Project Report by asifmughal1972

VIEWS: 26 PAGES: 67

									                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

Organization Introduction............................................................................................... 1
  Acquisition.....................................................................................................................
  3
Product
Mix....................................................................................................................... 4
  Home And Personal Care........................................................................................... 4
    Personal Wash (PW)................................................................................................ 4
  Fabrics And Home Care.............................................................................................. 5
    Fabric Wash............................................................................................................... 5
    Home
    Care................................................................................................................. 5
  Personal Product.......................................................................................................... 5
    Hair
    Care..................................................................................................................... 5
    Skin
    Care.................................................................................................................... 5
    Dental Care................................................................................................................ 5
  Oil And Dairy Based Foods......................................................................................... 6
    Banaspati....................................................................................................................
    6
    Cooking
    Oil................................................................................................................. 6
    Margarine....................................................................................................................
    6
    Industrial Fats............................................................................................................ 6
  Beverages......................................................................................................................
  6
    Leaf
    Teas.................................................................................................................... 6
    Dust
    Teas.................................................................................................................... 6
    Mixture
    Tea................................................................................................................. 7
    Ice
    Cream.................................................................................................................... 7
Vision Of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.................................................................. 8
Mission Statement of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited............................................. 9
Analysis Of Mission Statement................................................................................... 11
  Mission Contents........................................................................................................ 11
    Organization Philosophy....................................................................................... 11
    Organization Key Value......................................................................................... 12
    Critical Success Factor.......................................................................................... 13
    Concern For Different Stakeholders................................................................... 13
    Form And Sources Of Competitive Advantages................................................ 13
    Scope And Types Of Mission................................................................................ 14
Objectives Of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited And Attainment Of Objectives... 17
  Objectives of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited...................................................... 17
  Attainment Of Objectives........................................................................................... 18
    Specific..................................................................................................................... 1
    8
    Measurability............................................................................................................ 18
    Attainable................................................................................................................. 19
    Reliability.................................................................................................................. 1
    9
    Time
    Frame.............................................................................................................. 19
    Attainment Of Objectives....................................................................................... 19
Strategic Management At Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited................................... 22
  Corporate Level Strategy........................................................................................... 22
  Business Level Strategy............................................................................................ 23
  Operational Level Strategy........................................................................................ 25
Strategy Evaluation....................................................................................................... 26
  Suitability..................................................................................................................... 2
  6
  Acceptability................................................................................................................ 27
  Feasibility..................................................................................................................... 2
  9
Structural Analysis........................................................................................................ 30
  Organizational structure and management of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited 30
  Board Of Directors...................................................................................................... 31
  Hierarchy...................................................................................................................... 3
  2
  Branch structure......................................................................................................... 32
  Structural Analysis..................................................................................................... 33
    Threat Of New Entrants......................................................................................... 34
    Threat Of Substitutes.............................................................................................. 34
    Buyer Power............................................................................................................ 34
    Supplier Power........................................................................................................ 35
    Competitive Rivalry................................................................................................. 35
  Structure Types In Multinational Companies........................................................ 35
Value Chain Analysis Of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.................................... 38
  Explanation Of Value Chain.................................................................................... 38
  Supportive Activities................................................................................................... 40
    Firm Infrastructure................................................................................................... 40
    Human Resource Management........................................................................... 42
    Technological Development................................................................................. 43
    Procurement............................................................................................................ 44
  Primary Activities Of Value Chain Of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited............ 44
    Inbound Logistics Of Value Chain Of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited....... 44
  Operations................................................................................................................... 4
  5
  Out Bound Logistics................................................................................................... 45
  Marketing And Sales.................................................................................................. 46
    1. Poor Marketing.................................................................................................. 46
    Services.................................................................................................................... 4
    7
  A Transition In Value Chain..................................................................................... 47
SWOT Analysis.............................................................................................................. 48
  Strengths...................................................................................................................... 4
  8
  Weaknesses................................................................................................................ 4
  9
  Opportunities............................................................................................................... 5
  0
  Threats.......................................................................................................................... 5
  1
PEST Analysis............................................................................................................... 53
  Political & Legal Factors............................................................................................ 53
  Economical Factors.................................................................................................... 53
    Capital Markets........................................................................................................ 54
  Socio-Cultural Factors............................................................................................... 54
  Technological Factors............................................................................................... 55
Problem Statement........................................................................................................ 56
  Problems...................................................................................................................... 5
  6
    Internal problems.................................................................................................... 56
    External problems................................................................................................... 59
Introduction Of Sunsilk And Lifebuoy........................................................................ 60
  Sunsilk Shampoo....................................................................................................... 60
  Lifebuoy Shampoo..................................................................................................... 61
SWOT Analysis Of Shampoo Product Line.............................................................. 62
  Strengths...................................................................................................................... 6
  2
  Weaknesses................................................................................................................ 6
  2
  Opportunities............................................................................................................... 6
  3
  Threats.......................................................................................................................... 6
  4
Competitors’ Analysis................................................................................................... 65
  Direct Competitors...................................................................................................... 65
    Upper Class............................................................................................................. 65
    Middle Class............................................................................................................ 65
  Sales Analysis............................................................................................................ 67
    Pentene Of P&G..................................................................................................... 67
    Sunsilk Of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited....................................................... 67
  Indirect Competitors................................................................................................... 67
    Imported Shampoos................................................................................................ 68
    Branded Soaps........................................................................................................ 68
    Unbranded Shampoos & Soaps.......................................................................... 68
Strengths And Weaknesses Of Competitors............................................................ 70
  Strengths Of P&G....................................................................................................... 70
  Weaknesses................................................................................................................ 7
  1
Existing Strategies Of Sunsilk..................................................................................... 72
  Product Strategy......................................................................................................... 72
  Pricing
  Strategy........................................................................................................... 72
  Promotion Strategy..................................................................................................... 73
  Placing Strategy.......................................................................................................... 73
  Suggested Strategies................................................................................................. 73
    Product Strategies................................................................................................... 73
    Pricing Strategies.................................................................................................... 74
    Promotion Strategies.............................................................................................. 74
    Place (Distribution) Strategy................................................................................. 74
Existing Strategies Of Lifebuoy................................................................................... 75
  Product Strategy......................................................................................................... 75
  Pricing
  Strategy........................................................................................................... 75
  Place (Distribution) Strategy..................................................................................... 75
  Promotion Strategy..................................................................................................... 75
  Suggested Strategies................................................................................................. 76
    Market Penetration.................................................................................................. 76
    Implementation........................................................................................................ 76
    Market Development............................................................................................... 76
    Implementation........................................................................................................ 76
ORGANIZATION INTRODUCTION

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is a multinational organization. Unilever PLC London is
its parent company. Unilever is a European based company with headquarters in
London, and their shares are quoted at the stock exchange of several European
countries. They deal in all kinds of products from animal foodstuff to foods and
detergents plus other personal and consumer products. Unilever has its subsidiaries in
over 80 countries of the world, to which it spreads its vast knowledge and resources.

William Lever (its originator) commences business in England as a grocer. He
established Lever Brothers in 1827 in England Sunlight was the first product of Lever
Brothers, which makes the beginning of the marketing of branded products at the same
time Margarine Uni was established in Nether Land by Simon Van Berg and Anton
Jurgens. These two companies in term of:

   Buying raw material

   Selling finished goods

Consequently both the companies loosing out money in term of profit. These problems
led to think of the mergers in 1930. These two companies merged together and
renamed the business as Unilever PLC / the word UNI is taken from margarine Uni and
Lever is taken from Lever Brothers. Its head quarter was established in England and
Rotter Dam.

Unilever has 500 operating companies in 80 countries. It has 0.3 million employees and
turnover of sales in 23000 million pounds. The global business proportion is 60% in
Europe 20% in North America and 20% in rest of the world. An identified board of
directors control the activities of subsidiary companies throughout the world. Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited started its operations in 1948. A merger of Sadiq Vegetable
Oils and Allied Industries existed in Rahim Yar Khan was taken place with Lever
Brothers and HVM company based at Karachi. As a result of merger Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited was incorporated as an independent Unilever operating company in
1955. The company is quoted on the Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad Stock Exchanges.
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has around 1900 employees in Pakistan.

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited played a dynamic role in boosting consumer products
market. It stand at a unique position due to its honesty and integrity. Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited’s main divisions of business are:

MERGER WITH BROOKE BOND

Brooke Bond Pakistan Limited was incorporated in 1948. Company’s 40% shares are
held by Unilever, 21% by financial institutions, 24% by individuals, and 10% by
insurance companies. The company is quoted on Karachi and Lahore Stock Exchange
market. The company is manually engaged in the blending, packaging and marketing of
tea. It also has a small business in the sale of packing apices. The company employ
around 850 persons. And has three manufacturing locations situated in Karachi and
Khanewal. It also have three regional sales offices. The head office of the company is
located in Karachi.

After the amalgamation of Lever and Brooke Bond, Unilever will have a majority
shareholding in the combined company and it will provide a comparable level of
technical, management and financial resources. The proposed merger will benefit the
consumer in term of price and quality.

