Chapter 18 A Divided Nation _1848–1860_ by hcj

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									                                    HOLT
                                           CALL TO
    Chapter 18
                                     FREEDOM
                                           Beginnings to 1877


    A DIVIDED NATION
    (1848–1860)
    Section 1: The Debate over Slavery
    Section 2: Trouble in Kansas
    Section 3: Political Divisions
    Section 4: Secession


1                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                          HOLT
                                           CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery             FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

    OBJECTIVES
     How did the outcome of the Mexican War
      affect the debate over the expansion of
      slavery?
     What were the main conditions of the
      Compromise of 1850, and what reasons were
      given for supporting or opposing it?
     Why was the Fugitive Slave Act controversial
      in the North?
2                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery               FREEDOM
                                            Beginnings to 1877

    The Mexican War and Slavery Expansion
     additional territory renewed the debate over
      slavery expansion
     led to the Wilmot Proviso and sectionalism
     began push for popular sovereignty
     led to the Free-Soil Party
     upset balance of free and slave states


3                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                                  HOLT
                                                   CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery
    (continued)
                                            FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

    The Mexican War and Slavery Expansion
    Wilmot Proviso (1846) – proposal to outlaw slavery in
    the territory added to the United States by the Mexican
    Cession; passed in the House of Representatives but
    was defeated in the Senate
    popular sovereignty – the idea that political authority
    belongs to the people; also a principle that would allow
    voters in a particular territory to decide whether to ban
    or permit slavery


4                                          HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                                HOLT
                                                 CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery
    (continued)
                                           FREEDOM
                                                 Beginnings to 1877

    The Mexican War and Slavery Expansion
    Free-Soil Party – political Party formed in 1848 by
    antislavery northerners who left the Whig and
    Democratic Parties because neither addressed the
    slavery issue




5                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery                FREEDOM
                                             Beginnings to 1877

    Compromise of 1850
     Conditions of the Compromise of 1850
       California joins the Union as a free state.
       New Mexico and Utah Territories will use
        popular sovereignty to decide the status of
        slavery.
       Stronger fugitive slave law passed.
       Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C.
       Border dispute between new Mexico and Texas is
        resolved.
6                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                                HOLT
                                                 CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery
    (continued)
                                           FREEDOM
                                                 Beginnings to 1877

    Compromise of 1850
     Opposition to the Compromise of 1850
        Allowing California to enter as a free state would
         destroy the balance between the two sections of
         the country.
        California would be admitted unconditionally.
     Support for the Compromise of 1850
        Preserving the Union was more important than
         regional differences.
        Slave labor was not necessary in that environment.
7                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 1:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
The Debate Over Slavery               FREEDOM
                                            Beginnings to 1877

    Controversy in the North
    over the Fugitive Slave Act
     lacked trial by jury
     bribes were given to government officials for
      support




8                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Trouble in Kansas                     FREEDOM
                                            Beginnings to 1877



    OBJECTIVES
     How did different regions of the country react
      to the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
     In what ways did people try to settle the
      conflict over slavery in Kansas?
     What series of violent events showed growing
      division over slavery in the United States?

9                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
Trouble in Kansas                     FREEDOM Beginnings to 1877



     Kansas-Nebraska Act
      protested in the North
      received strong support in the South




10                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                        HOLT
                                         CALL TO
Trouble in Kansas                 FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

     Methods Used to Settle the
     Conflict Over Slavery in Kansas
      compromise
      protests




11                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                               HOLT
                                                CALL TO
Trouble in Kansas                         FREEDOM
                                                Beginnings to 1877



     Violent Events Over Slavery
      armed conflict in 1856 in Lawrence, Kansas
      Pottawatomie Massacre (1856)
     Pottawatomie Massacre (1856) – incident in which
     abolitionist John Brown and seven other men murdered
     pro-slavery Kansans


12                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                          HOLT
                                           CALL TO
Political Divisions                  FREEDOM
                                           Beginnings to 1877



     OBJECTIVES
      How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act affect U.S.
       political parties?
      Why did Dred Scott sue for his freedom, and
       how did the Supreme Court rule on his case?
      How did Abraham Lincoln and Stephen
       Douglas differ in their views on slavery?

13                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                                 HOLT
                                                  CALL TO
Political Divisions                         FREEDOM
                                                  Beginnings to 1877

     Effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
     on U.S. Political Parties
      Republican Party formed in 1854
      Know-Nothing Party formed in 1849
     Know-Nothing Party – political organization founded
     in 1849 by nativists who supported measures making
     it difficult for foreigners to become citizens and to
     hold office

14                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                                     HOLT
                                                      CALL TO
Political Divisions                            FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

     Dred Scott
      Dred Scott was a slave who lived in free territory
       and then returned to slave territory.
      He sued for his freedom claiming he had become
       free when he lived in free territory.
      In 1857 the Supreme Court declared:
         African Americans were not U.S. citizens.
         The Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery was
          unconstitutional.
         Congress did not have the right to ban slavery in any
          federal territory.
15                                            HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Political Divisions                   FREEDOM
                                            Beginnings to 1877

     Abraham Lincoln’s and Stephen Douglas’
     Differing Views on Slavery
      Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery and
       supported the equal rights for slaves.
      Stephen Douglas supported slavery and did
       not feel the African Americans were equal.



16                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Secession                             FREEDOM
                                            Beginnings to 1877



     OBJECTIVES
      How did Americans react to John Brown’s
       raid on Harpers Ferry?
      What factors led to Lincoln’s victory in the
       presidential election of 1860?
      Why did some southern states decide to leave
       the Union?

17                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                          HOLT
                                           CALL TO
Secession                            FREEDOM
                                           Beginnings to 1877



     Reactions to John Brown’s Raid
      Some mourned his death and regarded him as
       a hero.
      Others opposed his violence.
      Southerners felt threatened.
      It raised the secession issue in the South.


18                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                                     HOLT
                                                      CALL TO
Secession                                      FREEDOMBeginnings to 1877

     Factors Leading to Lincoln’s Victory
     in the Presidential Election of 1860
      Lincoln won 180 of the 183 electoral votes in
       the free states.
      The slave states split their electoral votes thus
       giving Lincoln the victory.
     electoral votes – votes cast in states to elect the
     president in presidential elections

19                                            HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
Secession                              FREEDOM
                                             Beginnings to 1877



     Reasons the Southern States Left the Union
      believed Lincoln would abolish slavery
      feared this action would destroy the South’s
       economy and society




20                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON

								
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