the fabric before spreading.
   Layer the lot wise fabric for cutting to be cut in desired ratio.

   Check layer height.

   Select approval pattern for cutting and confirm style no., width, size

    and number of parts etc.

   Make the marker on the lay leaving allowance for knife movement.

   Mark part name and size on each panel for the identification after the

    panels have been cut.

   Before cutting check marker for correction of sizes and parts against

    lay slip.

   Inspect the top, middle, and bottom Panels for the cutting accuracy.

   Number the panels with size, and panel no.

   Allot size wise and lot wise serial number before sow bar stickering.

   Check all major panels for fabric defects and re-cut and replace the

    defective panels using end bits of same takka/rolls used for lay cutting.

   Set fusing machine for temperature, pressure and speed as mentioned
    in interlining test report.
   Ensure correctness of parts, fusing material to be fused referring R&D
   Record once in every two hours the standards of temperature,
    pressure in prescribed format.
   Test fusing temperature using temperature strip bond strength on
    actual fabric bit and preserve the same.

                                      78            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
   Bundle the numbered panels.

   Issue to the production lines.

                                     79   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

1. Check the lot nos. and width of the received fabric and segregate the

   fabrics with a width difference of more than 2 cm.

2. Maintain lay length given in CAD marker leaving 2 cm allowance at two


3. Check face side of fabric before spreading.

4. Layer the lot wise and width wise fabric for cutting to be cut in desired

   ratio. Use end cutter for cutting the layer end after spreading each layer.

5. If any defect is found in any layer, put a sticker on the defect and record

   the style number, color, lay number, layer number and the type of defect

   found in that layer.

6. Check layer height and tally the number of layers to lay slip given.

7. Write style number, color, takka number, lay number and length of end bit

   on the end bits of fabric takka used for fabric.

8. Make the marker on the lay leaving allowance for knife movement.

9. Mark part name and size on each panel for the identification after the cut


10. Check style number, color, lay number and number of sizes before cutting.

11. Before cutting check marker for correction of sizes and parts against lay


12. Check for notches of panels and shape of cut panels picking top, middle

   and bottom panel of each bundle using hard copy of panels.

13. Adhere to stickering placement as decided in PPM.

14. Use different colored tickets for every size in one style. Check the panels

   for ticket placement and the numbering on the tickets.

                                       80             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
15. Allot size wise and lot wise serial number before sow bar stickering.

16. Check all major panels for fabric defects and re-cut and replace the panels

   using end bits of same takka/rolls used for lay cutting referring the sticker

   on the end bits.

17. Set fusing machine for temperature, pressure and speed as mentioned in

   interlining test report.

18. Ensure correctness of parts, fusing material to be fused referring R&D


19. Record once in every two hours the standards of temperature, pressure in

   prescribed format.

20. Test fusing temperature using temperature strip bond strength on actual

   fabric bit and preserve the same.

21. Refer style sample to identify the cut parts before starting and bundling.

22. Keep the bundled parts in assigned racks and update the number of

   bundles in that rack on the card hanging at each rack.

23. Issue the bundles to the production lines and record the number of

   bundles sent to the production lines.

                                       81            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

                           DEFECTS SLIP

          STYLE                                                       TYPE OF

                                      82         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

                         CELEBRITY FASHIONS LIMITED

                           BUNDLE RECORD CARD

          DATE:                          STYLE NUMBER/COLOR:

                            IN RACK           BUNDLES          FOR SEWING
  1       RIGHT FRONT
  2        LEFT FRONT
  3           BACK
  4           YOKE
  5          SLEEVE
  6           CUFF
  7          COLLAR
  8           BIND
  9       SMALL PATTI
  10      SLEEVE PATTI
  11      FRONT PATTI
  12         POCKET
  13          FLAP
  14         GUSSET

                                         83             Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

                STYLE NUMBER:

COLOR:                  LENGTH OF END BIT:


                        84            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

     85   Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

Aim: To study the style changeover process and suggest the ways to
minimize the set-up time losses.