ACQUISITION

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited acquire the shares of Pakistan Industrial Promoters
Limited, Mehran International Limited and Ambrosia International Limited, which is
known as Polka Group of Ice Cream Companies.
PRODUCT MIX

At present Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is engaged in marketing of diversified
varieties and classes of products and playing a dynamic role in boosting consumer
product market. It stand at a unique position due to its honesty and integrity. Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited has both product length and depth i.e. it has by length a
largest of product lines available and under each product line there are lots of variants
like different weights, 100mg, 500mg, 1000mg, sache pack, family pack or in case of ice
creams different brands have lots of flavor available which determines its product depth.
So different no of product lines are called product length and no of products in each
product line are called depth of product line. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s main
product groups are listed below:

HOME AND PERSONAL CARE

PERSONAL WASH (PW)
        TOILET SOAPS

               Lifebuoy (Carbolic Soap)

               Lifebuoy Plus

               Lifebuoy Gold

               Lux (in 4 varieties)

               Rexona (in 2 varieties)

               Liril

               Hamman

               Fair & Lovely Soap
FABRICS AND HOME CARE

FABRIC WASH

       Surf Excel

       Power Surf

       Sunlight Washing Powder

       Soap Wheel

HOME CARE

      Vim Dish Washer / Scourers

Vim NSD Bard (in 2 varieties)

Vim Powder Poly Bag


PERSONAL PRODUCT

HAIR CARE

       Sunsilk Shampoo (in 7 varieties)

       Harmony Soap

       Lifebuoy Shampoo

SKIN CARE

       Fair & Lovely Skin Cream and Lotion

DENTAL CARE

       Close-up Tooth Paste

       Pepsodent
OIL AND DAIRY BASED FOODS

BANASPATI

       Dalda

COOKING OIL

       Dalda Cooking Oil(Soya Bean)

       Dalda Sunflower Oil

       Planta

MARGARINE

       Blue Band

INDUSTRIAL FATS

A whole range of product for bakery and oils for the industry.


BEVERAGES

LEAF TEAS

       Yellow Label

       Yellow Label – Danedar

       Richbru

       Top Star

       Taaza Leaf

       Supreme

       Brooke Bond
DUST TEAS
      Pearl Dust

      Ruby Dust

      Laojee

MIXTURE TEA

      Taaza

ICE CREAM

      Cornetto (in 3 varieties)

      Feast (in2 varieties)

      Feast Stickless

      Top Ten

      Star Cup (in 4 varieties)
      Sundae ( 2 variant)
     Chocu Bar
      Minimill
      Sola
      Jet Spot
      Ice Lolly
      Wall’s Kulfi
      Panda
      Pop Corn
      Big Three
VISION OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

The vision of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is driven by is the commitment to
excel and we are here to sell aspiration not brand. So, the core vision is integrating
and that is to excel in every field whatever Lever Brothers do to provide customer
delight and value. The Lever Brothers have been able to follow the track set by their
vision and to achieve the standards set by their customers.
     MISSION STATEMENT OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited will be the foremost consumer company in Pakistan
     with the dominant position in laundry, personal wash, skin, ice creams and spreads: a
     leading position in tea, hair, dental and household care and a sustainably profitable
     position in cooking oil and fats.

1.   We will aim at delivering a 15% UVG rate, hence doubling the size of our business over
     5 years and thereby delivering superior value creation.
2.   We will achieve this by adopting a broad view of our market by seeking the new
     opportunities in the core categories of Unilever and by staying closer to all consumers
     than competitors, understanding their evolving needs and focusing on constant delivery
     of superior value for our brands through innovation.
3.   Competitive advantage will also be developed by driving down relentlessly on relative
     cost positions and outpacing competition in operational efficiency improvement.
4.   We shall build on our strong network of distributors to maximize penetrations and
     visibility in existing channels and to develop all new channels relevant to our
     consumers.
5.   We shall establish Unilever’s core brands in Afghanistan, building brand loyalty and
     strong distribution in the market.
6.   To achieve these standards of performance, Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited will
     develop a strategically focussed organization and will motivate its personnel to use its
     full potential of creativity and commitment. It will also leverage Unilever’s best practices
     and maintain the highest standards of operational control.
7.   Through its commitment to high levels of care and safety for its employees, its
     consumers and the environment, Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited will be exemplary and
     will participate in the dissemination of such practices in Pakistan.
ANALYSIS OF MISSION STATEMENT

MISSION CONTENTS

ORGANIZATION PHILOSOPHY
        PEOPLE
Peoples are key to strengths of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited. The development of
their potential is core to Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited business.

So they provide extensive attention to developing human resources.
        CUSTOMERS
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is the customers focus organization. They do delight
customers with their products and service. Their brands always deliver the high quality
as they premise. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited pays extra attention to the complaints
of consumers.

e.g. if the consumer complaints that detergent harmed any cloth or skin they send the
sample for lab test a team analyzes that customer complaint is right or not and then
they send the detailed response to customer along with gift of their products. With a
questionnaire for suggestion for further improvement on the top of which is written “WE
CARE ABOUT YOU”.
        SUPPLIERS
Suppliers are considered the partners of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited and Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited maintain mutually beneficial relationship with them.
        INTEGRITY
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited never compromise on integrity management adhere to
high standards in all they do.
        ENVIRONMENT RESPONSIBILITY
Management adhere to all national and Unilever standards to ensure health, safety and
protection of the environment in which they live and work.
        PROFIT
It is considered to be the ultimate measure of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s
performance and it is required to maintain and grow their business.
        PRODUCT MARKET DOMAIN
This factor indicates where they are going to compete. Lever Brothers Pakistan
Limited’s field of operations is the consumer products and business and this is very
clearly stated in their mission statement.

ORGANIZATION KEY VALUE

It defines that what do they want. They people of organization to be good at or how do
they want them to behave and this very clearly stated in mission statement as always
stay responsive to change, go for innovation, employee commitment to organizational
objectives and mission and creating value for customers. So, if we check the mission
statement through this aspect then we can easily state that they have clearly stated
what should be the organizational key values and how to reinforce them.

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR

The central issue of this factor is that what do they have to be good at to succeed in this
market or industry. The mission statement outlines this as “adopting a broad view of our
market, by seeking the new opportunities in the core categories and by staying closer to
all consumers than competitors and understanding their evolving needs and focusing on
constant delivery of superior value for our brands through innovation”.

So far them critical success factor is consumer connectivity and commitment to excel
and to provide superior value to customers and products of superior quality and value.

CONCERN FOR DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS

Mission statement describes that what are the obligations to different stakeholders i.e.
stockholders, employees, suppliers, customers and community at large. Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited’s mission statement contains concerns about all stakeholders. First be
foremost consumers and then other stakeholders and describes it as: “Through its
commitment to high level of core and safety for its employees, its consumers and
environment. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited will be exemplary and will participate in
the dissemination of such practices in Pakistan”.

FORM AND SOURCES OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
Mission statement of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited completely describes the form
and sources of competitive advantage as:

“Competitive advantage will be developed by driving down relentlessly on relative cost
positions and outpacing competitor’s in operational efficiency improvements and
through building strong network of distributors and by developing a strategically focused
organization and by motivating its personnel to use its full potential of creativity and
commitment and by maintaining the higher standards of operational control”.

They are going for unique combination of cost reduction and superior value to
customers so they entirely provide the form and source of competitive advantage that
what they wanted to achieve and how they will achieve it.

SCOPE AND TYPES OF MISSION




The mission of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited covers both the external dimension
(product market domain, critical success factors) and internal dimensions (philosophy,
organization key values, form and sources of competitive advantage, and concern for
different stakeholders) so therefore, we can say that the mission statement of Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited is a global mission as according to the following exhibit.

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited wants to be market leader in consumer products. It
enjoys greatest market share as compared to competitors by providing superior quality
products. And customer value is what they value. And this is reflected in mission
statement. The very first 3 points are all customer focused and has provided customer
value as their main focus.
As both the dimensions are extensively covered so we can say that the mission of Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited is global mission. Now we can further go for rating of mission
of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited on a scale of 1-10 for testing of mission, which is as
under:
         TESTING THE MISSION

  Does the mission statement make it clear what the organization           10
                    stands for and why it exists?
   Does the mission statement makes it clear where we have to               5
               compete and who are our customers?
 Does mission statement tell us the values we should adhere to in           8
                    working of this organization?
Does mission statement make it clear what we have to be good at to         10
                        survive and prosper?
Do different parts of mission statement hand together, does it make        10
                               sense?
     Is the mission statement short enough so that people can              10
                           understand it?
  Is the mission statement well written enough so that people will          5
                            remember it?
Is the mission statement challenging and exiting, will it motivate us?     10
  Does the mission statement tell us what we should be doing and            5
                   what we should not be doing?
                                Total                                      83


                         Criteria:              100 = Excellent
                                                    50 = Medium
                                             00 = Poor or no mission

The total score indicates that the mission statement of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited
is approximately near to excellent standards and gives complete help for setting
priorities guide strategic decision making, and performance evaluation or in short it
fulfills the essential role i.e. to define the business in such a manner which is important
in overall strategic management.
     OBJECTIVES OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED AND ATTAINMENT OF

     OBJECTIVES

     OBJECTIVES OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

1.   Their main objective is to have a double-digit growth and resultant cash flows will be
     utilized in improving the product quality and contents to enhance the value to customer
     and final users.
2.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has an objective to have a responsive supply chain and
     technological based processes.
3.   They want to have consumer connectivity, i.e. they want to know what they eat, drink,
     how they spend their lives, what are their preferences. So in this way they wan to be
     very close to customer, to know their real insight and desires so they can develop new
     strategy for product design and can implement their strategy in better manner i.e.
     avoidance of hit and trial approach and hitting the right target with right strategy at right
     time in right and accurate manner.
4.   They want to be cost efficient i.e. they want to reduce in their cost of production, cost of
     transportation, distribution and packaging cost and finally reducing all the human cost to
     offer a competitive price to customer maintain the high standards of quality.
5.   To have a partnership with their suppliers to enable them to provide high quality low cost
     material.
6.   Have entered and will be aggressively developing new markets.
7.   Be exciting to their customers with stream of innovative products.
8.   To be no in all their existing markets.

