Electric Drive Vehicles Overview - EERE

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About Clean Cities

  To advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the United
  States by supporting local decisions to reduce petroleum use in transportation.

  Reduce petroleum use by 2.5 billion gallons per year
         • Replacement
         • Reduction
         • Elimination

         • Saved nearly 3 billion gallons of petroleum since 1993
         • Put more than 775,000 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on the road
         • Installed more than 6,600 alternative fueling stations

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Clean Cities Coalitions

 • Nearly 100
   coalitions in 45

 • 775,000 AFVs
   using alternative

 • 6,600 fueling

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  Natural Gas
  •     Hydrocarbons, predominantly methane (CH4)
  •     High octane rating

  •     Nontoxic, noncorrosive, and noncarcinogenic
  •     Not a threat to soil, surface water, or groundwater
  •     Lower ozone-forming emissions than gasoline

  •     Extracted from gas and oil wells
  •     Existing pipeline distribution system

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Basics: CNG and LNG

  Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
  •     Stored in onboard tanks under high
  •     Fuel economy similar to gasoline
  •     1 GGE = 5.7 lb CNG

  Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  •     Kept at cold temperatures
  •     Stored in double-wall, vacuum-insulated
        pressure vessels
  •     Heavy-duty vehicles
  •     1 GGE = 1.5 gal LNG

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Basics: Natural Gas Vehicles

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Basics: Natural Gas Vehicles

  Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV)
  •     Run only on natural gas
  •     Better performance
  •     Lower emissions
  •     Increased cargo capacity

  Bi-fuel NGVs
  •     Two fueling systems
          o    Natural gas
          o    Gasoline
  •     Fueling flexibility

  Dual-fuel NGVs
  •     Run on diesel and natural gas
  •     Heavy-duty vehicles only

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 Basics: Natural Gas Vehicles

A: Gas fill valve                 E: Regulator
B: Cylinders                      F: Natural gas solenoid valve
C: Master manual shut-off valve   G: Fuel-injection system
D: High-pressure fuel line

                                             Adapted from Compressed Natural Gas: A Suite of Tutorials.
                                             Courtesy of Thomason & Associates, Inc.

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Benefits and Considerations

Public Health and Environment
•       Lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
•       Lower particulate pollution
•       Lower carcinogens

Energy Security
•       Plentiful in U.S.
•       Existing infrastructure

Driving Range
•       Shorter than gasoline
•       Comparable power and speed

•       Proven and established
•       114,000 natural gas vehicles in U.S. in 2008

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    Use: Fleet Applications

Light-Duty NGVs
•    Suitable for light-duty needs in private and
     government fleets
•    Honda Civic GX

Medium-Duty NGVs
•    Vans and shuttles
•    Airports and taxi fleets

Heavy-Duty NGVs
•    Refuse haulers
•    Transit buses
•    School buses
•    Long-haul trucks
•    Street sweepers
•    Snowplows                                      Natural Gas Vehicles for America
•    Short-haul delivery trucks

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Use: Fueling Stations

  Offsite, Public Access
  •     Utilize an existing public station
  •     Operated by retailer, utility, or fleet
  •     Anchor fleet or pool of multiple fleets

  Onsite, Private Access
  •     Exclusive use by fleets
  •     Time-fill stations always private access

  Onsite, Public Access
  •     Often located outside of restricted areas
  •     Benefit from economy of scale
  •     Promotes public use of NGVs
  •     Must have fast-fill capabilities for public

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Use: Station Ownership and Operation

  Fleet-Owned and -Operated
  •     Fleet works with vendors on station development
  •     Fleet owns and operates station

  Outsourced to Independent Provider
  •     Outside development, ownership, and operation
  •     Fleet provides demand threshold
  •     Long-term price agreement
  •     Public access possible

  Fleet-Owned, Contractor-Operated
  •     Reduces fleet risk
  •     Fleet relies on experienced operator
  •     Usually a 5-7 year contract

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Use: CNG Fueling

  Time-Fill Fueling
  •     Good for centrally-based fleets with consistent schedules
  •     CNG is dispensed slowly, often overnight
  •     Lower cost investment

  Fast-Fill Fueling
  •     Fueling takes place in minutes
  •     Necessary for public-access stations
  •     Good for vehicles with little downtime

  Combo-Fill Fueling
  •     Time-fill and fast-fill
  •     More flexibility in fueling

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Use: LNG Fueling

 Mobile Fueling
 •     Tanker truck with metering and dispensing equipment
 •     Provides temporary fueling option

 Starter/Containerized System
 •     Complete fueling station, including storage tank, dispensing,
       metering, and required containment
 •     Turn-key solution

 Custom Station
 •     Larger storage tanks
 •     Multiple dispensers
 •     LNG and/or CNG dispensing

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Use: Getting Started

  Questions to Ask
  •     How many vehicles will be fueled each day?
  •     How much fuel will each vehicle need?
  •     When and how often will vehicles need to be fueled?
  •     What are the site development requirements?

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Use: Getting Started

  Prepare Fleet Inventory and Replacement Schedule
  •     Identify vehicle replacement potential
  •     Determine station sizing plan

  Explore Your Options
  •     Contact vehicle vendors
  •     Contact equipment vendors
  •     Meet with station developers

  Visit Existing Sites
  •     Fast-fill and time-fill
  •     Private and public

  Ask Questions
  •     Clean Cities coordinators
  •     Station developers
  •     Vendors
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For More Information

Clean Cities
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For More Information

Clean Cities website

Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center website

Clean Cities Coordinator Contact Information and Coalitions

Natural Gas Vehicles for America

Some of the information in this presentation was provided by Natural Gas Vehicles for America, in the
   presentation, “The Compelling Case for NGVs in Public and Private Fleets,” by Stephe Yborra, Director of
   Communications for the Clean Vehicle Education foundation and NGVAmerica, May 26, 2010.

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For More Information

  Presenter’s Name
  E-mail address
  Phone number

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