Scope Of The Project: The scope of the project was to observe the line
layout of old style, the setting done for the new style like machine setting,
issuing of trims etc. , and the line layout for new style. It also involves
observing the internal and external elements, critical areas in the new style,
noting the lap time (difference between beginning of new operation and
ending of old operation) and style changeover time and suggesting the
methods to reduce the set-up time losses.

   Observing the current changeover process and identifying the internal and
    external activities.
   Identifying the cause and effect and analysing them.
   Optimising start-up time, converting activities from internal to external set
    up and increasing the efficiency of external and remaining internal


                                       86            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

A changeover is the complete process of changing between the
manufacture of one product to the manufacture of an alternative product to
the point of meeting specified production and quality rates.
It consists of three phases:

1) Run-down period- It is the interval when production of old product is
complete but set up for new product cannot be started as some of the
pieces of old product are inline for alterations or waiting for some parts/
trims. In ideal situations, run-down period should be zero. For example,
production of 5 Pocket Denim Pant is finished but some of the pieces are
inline for alterations and for some other pieces waistbands are missing. So
Run-down period will stretch till all the pieces are out from the line.

2) Set-up period- It is defined as interval when no manufacturing occurs.
In this phase, the equipments are being adjusted to manufacture new
product. This interval is critical, because there is no output from the line,
and potential revenues are lost. There are two kinds of activities required
to carry out a changeover: Internal and External activities.

   Internal Activities: These are the activities which are performed in the
interval when no product is being manufactured. For example, when
sewing machines present inline are being set for gauge, SPI, folder
adjustment etc. for a new style F/S Shirt, at that time no production is
happening in line. The time taken to complete all the internal activities
constitutes set-up Period.
   External Activities: These are the activities which can be performed
outside the line without disturbing the production inline. For example, pre
setting of a sewing machine for the Style B or early loading of cut parts
without disturbing the production of running Style A.

3) Run-up period- It starts when production is commenced again and
continues until consistent output at full capacity occurs. It is often difficult

                                     87            Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
to determine at what point full production capacity is reached as the line
performance is still fluctuating at this time. It is quite likely that the
production line will be halted at intervals during the run-up period as
adjustments still take place at this point of time. For example, production of
denims of new style ‘B’ has started but output from a particular operation is
very low because it is a new

operation. So, the interval till the consistent output is achieved at that
operation constitutes run-up period.

                Manufacture of A
                                                                              Manufacture of B reaches set output and quality

        Full Production of A

                                                     Manufacture of B

     Run-Down Period                                    Run-Up Period

                                   Tc = Total Elapsed Changeover Time

                                                        88              Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
             SMED: Single Minute Exchange of Die

Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of the lean tools for reducing
waste in a manufacturing process. It provides a rapid and efficient way of
converting a manufacturing process from running the current product to
running the next product. This rapid changeover is essential to reduce
production lot sizes and thereby improve flow which is a Lean aim. It is also
often referred to as Quick Changeover (QCO). The phrase single minute does
not mean that all changeovers and startups should take only one minute, but
that they should take less than 10 minutes (in other words, "single digit

Shigeo Shingo, who created the SMED approach, claims that in his data from
between 1975 and 1985 that average setup times he has dealt with have
reduced to 2.5% of the time originally required; a 40 times improvement.