     ATTAINMENT OF OBJECTIVES

     An objective or set of objective to be ideal must be “SMART” i.e.

1.   Specific
2.   Measurable
3.   Attainable
4.   Realistic
5.   Time frame
SPECIFIC

The objective of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are specific not general e.g. they want
to be number one i.e. market leader in terms of market share. They want to be cost
efficient it is specific i.e. they have to reduce their costs without compromising on
quality. They want to have focused strategic thrust i.e. they are to simply reduce non-
valuable slow moving product. So the non-value added products are quite obvious with
their sale figure and popularity.

MEASURABILITY

Objectives of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are measurable as you can easily
measure the double-digit growth with their balance sheet footings and cash flow
analysis. Reduction in cost easily be measurable from reduced price level and cost of
production. Responsive supply chain objective can easily be measured with quantity of
real information available on computer terminals of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.

ATTAINABLE

All of the objectives are attainable. They can be market leader e.g. they are in Lux, Blue
Band, Fair & Lovely, Lipton and Supreme. They have portfolio and cash flows to invest
in their product categories to achieve their quality standards thereby becoming market
leader with their increased share, sales and growth. Thereby getting brand loyalty
among their customers.

RELIABILITY

One has to be at the top so to be number one in its realistic objectives. Other objective
e.g. reduction in cost is realistic, you an reduce your cost by focusing on value chain.
Cost of inbound and outbound logistics.

The objective of launching innovative products is also realistic objective, it comes only
from creative ideas and implementation of these innovative ideas comes up from
investment.

TIME FRAME

All these objectives are to be attained in some specific time period.

ATTAINMENT OF OBJECTIVES

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s strategy to attain the objectives is:
1.   Maximum coverage of outlets
2.   Desirable sales volume
3.   Display and merchandizing of products
4.   Developing quality and want satisfying product.

      Since every company is formed to accomplish certain objectives. There is no company,
      which had no goals. So Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited also has targets before it.

      These main targets and objectives are:

1.   Profits
2.   Consumerism
3.   Welfare of consumer

      The first objective of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is to earn maximum profit but
      keeping in view the customer demands as well company deals in those products which
      are profitable.

      If there are any indication that any item is not good from profit point of view, it will try to
      find out the reasons. Will soon what steps should be taken to overcome these reasons.

      Company will introduce different marketing strategies if there are problems in marketing.
      Here I would like to code two very famous examples, 1st of Sunlight soap and Sunlight
      washing powder of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.

      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited initially developed a sense of consumer to use washing
      powder other than washing soap, consumer switched s a result towards Sunlight
      washing powder, i.e. popular segment of washing powder and than the market share for
      Sunlight soap declined with passage of time, now the consumer who realized the
      convenience of washing powder started using it, but at the same time, as a result
      marketing strategy of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited awareness of people, people
      switched to surf and wheel i.e. premium segment detergents. Finally due to the
      decrease in the market shares and sales volume of Sunlight soap and was light powder
      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited management finally decided to stop the production of
      this very product i.e. it is now obsolete.

      Second example is related to the change of brand name of Surf to Surf Excel. The
      reason behind was introduction of competitor’s brands like Arial by P&G which had
      brightness features, which caused the people to switch from Surf to Arial, Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited realized the fact due to disturbance in sale volume of Surf
and introduced new brand name “Surf Excel” with extra brightness power.

Company also takes into consideration the welfare of the consumer. It takes into mind
the taste and habits of the customer. They pay much attention on the customers’
complaints. It also works for the welfare and interest of Pakistan, as it is an environment
friendly organization.
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AT LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

Now we will proceed with strategies being pursued by the Lever Brothers Pakistan
Limited at different organizational level. First we will discuss the corporate level
strategy.

CORPORATE LEVEL STRATEGY

At corporate Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is pursuing the strategy of vertical
diversification i.e. driving away from the previously adopted strategy of vertical
integration i.e. now they don’t want to perform more than one step of the processes
involved in converting raw materials into a product delivered and ready for consumption.
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s operations are so complexed and involves 200
brands in Pakistan so now they wanted to reduce the operational complexity and going
for strategic alliances with their suppliers, instead of producing themselves and going
into complex operations now they want their suppliers to produce for them.

The outsourcing the production so that they don’t have to invest heavily in the
production and to reduce the capacity problems, they now going for the third party
contracting to produce themselves and now they want them to be restricted to
marketing and distribution of products.

Diversification strategy is being pursued by the Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited but they
mainly go     for related    diversification   as against    unrelated diversification     for
conglomerates, they are diversified into number of businesses as mentioned earlier but
they are all related to consumer products. Through vertical diversification they will be
able to eliminate the operational complexity and costs of buying and selling i.e. the
transactional costs. Now they mainly wanted to step away from operations and want to
focus more on customers.

As means of diversification which are being utilized by the Lever Brothers Pakistan
Limited as all the time, been acquisition, neither joint ventures i.e. strategic alliances nor
the internal development. Here we can take the example of the acquisition of Brooke
Bond and Polka for example which have Brother acquired through a hostile takeover.
And to step away from operational complexities now they go for subcontracting with the
suppliers and want them to produce for Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited as in case of oil
and ghee and soap and with the passage of time will also be implemented in other
categories as well.

BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGY

At business level Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is adopting a very unique and
interesting set of strategies. First and foremost strategy they want to follow is the cost
leadership. They wanted to control cost as much as possible and want to reduce cost by
every mean.

First cost efficiency is achieved through outsourcing operations and stop producing
themselves and go for cost efficient subcontracting.

Second they want to achieve cost efficiency through responsive and cost efficient
supply chain, want to be in touch with suppliers all the time and for that they have
connected themselves with the suppliers and to their suppliers as well to minimize cost
related to forecasting now they want better forecasting through computer networks so to
get the real time information about the inventory, stock, demand and supply. They are
now reducing the inventory as well as average carrying the inventory of only 3 days and
getting closer to the concept of just in time except for those products for which they
have to brought in raw materials from far flung areas like tea and moreover routings of
logistics as well like air routing or ship routing to curtail the costs other than cost
efficiency, they have adopted the strategy of consumer connectivity i.e. want to stay
closer to consumers rather to operations and want to focus all alternations to
consumers through more research and customer profiles and demographics and wants
to explore new customers and usage of products.

To get customer connectivity they do the market research to check the trends of their
customers. The do pre-launch, post-launch research, e.g. their did before and after
lunching while antidandruff Sunsilk. The response was quite encouraging. Hence
basically customer and market research and customer feedback, free samples
distribution before and after launching new product / brand/ variant is aiming their basic
strategy to implement and achieve the customer connectivity and to fulfill their customer
demand.

Here Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has used the strategy of product development i.e.
by modifying and improving their Sunsilk it into Sunsilk antidandruff (white), they have
increased their sales. They are applying “Market and Development Strategy” as well in
which by introducing present product (Sunsilk) into a new demographic area i.e.
dandruff conscious market segment with the launch of only new variant i.e. Sunsilk
antidandruff white. They have added conditioner in it as initially the conditioner was
missing in all shampoos of Sunsilk. While it is available in competing brands of P&G.

Other than these two strategies another very important strategy is being followed by tge
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited i.e. focusing on core brands or want to have a very
focused on brand portfolio in which they wanted to get rid of the slow moving brands
like in Surf you will get number of further variants like Surf Ultra, Surf Micro, Power Surf
etc. and in Sunsilk number of variants, Black, Green, Pink, etc. to name a few and how
they have curtailed all these slow moving brands like focusing attention to Surf Excel
only and in case of Sunsilk Black and White (antidandruff) and discarding slow moving
items like Sunsilk Pink and Green etc.

So, to avoid cannibalization effect now instead of number of brands to flood in the
market only few better and improved brands, cash generating and more focused
towards customers.

OPERATIONAL LEVEL STRATEGY

At operational level, Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has always adopted the strategy of
TQM only never went for CPR i.e. they have not come up with a new brand in last few
years. Only the improvements or new variants in existing brands or using the same old
brand name to introduce a new product like Lifebuoy Shampoo or Fair & Lovely Soap.
So it can easily be said that they believe more in adopting changes rather generative
ones or go for single loop learning only because according to them its very very
expensive to introduce a new brand name.




STRATEGY EVALUATION

Now after outlining the objectives and discussing the strategies we can now evaluate
these strategies that whether they are in harmony with the objectives of Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited or not. And then we will evaluate these strategies on three types of
evaluation criterion.
      Now as against the objectives, if we go through all the strategies being mentioned
      earlier, then we can see that all strategies are true reflection of the objectives being
      targeted by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited. As an objective of consumer connectivity,
      responsive supply chain getting on line computer network with suppliers and more
      stronger R&D department and the objective of cost efficiency is supported by the
      vertical diversification in an sense that how they are outsourcing production and going
      for sub contracting with their suppliers and having more responsive and cost effective
      supply chain and to achieve growth more focused strategy in case of reduction of
      brands, etc. So these strategies are true measures to achieve those objectives. But
      other than objectives there is some other criterion which each strategy has to fulfill to be
      of any worth and that criteria is as follows: its basically three types of evaluation criterion
      i.e.

