The term zoning, as understood in town planning is-
1.Allocation of land for specific purposes
2.Control of the use, height and construction of the building.
The zoning has been adopted by most of the countries such as Germany,
America, Russia, Japan, Sweden, France.
USES OF LAND-:
The land uses can be broadly classified in two
1.PROFIT MAKING USE OF LAND-the land
developed with profit making
motives, such as, sites developed for offices,
2.NON-PROFIT MAKING USE OF LAND-the
land used for non-profit making use of land, such
as, roads, parks, playgrounds, govt. offices the
profitable use of land highly depends on the non
profit uses of land
THE PURPOSE OF ZONING-:
1.to give a city ample opportunity of future
growth and development.
2.for the proper coordination of various public
amenities such as transport, water, drainage,
electric power, etc
3.regulates the density of population and prevents
concentration of population at one particular part.
4.health of the community as a whole improve.
5.prevents undue wastage of time, money and
PRINCIPLES OF ZONING-:
1.arrangements of zones- either in form of
concentric bands or rectangular divisions.
2.boudaries-each zone should have a boundary
for itself such as a street, a railway line, a park,
a greenbelt etc
3.existing towns-zoning applied to existing town
should take into consideration the existing land
use pattern and the predominant land use.
4.flexibility-principles of zoning should be rigidly
enforced but at the same time care should be
taken to observe flexibility. For instance, homes
should be near to places of work but at the same
time it should not be too near to be disliked by
ASPECTS OF ZONING-:
The aspects of zoning are as follows-
Suitable rules and regulations regulate the
density of population. The following indirect
measures are adopted-
1.the front, side and rear margins from the
boundaries are specified.
2.the maximum height of the building.
3.the minimum size of allotment for each house is
4.the no. of house/unit area is specified
5.the FAR is specified.
The density of population/unit area may either be
expressed as gross density or net density. The
gross density is defined as the average density of
population per unit area of the whole residential
zone. The net density is the average density of
population per unit area of the residential zone
including the local roads.
Height zoning aims at controlling the height of
buildings with due consideration of the following
1.volume or bulk of the buildings-the volume of
the building is made equal to the prism with plinth
base as the base and height equal to the width of
the road (1/3 x area x height).
2.street width or other adjacent open spaces
from the view of provision for light and
ventilation-the ht is obtained by drawing a light
plane at an angle of 45 deg or 63.50 deg to the
horizontal. It gives the height to the width of
road equal to 2:1.
It is the most important part of zoning and it
defines the uses to which various parts of the
town will be put. The zones are usually classified
into the following four categories with suitable
sub-divisions in each zones-
1.residential zoning - 40% to 50%
2.commercial zoning - 2% to 5%
3.industrial zoning- 2% to 25%
4.recreational zoning- remaining
RESIDENTIAL ZONING-the character and the
location of this zone depends on factors like
nearness to the market, freedom from nuisance,
noise and smoke, nearness to parks and
The buildings are classified into-
3.row of houses
4.flats and skyscrapers
COMMERCIAL ZONE-This zone should be near
the centers of traffic and preferably should
surround the road.
INDUSTRIAL ZONE-The industrial sector may be
divided into the following-
1.Light industries- running on electricity and
causing no pollution may be allowed to be situated
near residential areas.
2.heavy industries- creating pollution should be
placed on the outskirts of the town. They should
have easy access to railway station and airports.
3 minor industries-such as laundries, bakeries,
dairies should be placed in such a way that they
are able to serve the surrounding areas.
RECREATIONAL ZONES-Include parks,
playgrounds, cinemas, clubs, libraries,
restaurants, stadiums etc. These are scattered
throughout the town.
In order to have a smooth change from one zone
to the other a transition zone is sometimes
accommodated in zoning. The two important facts
to be remembered in case of transition zone are-
1.the zones should be bounded by boundary line
of plots and not by streets.
2.the zoning transition is always thought of as
progressing from completely occupied and dense
areas towards the more open area of the outer
portions or from the higher buildings to the
buildings of low heights.