However, the power of SMED is that it has a lot of other effects which come
from systematically looking at operations; these include:

           Stockless production which drives capital turnover rates,
           Reduction in footprint of processes with reduced inventory freeing
            floor space
           Productivity increases or reduced production time
           Increased machine work rates from reduced setup times even if
            number of changeovers increases
           Elimination of setup errors and elimination of trial runs reduces
            defect rates
           Improved quality from fully regulated operating conditions in
           Increased safety from simpler setups
           Simplified housekeeping from fewer tools and better organisation
           Lower expense of setups
           Operator preferred since easier to achieve
           Lower skill requirements since changes are now designed into the
            process rather than a matter of skilled judgement

                                        89           Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)
          Elimination of unusable stock from model changeovers and demand
           estimate errors
          Goods are not lost through deterioration
          Ability to mix production gives flexibility and further inventory
           reductions as well as opening the door to revolutionised production
          New attitudes on controlability of work process amongst staff

Steps of SMED
Theoretically SMED is defined in four steps:
1. Suppress useless operations
2. Work together
3. Simplify fittings and fasteners
4. Suppress adjustments and trials

SMED methodology can be easily defined in six steps. It consists of:
      Observing the current changeover process
      Identifying internal and external activities
      Converting activities from internal to external set up
      Increasing efficiency of the remaining internal activities
      Optimizing the start up time
      Increasing efficiency of external activities

There are series of activities which should be performed before changeover to
reduce the set up time. All these activities are important and should be
performed timely by the responsible person. These activities can be divided in
three phases:
 Planning Phase: The activities in this phase are essential prerequisite to
    the activities of preparatory phase.
 Preparation Phase: The activities in this phase involve completion of
    external activities.
 Operating Phase: The activities in this phase involve execution of

                                           90         Celebrity Fashions Ltd. (Poonamallee)

Observing the current changeover process and
identifying the internal and external activities.

The changeover process of four styles was observed and the lap time
between operations was noted down. After that the activities were
distinguished between external and internal events.

External Operations are those that can be made when the equipment is

Internal Operations can only be made when the equipment is stopped.

The time is reduced by eliminating from the time of internal preparation all the
operations that can be made while the equipment is still working. This it is the
first step in the improvements. It is a line in which impressive improvements
can be achieved.

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Cause and effect analysis- Ishikawa Diagram

Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams or cause-and-effect
diagrams) are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event. Common
uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect
prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause
or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually
grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.

The categories typically include:

   Man: Anyone involved with the process
   Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for
    doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws
   Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools etc. required to accomplish
    the job
   Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final

The 5 Ms (used in manufacturing)

   Machine (technology)
   Method (process/inspection)
   Material (raw, consumables etc.)
   Man Power (physical work)/Mind Power (brain work)
   Money

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss

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STEP – 3

Optimizing start-up time, Converting activities from internal to
external set up and increasing the efficiency of external and
remaining internal activities.

Line Plan
Planning of line plan should be done in a manner that loading of upcoming
style will occur four days after receiving updated line plan. Loading of styles
similar to previous running styles in the respective lines helps in achieving
quicker changeover and better productivity.

Operation Bulletin
Operation Bulletin of upcoming style should be revised on the basis of line
plan by IE 3 days prior to style loading. Operation Bulletin developed at
sampling room should be crosschecked with the reference sample by IE
executive and updated for required changes. After finalizing operation bulletin,
Machine layout should be developed by IE Executive.

Mock Sample
Supervisor should be informed about upcoming style, on the basis of line
plan, 3 days prior to style loading, to prepare the mock sample. It is the replica
of upcoming style in terms of design details. The purpose of mock sample
preparation is to make supervisor acquainted with all the operations. It is
beneficial as it helps in early identification of:
   Critical operations
   Necessary templates.
   Method details

Preparation of mock sample should be completed on the same day.

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Machine Plan
Machine Plan preparation is a fundamental planning tool for SMED. It involves
internal and external element segregation for new style by comparing
operation bulletin of old and new style. It should be prepared 3 days prior to
It is a record of:
   Operation Type
   Machine Type (Segregated as internal/external)
   Machine Number
   SPI
   Required Settings
   Critical/External Independent Operation
   Additional Operator/Helper

Status Check
Status of Cutting and Trims should be checked by the supervisor 3 days prior
to loading of new style and related issues should be discussed in Internal
PPM. It is necessary to check the status of all the inputs in advance, to
prevent off standard time arising due to waiting for raw material inline.