1.   Suitability
2.   Acceptability
3.   Feasibility

      SUITABILITY

      Suitability is a broad assessment of whether the strategy addresses the circumstances
      in which the organization is operating. For example, the extent to which the strategy
      would fit with the future trends / changes in the environment or how the strategy might
      exploit the core competencies of the organization. Now if we evaluate the strategy of
      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited on these factors that whether the strategies fit with its
      existing circumstances would able to compete with the future trends like the strategy of
      cost reduction and focused brands and outsourcing production and consumer
      connectivity and more responsive value chain. All these strategies are not only suitable
      to the present condition but are prerequisite for future success as well i.e. by
      outsourcing production more focus towards customer needs and wants would be
      provided and it would help Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited to achieve even higher
      customer satisfaction level and market share and not only that lowering the cost would
      not only be beneficial for Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited but for consumers as well i.e.
      now they would receive better quality at relatively lower cost and Lever Brothers
      Pakistan Limited would be able to provide superior products quality and value to
      customers. Now a days, success lies at cost reduction and superior quality which the
      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has successfully opted for. Other than this, next factor
is that whether strategy can exploit the core competencies of the organization or not.
The answer is very simple that by reducing operational complexity and brands
complexity more resources would be available to focus more on the quality of the
products as compared to the previous situation. So on the basis of these factors it can
easily be said that the strategies being implemented are very suitable to Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited.

ACCEPTABILITY

Acceptability of strategy is concerned with the expected performance outcomes such as
the returns and risk if the strategies are implemented and the extent to which it would be
in line with the expectations of the stakeholders.

In case of returns, its pretty much assured that returns would definitely be enhanced
when the cost would decrease and strategies would result in better quality products. But
the elements of risk is there which could be quite significant in the case of
subcontracting, whether the suppliers would be able to meet the quality standards or
not. And as we inquired it from the branch manager of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited,
he said, that we have very strong quality control system and moreover we are entering
into strategic partnership with our suppliers so to maintain quality is in their favor too
and they would be beneficial from the better quality as well and it would not increase the
cost in case of maintaining control over the suppliers as its partnership more as
compared to only placing and receiving order we will work for mutual benefits and
complete harmony which we already have.

As far as the stakeholders are concerned first and foremost effect would be on the
employees as the production is out-sourced so they would definitely feared the
unemployment but they said that we will arrange it with our suppliers and will try to
accommodate them as much as possible and in case of shareholders, they would
receive benefits of this strategy and would receive higher returns on their investments
and they would be able to maximize their earnings and in other stakeholders suppliers
would now play more important role by entering into strategic partnership with the
organization. Consumers receive more attention now and would get more satisfaction
as more and more products would be developed on the basis of the targets being set by
the consumers. So after analyzing these factors it can easily be said that strategies
being pursued by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has higher returns and lesser risks
and more benevolent to stakeholders as well.
FEASIBILITY

Feasibility is concerned with whether the strategy could be made to work in practice or
not. And its more concerned with the assessment of practicalities of resourcing and
strategic capabilities i.e. quantitative assessment, which is beyond the scope of this
report, so, as an overview, all strategies seems feasible and some of them has already
been implemented as well like the reduction in brands etc. So assessing;

Is this a good strategy?

Is the positioning viable?

Does it improve value?

Does it exploits core competencies?

Will it lead to good financial performance?

All these factors seems work in favor of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited after analyzing
the strategies of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited restructure the organization after the merger with
Brooke Bond Pakistan Limited. The chairman is the executive officer of Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited. He leads the seven members management committee, which is the
top of decision making. The management is responsible for corporate strategy of Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited and for initiating policies and overall planning as well as their
general management duties. Management committee members are each responsible
for specific function. Reporting to the management committee members are
departmental heads who are responsible for advising the management committee for
planning and implementation of policies for ensuring that targets are reached. The
committee includes:

            Mr. Lain Strachan Sangster           (Chairman & Chief Executive)
                       Mr. Mashkoor Alam            (Vice Chairman)
           Mr. Mujib-ur-Rehman                  (Technical & Logistics Director)
                      Mr. Perwaiz Hassan Khan (Director Personnel)
                      Mr. J. A. Lee                     (Director Sales)
                    Mr. A. D. Bandaranayake (Director Commercial)
           Mr. N. I. Khockhar                    (Business Unit manager ODF)
              Mr. Clive David Welland              (Director Food Business)

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

The board of directors control the whole operation of the organization it includes the
following personalities:

                            Mr. Lain Strachan Sangster
                                      Mr. Syed Babar Ali
                                Mr. Fateh Ali W. Vellani
                                  Mr. Mujib-ur-Rehman
                                Mr. Perwaiz Hassan Khan
                                        Mr. J. A. Lee
                                Mr. Clive David Welland
                             Mr. Dr. A. D. Bandaranayake
                                    Mr. S. N. Patel
                                Mr. M. Asadullah Sheikh
                                Mr. Abdul GhaniBachani
                                Mr. Azim Azmat Osman

As we can notice that the management of the company is composed of a mix of
international and Pakistanis business professionalists. The management of the
company includes Syed Babar Ali as director, who is also involved in many other
organizations i.e. Packages and other industries. It includes in its board meetings one
member from each province i.e. Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan. The top
management of the company is fully professional specially marketing department which
is headed by Mr. Jeff Lee who have world wide experience in this field.
HIERARCHY



BRANCH STRUCTURE




All over Pakistan 6 branches of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are working. Its head office is
located in Karachi at Avari Towers. The chairman and management committee as well as the
most of the department heads have their offices there.
     STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has a functional structure i.e. its based on the primary
     tasks that have to be carried out such as production, accounting, finance, marketing,
     etc. and then there is separate department for each function and these functions are
     carried out by directors and they are assisted by managers of that very particular
     function like marketing manager and those managers have divided each product
     category into home and fabric care category, spread and cooking category, etc. And
     these categories are headed by one product manager and assistant manager.

     We cannot say that the structure of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is an ideal or exact
     functional structure as in functional structure CEO is in direct supervision of each
     primary activity but Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited have also included layers of vice
     chairman and very important management committee as described earlier. This
     structure maximizes the basic advantage of functional structure that the CEO is in
     charge and well informed about each primary activity and minimizes the basic
     disadvantage of functional structure that an organization become larger or more
     diverse, then CEO, senior management can be over burdened with everyday
     operational issues, which is true in the case of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited and to
     offset this disadvantage they have created additional layer of management committee
     which is responsible of coordination between CEO and chairman, vice chairman, and
     the functional directors to take a strategic perspective on problems. So, Lever Brothers
     Pakistan Limited has an ideal structure to oversee the whole organization and to control
     the operations of the organization which in turn create problems as of very slow
     decision making process and very centralized too.

     To continue with structure analysis discussion, now let’s turn our discussion to five basic
     forces, which determines an organization’s structure i.e.

1.   Threat of new entrants
2.   Threat of substitutes
3.   Buyer power
4.   Supplier power
5.   Competitive rivalry.
THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS

This potential threat always exist in every organization. But an organization like Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited this threat is very minimum because you need a giant to
compete with another giant like Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited and in a relatively small
market like Pakistan, they are enjoying the highest market shares in most of their
product categories like ghee, oil, soaps, spread, fabric care, etc. so, they face no threat
of any new entrant.

THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES

Same as in the case of new entrant no as such threat they are facing.

BUYER POWER

To determine buyer power one condition is always necessary i.e. the buyers are few so
they exert power over an organization. But this condition is not present in case of Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited, they have very diversified product categories and within each
category they have brands targeted at almost each and every segment of the market so
they don’t face the buyers power as such but still “customer is king” and they do have to
pay a lot of attention to buyers being a consumer product company.

SUPPLIER POWER

Suppliers don’t exert any power over Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited rather Lever
Brothers Pakistan Limited provides buyer’s power in this case, no body would like to
loose a buyer like Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited so, they don’t face any significant
supplier power.

COMPETITIVE RIVALRY

Competition is intense but not cut throat competition and all of them avoid frontal
assault or direct attack. So, situation of healthy competition exist. Competitive rivalry
would be discussed more in detail in the section “competitor analysis”.

STRUCTURE TYPES IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

The growth in the size and importance of multinational business warrants some special
mention, since the structural implications can be significant. In deciding the structure of
multinational critical aspect or factor or issue is the extent to which local independence
     and responsiveness take precedence over global coordination. On the basis of these
     factors there are generally four types of multinational structures, such as:




     In all the four structures, Unilever has assumed the structure of transnational
     corporations in which they have developed structure, which attempts to combine the
     local responsiveness of the international subsidiary with the advantages available from
     coordination found in global product companies. The key is that they wanted to create
     an integrated network of interdependent resources and competencies, in which:

1.   Each national unit operates independently, but is a source of ideas and capabilities for
     the whole corporation.
2.   The corporate center manages a global network by first establishing the role of each
     subsidiary, then sustaining the culture and system to make the network operates
     efficiently or in a way we can say that they have combined global and multi-domestic
     strategy, staying independent and responsive towards local or national market and yet
     not loosing touch or coordination with the worldwide network and parent company.

     There are interesting differences between countries in the way that global strategy tend
     to develop. Companies, which originated in many European countries such as Unilever
     or Nestle needed to internationalize their activities at an early stage, owing to the small
     size of their home markets. This took the firm of “international subsidiaries” but now
     their challenge is to reduce the local autonomy and increase global coordination. But in
     contrast US companies with a large domestic market tended to favor “international
     divisions” and now they face two challenges:

1.   The issue of local autonomy.
2.   Barriers between their separate strategic views of the domestic and international
     business.

     Unilever has well coped with these challenges by adopting the transnational corporation
     structure.
VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

This method for accessing strengths and weaknesses divides the business into number
of linked activities that may each produce value for the customer. “Customer value” is a
function of factors that usually fall into one of three broad categories those that
differentiate the product, those that lower its costs, or those that allow the organization
to respond to customer needs more quickly.

