**BUK**RG A corporate bond is issued by a company as a substitute for taking a bank loan. In essence, they are long-term debt instruments whose term is one year from the date of issuance. And the term commercial paper is sometimes used for debt instruments with short maturities. In some cases the term corporate bonds is used for all bonds issued by non-governmental institutions denominated in local currency. However, this term is strictly applied only for bonds issued by corporations. Corporate bonds are often listed on stock exchanges where coupon bonds are usually tax free. Frequently these bonds are also issued with a zero coupon bond, but with a high melting value in comparison to the selling point. Although these bonds are listed on the stock market, much of the trading of these bonds is concentrated in a particular market or broker, and often conducted outside the over the counter exchange trading. Some corporate bonds issued with elements of the call option entitles the issuer to repay / redeem their bonds before the maturity date listed. And the convertible bonds can also be converted to shares of the company. There are various types of charges associated with these bonds, and they include nominal charge, specific charge and a floating charge. Convertible bonds allow investors to 'have it all', without being exposed to high risk. However, there are several differences that distinguish convertible bonds with ordinary corporate bonds: - Convertible bonds are issued almost always without collateral, as a conversion compensation option. - Series of convertible bonds issued are relatively small, - Reference to the convertible bonds in certain aspects is as shares rather than bonds. - Convertible bonds are characterized by higher volatility. Corporate bonds are typically rated higher risk when compared to government bonds. This risk depends on the type of company, market conditions and government that is used as a comparison as well as rating of the issuing company. This risk can be calculated using the analysis extensively, in order to determine differences in yields on government bonds with risk. Index of corporate bonds include those made by Lehman Brothers Corporate Bond Index and the Dow Jones Corporate Bond Index. Unlike government bonds, which usually have only one time revenue missive, corporate bonds typically have a number of times of revenue, to enable the company to repay the debt gradually. Another feature of corporate bonds is the ranking. Corporate bonds are held mainly by institutional investors (insurance companies, provident funds and pension funds) and the bond rating is important. Ranking is based on an analytical assessment of the company, especially an estimate of the probability of making principal and interest. Subjective factors explored also include risk level of business activity, company's leverage, cash flow, the volume of issuance of the balance sheet total, as well as collateral if it exists.