Internal Pre Production Meeting or Production startup meeting
Internal PPM should be held 2 days prior to style loading, after completion of
preliminary activities (OB, Mock sample & Status check). The purpose of
Internal PPM is to discuss new style in advance to anticipate problems and
their respective measures. The duration of PPM should be less than 10
minutes. Internal Pre Production Meeting is not mandatory for repeat styles.
Internal PPM should be held in the presence of:
   Production Manager
   Quality Head
   Floor In-charge
   Maintenance Head
   Industrial Engineer.
   Supervisor
   Collar/cuff supervisor

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   Line QC

Internal PPM involves discussion on following topics:
   Mock Sample: Sample prepared by supervisor should be checked by
    Quality Head and CTP (Critical to Production) operations should be
   Cutting and Trim status: Cutting and outsourcing status issues should be
    discussed and Production Manager should be held responsible to get
    them    sorted.   Trim   status   issues      should   be   communicated    to
    merchandising department by Production Manager.
   Quality Specifications: CTQ (Critical to Quality) operations and PP
    comments are discussed by Quality Head. Any changes in the
    specifications from the reference sample should also be conveyed.
   Machine, Folder and Attachment Status: Requirement for any new folder,
    attachment or machine for new style, analyzed during machine plan
    preparation, is also discussed by IE in the meeting. The order should be
    placed for the same after crosschecking with maintenance department on
    the same day.
   Template Preparation: QC should discuss about templates required.
   Operator Allocation Plan: Based on the machine plan Floor In-charge will
    decide operator allocation. Only discussion for operator allocation at
    critical operations is held in the meeting.

A PPM report should be documented in the meeting by Industrial Engineer
and concerned issues are solved by the responsible persons. Machine plan is
handed over to maintenance department in the Internal PPM. All the concerns
regarding upcoming style are discussed and solved in Internal PPM.

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External Machine Setting
External machines should be set by the mechanic according to the machine
plan. The settings should be complete a day prior to loading of new style.
Machine setting includes:
   Gauge change
   Folder/ Presser Foot change,
   Needle addition /removal
   SPI adjustment
   Programming

The stitch quality should be approved by Quality Checker. After completion of
machine setting the machine should be tagged indicating the line and style for
which the machine is set.

Preparatory Section Status
Preparatory Section status should be checked by supervisor one day prior to
style loading and problems should be discussed with preparatory head and
solved to get timely loading.

Template Preparation
Patterns should be issued by supervisor one day prior to style loading. The
number of patterns should be checked and requirements of any other pattern
should be communicated to CAD/ Sampling room immediately. The templates
should be prepared by supervisor and approved by QC.

Sketches preparation
The technical sketches explaining the critical operations should be prepared
by the line incharge one day prior to style loading. These sketches should be
hanged at the respective machines at the day of style loading. This will help
the operators to clearly understand the operations and they will commit less

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Day of Changeover:

Inline Loading
Trims Issue
Trims like threads, zippers labels, buttons etc. should be issued at least 2
hours before old style ends at first operation.

Cut part loading
Cut part loading should also be done at the same time. It should be checked
by feeding helper while loading if all the parts are present. Parts coming from
preparatory section should be counted before loading so that any missing
parts can be communicated to preparatory section at the earliest. Early inline
loading is necessary to reduce the off standard time.

Style Change Analysis
Style change analysis report should be documented for each style by IE
person to analyze the problems faced during the changeover. All the
problems faced during style analysis should be discussed in the style review
meeting which will be held a day after completion of changeover.

This phase constitutes the execution of changeover process. In order to
reduce the set up time, independent operations should be started before
loading of new style and the operators should be involved in the changeover
process. Supervisor should be alert and should assure that the mechanic is
available on time and the internal setting is being done according to the line
plan and machine plan.

Increasing efficiency of internal activities
   Template preparation should be done before style loading

   Cut part and trims should be issued before loading

   Sketches for critical and difficult operations should be prepared and given
    to workers.