The value chain frame work helps analyze the contribution of individual activities in a
business to the overall level of customer value the firm produces and ultimately to its
financial performance. If each part of the business produces value, the firm should be
able to change more and/or incur lower costs either of which will lead to higher profit
margins.

The value chain analysis frame work of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited appears as
follows and is basically seeking cost leadership as their source competitive advantage.

EXPLANATION OF VALUE CHAIN

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is basically focusing on cost leadership in branded
shampoos market. For their raw material procurement they have opted “outsourcing”
strategy. Many contents of shampoos are procured from Europe, America, Far East and
some of raw material is locally available it increases the lead-time. Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited handles this situation with “near to JIT system” i.e. called Automatic
Replenishment System. Through this system the suppliers of raw material are well
connected through computer terminal, the detail and current level of all raw materials,
inventory level is reflected on supplier terminal and on specific interval they ship the raw
material automatically which reduces time for repeated requisition.
After releasing the material from customs the ingredients are shipped to Rahim Yar
Khan Plant. These ingredients are processed (both local and imported) in the machinery
specifically designed for this purpose. Normally for sache packs 8 lanes are processed
at a time in one lot.

                                        8 lanes = 8 reels
                        1 r eel = 1 ton or 1000 kg of shampoo in quantity

It’s cutting and packaging is completed as final step. Packaging material is typically not
available around factory area. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has to purchase all
packaging material from Packages Limited Lahore.

Hence both primary and secondary packaging material comes from Packages Limited
Lahore. Primary packaging material includes bottles and sache packaging while that of
secondary material includes the cartons. After packaging of shampoo bottles and sache
passes through distributor to retailer.

Outbound logistics start from here on demand of 6 depots of Lever Brothers Pakistan
Limited, the lot is packed and delivered to the wholesaler.

Now we will discuss that how each individual activity of value chain (both primary and
supporting activity contributes towards the maximization of profits to deliver value to
final customer.

SUPPORTIVE ACTIVITIES

FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has a well established infrastructure. They have
knowledgeable expert top management and middle management who have expertise in
the consumer goods fields. Moreover they have some arrangements with hair exports to
furnish their product knowledge.

They have a very good and effective management information system, which not only
shares the information within the organization i.e. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited but
also with their suppliers and wholesalers as well. This saves their time and gives them
real-time information.

Marketing research department is also sharing consumer research data to improve their
standards according to customer demand and trends e.g. conditioner was missing in
Sunsilk Research and Development searched out and found that competitors are
providing conditioner also in shampoo which Sunsilk and Lifebuoy shampoo didn’t have
in them. But this has been done very late and implementation is also very slow.
Production people (manager) upon sharing this information from marketing research
department has recently launched the antidandruff white Sunsilk with conditioner which
has shown a very successful performance in market and has improved the sales of
Sunsilk of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited especially of this white variant.

One important thing to be noticed is that though they have integrated information
sharing network but the implementation on the needed strategy by production people is
seeming to be very late as their decisions are centralized and are in hands of parent
company and the implementation is also very slow. This problem of absence of
conditioner was identified by marketing research people very earlier and was
communicated to production department as well but a implication and action has been
taken after a very long time when problems of sales become visible. We can say this is
due to long term approach to strategy formation and implementation of Lever Brothers
Pakistan Limited. Hence infrastructure contributes as a supporting activity for providing
value to the customers and on some aspects e.g. centralized decision making and late
implementation it proves to be a weak support.




HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Human resource management is the one of the most important supporting pillar of the
value chain and it is useful for its analysis. A firm’s higher technological and financial
resources cannot do any thing for the betterment of company unless these two and rest
of the resources are handled by the good appropriate human resources. We can surely
say that Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has a skilled, qualified, expert, communicative
management and officers staff.

They have both formal and informal network of communication in their organization to
complete the tasks and target efficiently and effectively. Hence we can say that there is
healthy type of network among Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited staff’s department.

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited offers the training programmes and arranges seminars
for further skill development and career development purposes of its brand managers,
marketing managers, research and development managers, and other staff, which
enhances their efficiency to support the primary activities of value chain of shampoo
product line of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.

Due to necessary training, healthy pay scales, balanced empowerment, informal and
formal combination of communication network the job satisfaction of each and every
employee is very high. Which reduces the employees turnover to minimal. All of them
contribute a lot and positively for the support of value chain primary activities i.e.
procurement manager putting his efforts for the purchase of high and right quality
making inbound logistics.

Operations / brand manager is focusing ensuring the relationship of the shampoo
production.

Sales and distribution manager of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is ensuring the
complete coverage of retail outlets of Pakistan. He ensures that all variants and sache
and shampoos of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are available on each shopping outlet
of Pakistan i.e. from large shopping stores to small shop covering both rural and urban
areas.

But here we would like to add that one thing is missing as a support of value chain i.e.
good relations of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited marketing and sales manager with
their retailer and distributors. Due to this retailer give preference to the competitor’s
brands of shampoos e.g. P&G. Hence Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is providing
training and job satisfaction to its human resources in turn there is low employee
turnover and they support value chain except good relationship and incentive to retailers
which is of primary importance.
     TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

     By technological development as a supportive activity we mean that how much
     organization is bringing further improvements in its products and product development.
     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited mainly through its R&D department has recently
     brought a major improvement in its Sunsilk shampoo i.e. launch of antidandruff white
     shampoo. Hence this very element has also been supportive in value chain of Sunsilk
     and Lifebuoy shampoo. But still Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are laggards in
     bringing this improvement.



     PROCUREMENT

     Procurement especially of raw material contents and packaging material is critical to the
     product and ultimately to the organization’s success. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited
     purchases its most of the contents of shampoo from foreign countries like America,
     Europe and Far East. The procurement system of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is
     mostly globally centralized and is long term as well. For purchase of local raw material
     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is outsourcing with its suppliers. They have get very
     good long term relationship with their suppliers of local raw material as well. Hence they
     get the quantity discounts and manage lead time as well.

     PRIMARY ACTIVITIES OF VALUE CHAIN OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

     INBOUND LOGISTICS OF VALUE CHAIN OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

1.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is focusing on the outsourcing for the purchase of basic
     inputs with their suppliers. Instead of backward integration they believe in outsourcing
     which reduces their cost.
2.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited faces high lead-time for the global purchase of its
     imported raw materials but automatic replenishment system has solved this problem.
     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is all the time connected via its management
     information system with their suppliers.
3.   Quality and reliability of raw material for shampoo product line is checked and
     reconceived by the Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited at fixed intervals as they have
     centralized buying system.
     OPERATIONS

1.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has been in shampoo product line since 1984. Within
     these 16 years they have got experience. Experience effect has raised efficiency, they
     have very old operations and product method as there has been no major turn around in
     production methods of its shampoo.
2.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has a factory at Rahim Yar Khan in which they produce
     different products array with shampoo, capacity of this plant has been designed in such
     a way that in current demand they get the economies of scale very easily which reduces
     cost of manufacturing of Sunsilk and Lifebuoy on this basis they offer lower prices as
     compared to P&G.
3.   Since Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s buying is centralized same is the case with
     production and operations methods as well. Rahim Yar Khan has to follow the
     predefined production process given by parent head office of Lever Brothers Pakistan
     Limited. Hence production process of both Sunsilk and Lifebuoy is reliable i.e. there is
     no fluctuation. This element gives reliability to final consumer.

     OUT BOUND LOGISTICS

1.   Final product of shampoo of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is shipped to its 6 depots
     via truck on the demand of these depots. Whole Sellers have to add value themselves.
     They bear this cost of transportation. Hence Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has
     suppliers and Whole Sellers power over its wholesalers and gives cost cutting edge.
2.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited covers all the retail and shopping outlets of Pakistan.
     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited ensures availability and visibility of its shampoos as
     each and every large store, medium size stores, small shops. 100% coverage of outlet
     is the major strength of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.

     MARKETING AND SALES

     1.      POOR MARKETING

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has very poor marketing of their product. They
     concentrate only on “Nabila” as their celebrity. They mainly focus on females for Sunsilk
     and ignore the rest potential market; males and kids. In case of Lifebuoy they focus only
     on males and ignore females and kids which reduces their market share as compared
     to P&G’s shampoo Penteane, Head & Shoulder.

2.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has no strategy to make good relations with retailers.
     This element destroys their repute in retailer class they do prefer P&G and competitor’s
     shampoo to recommend it to buy and they give more shelf space to P&G’s shampoos
     as compared to Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s Sunsilk and Lifebuoy.

3.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has never offered any major incentive, discount or prize
     scheme to retailers on its shampoos which the retailers often demand. Retailers think
     that prize incentives with product or any other prize scheme offered to retailers or
     consumer etc enhance sales. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has never paid any head
     to it.

     SERVICES

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has good “service” in terms they offer free samples for
     the relaunch of Sunsilk, which helps as a primary activity.

     A TRANSITION IN VALUE CHAIN

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is now focusing as extended value chain i.e. they are
     outsourcing with their suppliers and subcontracting with them to ensure reliability of raw
     material.

     Before this supplier’s outsourcing they already have connected with their customers
     with their strong R&D Department. But one of thing in which they lag’s in they have
     centralized long term strategy, formulated on system and implementation of results of
     R&D Department research based on customer connection in very late.

     Hence all the above individual activities (i.e. primary and supportive activities) contribute
     to enhance customer values and ultimately improves firm’s financial performance.