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   Simplify adjustments and settings by involving the operators in the task.
    The operators should be trained to change the presser foot and needle so
    that they do not have to wait for the mechanic and time can be saved.

   There should be a meeting of supervisor with the operators prior to style
    loading in which the details about new style should be discussed. This will
    motivate them and they will like to be a part of the process.

   Work group should be formed for each style changeover that will be fully
    responsible for that style. Making a team will speed up the task and it will
    be easy to identify the problem causing element.

Increasing efficiency of External activities
This can be done by following the 5S principle and kaizen.
5S is a process and method for creating and maintaining an organized, clean,
and high performance workplace. 5S enables anyone to distinguish between
normal and abnormal conditions at a glance. 5S is the foundation for
continuous improvement, zero defects, cost reduction, and a safe work area.
It is a systematic way to improve the workplace, our processes and our
products through production line employee involvement. 5S can be used in
Six Sigma for quick wins as well as control. 5S should be one of the Lean
tools that should be implemented first. If a process is in total disarray, it does
not make sense to work on improvements. The process needs to be first
organized (stabilized) and then improved.

The 5 S’s are:
1. Sort – Clearly distinguish needed items from unneeded items and eliminate
the latter.
2. Straighten / Stabilize / Set in Order – Keep needed items in the correct
place to allow for easy and immediate retrieval
3. Shine – Keep the work area clean
4. Standardize – Develop standardized work processes to support the first
three steps
5. Sustain – Put processes in place to ensure that that the first four steps are
rigorously followed.

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Kaizen is a Japanese word that means to break apart to change or modify
(Kai) to make things better (Zen). Kaizen is used to make small continuous
improvements in the workplace to reduce cost, improve quality and delivery. It
is particularly suitable when the solution is simple and can be obtained using
a team based approach. Kaizen assembles small cross functional teams
aimed at improved a process or problem in a specific area. It is usually a
focused 3 to 5 days event that relies on implementing “quick” and “do it now”
type solutions.
Kaizen focuses on eliminating the wastes in a process so that processes only
add value to the customer.
Some of the 7 wastes targeted by Kaizen teams are:
- Waiting/Idle Time/Search time (look for items, wait for elements or
instructions to be delivered)
- Correction (defects/rework & scrap ‐ doing the same job more than once)
- Transportation (excess movement of material or information)
- Over‐ production (building more than required)
- Over‐ processing (processing more than what is required or sufficient)
- Excess Motion (excess human movements at workplace)
- Storage/warehousing (excess inventory)
The benefits of doing Kaizen are less direct or indirect labour requirements,
less space requirements, increased flexibility, increased quality, increased
responsiveness, and increased employee enthusiasm.

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The eight week internship done at Celebrity Fashions Pvt. Ltd. has been a
great learning process for us as an apparel manufacturing students of NIFT.

During our stay in the organization we observed different departments and
their daily functioning and the process flow. We were also able to work on live
projects that has been an immense training value for us and helped us in
having better understanding of garment manufacturing process.

This internship gave us an opportunity to see in practical whatever we have
learnt in theory and to understand the problems faced by different department
in meeting the shioppment dates and delivieries, giving us deeper insight to
the industry as well as practical experience of working in the industry.

It helped us to learn and improve our interpersonal communication skills with
colleagues, peer groups and workers.Each and every experience in the
company helped us a lot inincreasing the knowledge both theoritically and

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During our internship we were able to inculcate wide range of knowledge
about the existing scenario of the garment industry, understanding the
functioning and the role played by various departments in meeting the delivery

The various departments that exists in the company from administration to the
shipment were thoroughly studied with the good understanding.The
conclusion were drawn and suggestions were presented to the management,
who humbly accepted them.

To conclude, this internship proved to be a great learning in many aspects as
it gave us an opportunity to experiment and utilize the inputs imparted by the

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