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited becomes able to incur lower costs which leads to
     higher profit margins.
      SWOT ANALYSIS

      The SWOT analysis of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are as follows:

      STRENGTHS

1.    Unilever PLC England the parent company all over the world gives assistance to Lever
      Brothers Pakistan Limited so Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited enjoys a high level of
      support from Unilever.
2.    Another major source of strength for Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is its
      product targeting all income groups. Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is providing
      products total income groups i.e. providing quality with economy as well e.g. Wheel
      washing powder, Breeze beauty soap, Taza Chai, etc.
3.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is the oldest company operating in Pakistan which gives
      him a commanding position is Pakistan to certain extent.
4.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited enjoys the services of highly professional management
      in the area of sales, marketing, technical and production.
5.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has such a strong goodwill in the market that some of its
      brand names has become the generic names for those products such as Surf for
      detergents and Dalda for ghee.
6.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is the largest producer of consumer products in Pakistan
      and has strong brands in every field such as Close Up, Dalda, Surf, Lifebuoy, Lux, etc.
7.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited having the biggest shares in tea market having the
      biggest brand Lipton and Brooke Bond.
8.    They are market leader in ice cream business of Polka i.e. horizontal integration with
      hostile takeover they have captured their competitors thereby reducing competition.
9.    The company has the assets of more than 5 billion. So, it can invest further product
      innovation and development.
10.   It has the largest and efficient distribution network then any its competition.
11.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is the only company in Pakistan which has its own
      corner research department.
12.   The company is very strong financially.
13.   The company is working for almost 50 years in Pakistan. That’s why it has many
      advantages. Which other do not have. They have know how of the market. They
      understand the market very well. Similarly during this period they have developed a very
      organized distribution network all over the country. Another advantage is there wide
      range of products, which give them a position to monopolize the retailer’s shop. It is
      estimated that over more than 30% of a retailer’s shop items are by this single
      company.

      WEAKNESSES

1.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited unable to capture shampoo and toothpaste market i.e.
      low market share.
2.    New variants of the company were not able to sustain in the market such as harmony.
3.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is relatively week in their innovation department i.e.
      being first to introduce Surf but after that has no major innovation.
4.    Emphasizing only few products while ignoring others which could give them potential
      market shares e.g. beverages section.
5.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited go for long term strategies for all their product
      categories which prove to be a weakness with change in the circumstances and
      taste, trends of people

      OPPORTUNITIES

1.    With the help of further advertising their non competing brands can increase their market
      share i.e. market penetration strategy. People will definitely go for these products as
      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has a sound image in people’s mind. Whatever the
      brand is being sold is mostly on the basis of brand loyalty.
2.    They have capital to invest they can explore new product categories e.g. in food and
      beverages they can develop new products like Rafhan has launched custard, jelly,
      kheer mix, rasmalai mix, etc. through it again will broaden their product categories and
      will make their operations complex but this could be avoided with “sub contracting” i.e.
      strategic partnership with their suppliers. These products can prove a “cash cows” as
      customer in Pakistan always welcome food items especially they will welcome due to
     brand image of Blue Band and Dalda ghee in food category and due to Lipton and
     Supreme in beverages category.
3.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited relaunches most of its products with same name or little
     change in the name e.g. Surf Micro to Surf Extra, ,then to Surf Ultra and then to Surf
     Excel, with little change of name and little changes in its formula. If Lever Brothers
     Pakistan Limited launch its products with in prevailing product categories, with entirely
     new name and new formula then they can capture new market shares as it will gain
     capture the attention of its target market more as compared to existing one. Though
     apparently it will increase the advertising cost but it will be compensated with exciting
     sales as you have to advertise more even in case of relaunch of products with little
     change in names and formulas. So why not to go for new name and new formula as it
     will increase your brand portfolio, it can satisfy the needs of customers which were
     unsatisfied with the previous brands, its names, its formula, e.g. people used to say Surf
     fades the clothes, they changed formula and not name only gave it a suffix of Excel i.e.
     Surf Excel now the people who developed this perception that it fades the color, remain
     reluctant for long time even after its relaunch and heavy advertisement.

     THREATS

1.   P&G is giving very serious threats to Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited in the business of
     detergents and personal wash and shampoos.
2.   No of local companies producing detergents and market them at very low prices which is
     a threat to Surf.
3.   In the case of ghee and oil business Habib is giving very tough competition to Lever
     Brothers Pakistan Limited by introducing its variety of products.
4.   Treat is promoting Bodyguard very much and trying to produce a competition in the
     carbolic soap market.
5.   Increasing inflation in the country, persistently reducing the purchasing power of the
     people and dropping people from high price products to low price products e.g. the
     detergents and providing fuel to the expansion of unorganized sector.
6.   Increased import duties are also adding to the prices of the products and in Pakistan
     which is a very price for all the firms not only Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited who are
     using imported raw material.
7.   Threats of new entrants are also present. As ICI is a potential threat in detergents
     industry, because they are already involved in chemical business and providing raw
     material for detergent production to different manufacturing companies like Lever
     Brothers Pakistan Limited and Colgate Palmolive.
PEST ANALYSIS

PEST analysis is used to assess that what environmental factors affecting different
organization and which of them are more important and how they affect the
organization. It is indicator of political, economical, social and technological influences
on organization.

POLITICAL & LEGAL FACTORS

As far as the Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited concerns according to them that political
instability have do affect but not particularly Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited same as it
affects any other organization around and specially they are in consumer products
business which never make them out of business.

In case of legal factors, any trade policy or import duties is not affecting particularly
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited. In Pakistan right now following liberalization policy
under SAP by IMF made which they have to waive off all restrictions and moreover due
to huge investment by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited no government can afford to
create hurdles in the way of an organization like Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited.

  And they don’t have to go for only lobbying or what so ever as not action of Pakistan
                    government has affected them adversely as such.

ECONOMICAL FACTORS

Economical factors affect Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited in the same way as it affect
any other organization like current economic situation in Pakistan and inflation has
reduced consumer’s disposable income too, which in turn has reduced the purchasing
power of consumer but affect is same for every organization and according to them
Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited have edge that they have targeted all possible
segments through their vast product category i.e. the width and length too. So one way
or other they find way to cover it up.

CAPITAL MARKETS

In other economic factors like “interest rates” and “inflation” has affected the borrowing
ability of organization but Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited stayed unaffected as a
company having business in billions and when in need of financing no single bank can
fulfill the need, they have to make a consortium to finance Lever Brothers Pakistan
Limited and with very good credit standing and very low risk definitely they get the
lowest or justified interest rate as well.

SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS

In socio-cultural factors, factors like lifestyle changes and level of education affects an
organization. In case of change in lifestyle, the world has converted into global town
now and people have readily access to every sort of information and they are becoming
more quality conscious. Now more concerned towards environmental issues now and
demand more social responsibility on the part of organizations now. To cope up with all
these factors now Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited which always maintained the quality
standards needs to work towards other social factors like social responsibility and
environmental concerns like P&G did in its Arial campaign and image of a society
responsible organization.



TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS

In technological factors comes R&D first and foremost that how much an organization
spending in terms of product improvement or development of new products or
improvement in production process or in the raw material etc. and what is the trend in
the industry as Pakistan is not that big and not very much innovation seeking as the
other developed countries. Yet they keep on finding new ways of doing things and new
things as well they continuously launched variants in brands etc. and moreover in the
market like Pakistan in product categories of consumer products “rates of
obsolescence” is not very high rather very slow so no great pressure to launch new
products,.

Other than the factors smuggling affects Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s sales very
negatively. This issue would be discussed more in detail in the problem statement.
     PROBLEM STATEMENT

     Our problem statement is regarding the shampoo segment of Lever Brothers Pakistan
     Limited. They have managed such a deep and broad product category and manage to
     do so well that some of their brand name has become the generic names for that
     particular product but this is not the story with Sunsilk and recently launched Lifebuoy
     Shampoo. Our problem statement is that what are the causes, which kept Lever
     Brothers Pakistan Limited away from market leader position in shampoo market.

     PROBLEMS

     Whenever we look for the problems of company its problems can be bifurcated into two
     broader categories.

1.   Internal problems
2.   External problems

     INTERNAL PROBLEMS

     These problems are normally faced by organization due to elements, factors and
     weaknesses which are present inside or which are existing internally in the organization
     e.g. problems due to organizational policies, culture, structure, information sharing
     networks, organizational strategies or even employees, they can be positive force and
     the problem child as a source of internal problem as well.

1.   Company’s management rely on long term strategies which they receive ready made
     from their parent company, head office as a modus operandi. And hence a strategy or a
     policy approval, formulated and implemented 50 years back becomes obsolete and
     discard in prevailing scenario and changing environment e.g. in their advertising
     campaigns of Sunsilk shampoo they only use “Nabila” as their celebrity (Hair Expert)
     and they have never tried any other sports or film media celebrity for the promotion of
     their product which their competitors use extensively. Here in this field they lag behind
     due to their long term strategy even in field of advertising given by their parent head
     office.
      Hence being an influenciable organization they exhibit bureaucratic management style
          they want to maintain their status quo before these environmental changes like
                                           advertising trend.
2.   Offices and branches of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited are normally placed in domestic
     setup especially Multan branch, since it is a marketing organization, its office outlook
     and location must be in professional and well to do area which will contribute in proper
     functionality of branch and its employees as well. This severe problem is being faced by
     Multan branch of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited as well.
3.   Management team of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited normally arrange excessive
     operational meeting, they have less emphasis on the strategy implementation part as
     compared to strategy formulation and planning.
4.   All the decisions regarding product planning, development, distribution and even targets
     of the branches are centralized and are in hands of central sales office of Lever
     Brothers Pakistan Limited. They don’t believe in MBO (Management by objectives).
     Branches are given inflexible targets of sales – though data on these branch managers
     negotiate this figure but it takes too long.
5.   Due to heavy capital investment in their brands Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is
     unable to observe their slow moving brands which create a cost burden.
6.   Since removing old/discarded brand is very expensive due to expensive installed
     machinery, technology and capital investment, launching new brand is also very
     expensive for Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited due to the same reason. As to launch a
     new brand complete research and development setup is required which is inflexible and
     can not be re-utilized for another brand along with its consumer market is heavily
     flooded with products, there is very low probability that market will absorb new brands.
7.   Whenever Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited launch any product they first launch it in India
     if product proves a “big success” they try it in Pakistan which is not a good strategy due
     to cultural difference and religious differences.
8.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has very poor relationships with their dealers and
     retailers. They are far away form their competitors like P&G, in case of retailer
     relationship. Their brand manager makes very rare visits to the retailers to know their
      problems, very little discounts are offered by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited to their
      retailers. No prize scheme and incentive is given to dealers, retailers, wholesalers of
      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited. Even Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited brand manager
      never bargain on the proper and prominent shelf space of their shampoos (Sunsilk and
      Lifebuoy).
9.    Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has not been able to place any check on its smuggling
      shampoos into Pakistan e.g. Indonesian Sunsilk is made according to the demographic
      of Indonesia, when it will be used in Pakistan it will damage the hair of people, which
      deteriorate the brand image. Which create problem on local sales of Pakistan.
10.   Employment insecurities in Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited also contribute negatively
      towards the performance of branch operations. All branch managers, brand managers
      and operation are transferred within branches of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited allover
      Pakistan. This create an uncertainty among management team, new managers takes
      much time to settle in new branch and to understand new setup of branch and new
      dealers network. This affects the branch operations and performance.

      EXTERNAL PROBLEMS

      Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is not facing any prominent external problem as
      already analyzed in PEST analysis.
     INTRODUCTION OF SUNSILK AND LIFEBUOY

     SUNSILK SHAMPOO

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited stepped into shampoo business in 1984 with Sunsilk
     initially with only two variants:

1.   Sunsilk (egg shampoo)
2.   Sunsilk (shikaki shampoo)

     This was the first branded shampoo in Pakistani market then they launched another
     shampoo named as “Clinic” in 1985. For the reason that no other competitor was there
     in the market their sales figures was high in start, but as shampoo market started to
     develop and imported shampoo and other competitors entered into the market their
     sales started declining so they re-launched it as “Clinic Plus”. Due to their poor
     marketing in 90s Clinic Plus faced big failure. The sales of Clinic Plus was not up to the
     expectations of the company and they abandoned the production of Clinic Plus. They
     have recently launched the brand with the new name and new formula (as they claim)
     named as “Clinic All Clear” dandruff shampoo.

     Company re-launched Sunsilk shampoo with following five variants in 1998:

                            Sunsilk Black                     for dull hair
                          Sunsilk Yellow                    for normal hair
                            Sunsilk Green                     for thin hair
                            Sunsilk Pink                      for dry hair
                            Sunsilk Orange                    for oily hair

     They promoted these 5 variants heavily but this could not get them their market share
     back due to entry of strong competitors like P&G (Pentene, Pert Plus, Rejoice, Head &
     Shoulder), Bio Amla & other imported shampoos as these shampoos got more shelf
     space in the retail outlets.

     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited again re-launched the Sunsilk at the end of 1999 with
     12 different variants with new name of fruitamines. Now the focus was on different kind
     of hair i.e. how many variation of Sunsilk are there with aspect of ingredients and
contents. Then they reduced their frutamines Sunsilk to six variants. Now with launch of
White Sunsilk they have seven variants of Sunsilk.

LIFEBUOY SHAMPOO

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited also tried to encash its another very popular brand
name Lifebuoy soap which was popular among lower income segment. They launched
Lifebuoy shampoo using this brand name in 1998. Initially it was successful according to
the retailers every one was asking about it and asked for retailers opinion as well. But it
flopped badly because it was mainly targeted towards lower and middle income
segment and Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited wanted this segment to switch from bath
soap to shampoo and wanted to develop shampoo market in this segment as well. But
this class did not switched to Lifebuoy shampoo because they were in habit of using
soap for washing their hair, more over they did not find any thing unique and new about
the shampoo. Other than being liquid. So, they again returned to Lifebuoy soap.
     SWOT ANALYSIS OF SHAMPOO PRODUCT LINE

     STRENGTHS

1.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has a good name as a market leader in consumer
     products this image always help its shampoo product line. Customer are brand loyal
     and of shampoo product line.
2.   People have favorable opinions about Sunsilk that its contents do not include any
     harmful chemicals which could damage their hair.
3.   First trial image of user are positive and they are generally brand loyal.
4.   Sunsilk and Lifebuoy shampoos users believe that it is economical. Due to cost
     leadership strategy of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited in shampoo product line.
5.   They have recently launched antidandruff shampoo (white variant) with additional feature
     of conditioner which has been highly valued by the customers. It is competing
     successfully with P&G’s shampoos which were already having conditioner in them.

     WEAKNESSES

1.   Packaging of Sunsilk and Lifebuoy shampoo is the biggest weaknesses of Lever
     Brothers Pakistan Limited. Retailers complaint that one leaked bottle of Sunsilk spoils
     the whole lot. But Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited do not pay any head to it.
2.   Advertisement of Sunsilk does not promote the product very well rather its celebrity like
     “Nabila” is promoted. They don’t switch their celebrity as they have to follow long term
     promotion and advertising designed by their head office as Elida (France) has always
     used beauty expert as their celebrity.
3.   They focus on only females in their advertisement and they have ignored their bigger
     segment of males.
4.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited does not pay any attention on the incentives and
     discounts given to the distributors and retailers.
5.   Sales manager, brand manager and sales representatives do not conduct any personal
     visits to the retail stores which gives them dissatisfaction.
6.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited does not pay any attention to the shelf space given to
     the Sunsilk in the retail stores. The store manager of “Range” told us that the brand
     manager of Lever Brothers has never been visited their store and they even never
     bothered about their shelf space.
7.   Due to very huge number of variants in Sunsilk, Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited fined it
     very difficult to focus on particular variants and it created confusion among customers
     as well and increased complexity of operations to a large extent and created
     cannibalization effect. Though recently they have reduced their variants of Sunsilk from
     12 to 6 and then launched another one Sunsilk white. Still it needs further reduction.

     OPPORTUNITIES

1.   Due strong company image and strong distribution network if they promote their products
     through incentives, bonuses, allowances and discounts to the retailers they can get
     better shelf space in the display stores of retailers especially in shampoo product line.
2.   Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has very strong and resourceful research department.
     They can conduct through their personnel in all over Pakistan both in rural and urban
     areas and hence they can launch the new shampoo with new formula and with new
     name. For this they have such a big portfolio that they can afford its cost and returns will
     be maximized as a result of increased sales which will definitely offset the cost and will
     result in maximum market shares.
3.   People have ignored the relaunch of Sunsilk and its different offered variants. Lever
     Brothers Pakistan Limited should implement the idea of launching the new shampoo
     with new name and new formula because of this they well be better able to attract target
     market.

     THREATS

1.   All new and existing and important shampoo and branded soaps, which are used, as
     shampoos are the threats for the shampoo product line of Lever Brothers Pakistan
     Limited especially Sunsilk. Since people are not that much price sensitive in case of
     shampoo but they have more concern about the ingredients, formula and quality of their
     shampoo.
2.   Competitors of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited like P&G have very strong relations with
     retailers and distributors which is greater threat to the Sunsilk. The detail of discounts
     offered by P&G re as followed:
                                 Order in Rs.              Discount in %
                                Below 50,000                    2-3%
                                Above 50,000                    5-6%



     While Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited offers even less than the above stated discounts
     on Sunsilk and Lifebuoy shampoos.
     COMPETITORS’ ANALYSIS

     The major competitors of Sunsilk can be categorized in two ways (all percentages have
     been provided by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited:

1.   Direct competitors                          75%
2.   Indirect competitors               25%

     DIRECT COMPETITORS

     These competitors are in terms of product category. With reference to the product
     category we can divide users of shampoo into following segments:

     UPPER CLASS

     This class normally use Pentene, Head & Shoulder, Pert Plus. These shampoos are
     giving tough competition to Sunsilk.

     MIDDLE CLASS

     This segment is normally using shampoos in following percentage:

     *All the percentages have been provided by LBPL.

                          Sr. No.           Shampoo         Percentage
                            1               Bio Amla             10
                            2         Head & Shoulder            20
                            3               Pentene              35
                            4               Pert Plus            25
                            5                Sunsilk             10
          BIO AMLA
Normally young girls and women want lengthy hair and try to avoid split edges of hair so
they prefer Bio Amla. This is a shampoo which has the largest number of liters sales in
Pakistan. Only lower middle and middle group people are using Bio Amla.
          HEAD & SHOULDER
20% shampoo users are using Head & Shoulder as they are dandruff conscious people.
99% of the people are influenced by the advertisement of Head & Shoulder on daily use
to get rid of dandruff and more over they re getting the promised results. They have
targeted both males and females due to which they have got more number of shares in
market.
          PENTENE
Pentene is the strongest hair care product of P&G both formula and advertisement wise.
As already explained they are giving top incentive to retailers and distributors. P&G
sales staff pay more visits to their retailers and stores to check the shelf space of their
shampoo. Thus due to these efforts they are getting 35% of market share.
          PERT PLUS
This shampoo is almost getting 25% of market shares and it is also a very strong brand
of P&G. P&G has targeted on young busy people who want stylish hair within five
minutes. So the need of separate conditioner is also committed.
          SUNSILK
Rest of the market share i.e. only 10% is with Sunsilk.
     SALES ANALYSIS

     Now we will discuss briefly only Pentene and Sunsilk from retailers point of view i.e.
     how much order are generally placed by retailers in a month.

1.   Pentene of P&G
2.   Sunsilk of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited

     PENTENE OF P&G

     According to the retailers like Range & Prince Store and other small shop keepers,
     normally place four order in a month i.e. the shelf space is refilled 04 times in a month
     or every week due to the increased sales of Pentene. It reflects the highest turnover of
     Pentene.

     SUNSILK OF LEVER BROTHERS PAKISTAN LIMITED

     On the other hand only one order is normally placed in month by retailers due to the low
     demand by consumers. Hence the shelf space of Sunsilk is refilled 12 times in a year or
     once in a month. We can say that ratio for order placement is 1:4 for Sunsilk and
     Pentene respectively. In other words 75% of the orders are of Pentene and only 25% of
     the orders are secured by Sunsilk if we compare only these two.

     INDIRECT COMPETITORS

                                    Indirect competitors include:
                             Imported shampoos                      40%
                         Branded soaps                                35%
                           Unbranded shampoos and soaps              25%

     IMPORTED SHAMPOOS

     Higher income segment is very quality conscious. They are major innovators and variety
     seekers. They change their shampoo more often than any other segment. They are
     mostly influenced by advertisement and word of mouth or on the basis of the
     consultation of their beauty experts.

     Examples of imported shampoos include:

1.   Finess
2.   Agree
3.   Saloon Selective
4.   American Pentene (Pentene lively clean, ,Pentene Moisture lock)
5.   Vidal Sasoon
6.   Temi Tei

     40% of the indirect competition is provided by these imported shampoos.

     BRANDED SOAPS

     These soaps include:

1.   Lifebuoy (Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited)
2.   Safeguard (P&G)
3.   Bodyguard (Treet)
4.   Johnson & Johnson (J&J) mainly targeted on kids

     These soaps account for 35% of indirect competition.

     UNBRANDED SHAMPOOS & SOAPS

     They are unbranded shampoos and soaps and are normally used by lower income
     segment. These unbranded soaps and shampoos provide a major competition to
     Lifebuoy shampoo for which Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited focuses on low income
     segment. Lifebuoy soap is also providing indirect competition to Lifebuoy shampoo, as
     users of Lifebuoy soap have not shifted to Lifebuoy shampoo.

     These unbranded soaps and shampoos account for 25% of indirect competition.
     STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF COMPETITORS

     For this purpose or major competitor of concern are P&G and their shampoos like
     Pentene, Head & Shoulder and Pert Plus are providing major competition to Sunsilk and
     Lifebuoy.

     STRENGTHS OF P&G

1.   Their shampoo like P&G has conditioner in its which Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has
     only in one variant (Sunsilk White). This is most demanding feature of shampoo which
     P&G has focused upon.
2.   Advertisement of P&G focuses on males and females both to appeal potential markets
     as their customers.
3.   P&G has very strong relationship with their retailers. Their marketing and sales manager
     bimonthly visits these retailers to get knowledge of their problems. They provide them
     good incentive like discounts i.e. three to four percent on their sales, quantity discounts
     on large sales, moreover they launch price schemes continuously for their retailers.
     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited have this very healthy strategy i.e. relationship with
     retailers.
4.   P&G provides transportation facilities to its distributors and retailers which attract these
     distributors and retailers to buy the P&G’s shampoo as compared to Lever Brothers
     Pakistan Limited’s one.
5.   P&G’s management bargain and stresses more on its prominent shelf space with their
     retailers. In return of all above incentive not only retailers give a good shelf space but
     also promote P&G’s products.
6.   P&G fills its shelf space four times a months due to its high demand of shampoos. While
     Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited’s shampoos order are placed once in a month due to
     low demand by retailers. Hence high sales volume is an other strength of P&G’s.
     WEAKNESSES

1.   People have perception that P&G’s shampoo (e.g. Pentene) has harmful chemical, it
     causes fall of hair. It is a weaknesses of P&G people think that it softens the hair and
     gives silky touch but it causes the hair fall.
2.   Though there is not too much big difference of price of Sunsilk and Pentene but people
     perceive that Pentene and P&G’s shampoo are of high prices. Due to this they face
     competition from Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited. But now they have overcome this
     element by price reduction i.e. from Rs. 120 to Rs. 99 i.e. just one rupee below the retail
     price of Sunsilk (retail price of Sunsilk family size bottle is Rs. 100).
     EXISTING STRATEGIES OF SUNSILK

     The strategy rather group of strategies adopted by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited for
     Sunsilk are as follows:

     Four main groups of strategies are available to us i.e.

1.   Product development
2.   Market development
3.   Market penetration
4.   Diversification
Out of these four strategies Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has adopted the market
development strategies i.e. finding new market or target customers for the Sunsilk in
case of launching shortly new variant of Sunsilk White antidandruff and second strategy
followed is diversification which they are know about to follow through launching
complete hair care package i.e. not only shampoo but conditioners and hair dyes and
sprays as well. And in this strategy an other group of sub-strategies being followed is 4-
P’s.

PRODUCT STRATEGY

For product continuous improvement strategy is being adopted i.e. continuously
launching different variants in Sunsilk. Previously launched 12 variants than reduced to
6 variants, and now launched another variant i.e. Sunsilk White antidandruff.

PRICING STRATEGY

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited have been using mediocre price strategy i.e. neither
too high nor too low i.e. lower than P&G but higher than Bio Amla Shampoo. Due to
cost focused strategies they are able to provide customers with low prices as to retain
their target market which is mainly the middle class.

PROMOTION STRATEGY

In case of promotion, due to restriction from parent company and Elida Hair Institute
they are bounded to follow celebrity beautician focused promotional campaigns (Nabila)
and entirely focusing the female segment for Sunsilk Shampoo.

PLACING STRATEGY

Distribution strategy is not different other than any product same distribution strategies
adopted for complete product line. No separate or customized strategy adopted for
Sunsilk.

SUGGESTED STRATEGIES

From about mentioned for group of strategies considering the weakness inherited in
those strategies and problems faces by Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited, we would
recommend product development strategy instead of market development. And now
implication of this strategy over four P’s.
PRODUCT STRATEGIES

They should launch a new product with completely new brand name instead of matured
rather declining brand name and excuse for not launching a new brand. Hence as being
very expensive is no excuse for a company having portfolio for the financing of which
backs have to make a consortium.



PRICING STRATEGIES

Pricing strategies adopted are quite justified.

PROMOTION STRATEGIES

Main problem lies with promotional strategies being followed by Sunsilk using Nabila for
almost last 5-6 years continuously. They should bring a change in their promotional
campaign and should diversify it not only rely on television but should utilize other
sources as well, should have market penetration strategy effectively.

PLACE (DISTRIBUTION) STRATEGY

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited should develop long term relationship with their
retailers and provide them more attention and focus on them and listen to their
complaints which they are not doing right now and sales force only are to pick and place
orders and fulfillment of orders and don’t bargain on shelf space and not providing any
incentive to retailer for the promotion of Sunsilk. So, developmental beneficial
relationship with the retailers along with wholesalers.
EXISTING STRATEGIES OF LIFEBUOY

Since Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has launched a new product of Lifebuoy
shampoo on the basis of its existing product Lifebuoy soap. Lever Brothers Pakistan
Limited has tried to encash it generic brand hence cash cow Lifebuoy soap in a new
form Lifebuoy shampoo. So Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited is following related
diversification strategy in Lifebuoy shampoo. Within this group of strategies I its 4-P’s.

PRODUCT STRATEGY

In case of Lifebuoy shampoo they have made a related diversification in Lifebuoy soap.

PRICING STRATEGY

The are following cost leadership in Lifebuoy shampoo. Their focus is on low income
group which is already loyal to Lifebuoy soap due to its low prices. Hence brand name
and brand loyalty has been focused.

PLACE (DISTRIBUTION) STRATEGY

Extensive distribution of Lifebuoy shampoo (family sized bottle, medium to small size
sache pack) has been ensured on all retail outlets of Pakistan with 100% coverage.

PROMOTION STRATEGY

Lifebuoy shampoo for the promotion of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited has focused on
lower income segment (due to its low prices) and has used Shehzad Roy as their
celebrity. There is no such heavy advertisement in case of promotion of Lifebuoy
shampoo.

SUGGESTED STRATEGIES

MARKET PENETRATION

Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited should use market penetration strategy in case of
Lifebuoy shampoo. They should enhance their advertisement and should boost their
market share of Lifebuoy shampoo with enhanced marketing efforts.

IMPLEMENTATION
Their focus for promotion on celebrity is only on Shahzad Roy for lower class which is
not a source of inspiration for them. So they should use such advertisement appeal
which is based on the problems of low income group and is chosen to their real life
situation.

MARKET DEVELOPMENT

Market development is an other proposed strategy i.e. they should identify new markets
with existing product.

IMPLEMENTATION

Focus of Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited in case of Lifebuoy is on males with concept
of hardworking man. They should capture females and kids as well with new soft
appeal. For this they can give a new name to their existing product as well, which will be
quite effective to attract females and a potential portion of middle income group.

								
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