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MEETING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

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					  MEETING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND
  TECHNOLOGY: THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL
            ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY




                            Dr. Pius Yasebasi Ng’wandu



                                   IAEA Scientific Forum
                                           Vienna, Austria
                         September 30th - October 2nd 2008
                        1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 The Primary Role of the IAEA

   To encourage and assist research, development and practical applications of
    atomic energy for peaceful purposes throughout the world.
   Over the years, however, the Agency’s orientation and emphasis on non-
    proliferation of nuclear arms has led to a worrisome situation, wherein, from being
    a positive, creative force, the Agency is in danger of being looked upon as a police
    body that denies the acquisition of nuclear science and technology by the poor
    nations for peaceful purposes.
   The IAEA must appreciate its unique position as the only international
    organization, with the mandate to globally promote the widest possible
    participation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
                      1. INTRODUCTION


1.2 Commission of Eminent Persons
a) Assumes:
   No nuclear terrorism;
   No nuclear accidents;
   No nuclear proliferation;
                       1. INTRODUCTION


1.2 Commission of Eminent Persons
b) Recommends:
   A Safe and Secure Expansion of Nuclear Energy
   Enhanced Contribution of Nuclear Applications to Human Well-being
   Substantive and Rapid Progress in Nuclear Disarmament
   A stronger IAEA
   Strong Global Nuclear Partnerships
                      1. INTRODUCTION



1.3 Millennium Development Goals: Addressing Worldwide Poverty

   Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Hunger;
   Achieving Universal Primary Education;
   Promoting Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women;
   Reducing Child Mortality;
   Improving Maternal Health;
   Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases;
   Ensuring Environmental Sustainability; and
   Developing Global Partnerships for Development.
                         1. INTRODUCTION


    1.4 For the purpose of this paper the MDGs may be grouped into
        five Clusters of Development Needs:

       Energy for Sustainable Development
       Eradicating Hunger and Poverty
       Environmental Sustainability
       Combating HIV/AIDS and MALARIA
       Global Partnerships




•
FIGURE 1: WORLD PRIMARY ENERGY
            DEMAND




  Source: International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2007
       FIGURE 2: GREEN HOUSE GAS
              EMMISSIONS

Green House Gas Emissions from Different Electricity Generation
                            Chains




                    Source: IAEA Expert Meeting 2005
      2. ERADICATING POVERTY AND HUNGER


2.1   Food Production Treatment and Preservation
      Goal No.1 of the MDG addresses itself to eradication of Poverty and Hunger.
      Nuclear Energy and Technologies can be used in removing hunger through:

  •   Improving the efficiency and sustainability of land and water management;
  •   Breeding new crops with special qualities
  •   Adaptation to marginal environments;
  •   Improving animal production and health;
  •   Controlling insects that are major pests of plants and livestock;
      2. ERADICATING POVERTY AND HUNGER


2.1   Food Production Treatment and Preservation

  •   Using Ionizing radiation as an alternative to chemicals in the treatment and
      preservation of foods;
  •   Agricultural Tracers and Plant Mutation to optimize the use of fertilizers and
      weed killing chemicals; and
  •   Facilitating international trade.
    2. ERADICATING POVERTY AND HUNGER


2.2 Livestock Development and Insect Pests Control

   Insects destroy about 10% of the world’s crops and infect livestock with
    debilitating diseases.
   Successful application of the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) in Zanzibar
    Tanzania.
   Supporting the initiative of the African Union (AU) to carry out and co-ordinate
    the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC).
   Replication of SIT in Malaria control and eradication campaigns.
   R&D should be carried out to assess the viability of the technique in dealing
    with other pest insects such as locusts, mosquitoes, etc.
    2. ERADICATING HUNGER AND POVERTY


2.3 Livestock Development and Insect Pests Control
   Poor quality livestock(cattle) in Africa caused by diseases transmitted by
    vectors such as tsetse flies.
   Control/Removal of such pests could lead to improved quality livestock, higher
    productivity and added national incomes
   National Master Plans and Budgets in affected regions should reflect
    seriousness in allocating enough funds to step up efforts in the control and
    eradication of epizootics through the SIT.
    2.ERADICATING HUNGER AND POVERTY


2.3 Livestock Development and Insect Pests Control

   Support the objectives of the Pan-African Programme for the Control and
    Eradication of major epizootics (PACE).
   Use of Isotopic methods to monitor reproductive status, leading to better
    breeding management.
   Develop regional capability for production and distribution of critical diagnostic
    and treatment kits.
    3. COMBATING HIV/AIDS AND MALARIA

3.1 Reversing The Spread of HIV/AIDS

   More than 40 million people live with HIV/AIDS worldwide
   The use of stable isotope techniques, can assist in the development and
    evaluation of nutritional interventions and their impact on HIV/AIDS patients.
   Isotopes used for development of new vaccines and diagnostic reagents
   An effective vaccine against HIV offers the best long-term approach to control
    the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
   Unfortunately, the development of an effective vaccine is complicated by the
    large differences between strains.
   Need for closer collaboration between traditional medicine and modern
    medicine.
    3. COMBATING HIV/AIDS AND MALARIA


3.2 Intensifying The Fight Against Malaria
   Malaria affects 300-500 million people a year worldwide
   Malaria causes about 2million deaths per year world wide
    –   90% occur in Sub Saharan Africa
    –   90% are children under five
   Heavy Economic impact on Poor Economies
   Nuclear Techniques and Strategies to Control Malaria
    –   Monitoring drug resistance
    –   Reduction of Mosquito Populations by the SIT method
    –   Production of anti Malaria Vaccine and Radiopharmaceutical drugs
       4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY



4.1   Global Environmental Issues

 •    To integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies
      and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources;
 •    To reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the
      rate of loss;
 •    To halve, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking
      water and basic sanitation by 2015; and
 •    To have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million
      slum dwellers by 2020.
     4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY


4.2 Water Resources and Ecosystem Sustainability
4.2.1 Water Resources Management

   Transboundary Water Resources Management.

   Need for Regional and Basin wise co-operation in Shared Water Resources.

   Contribution of isotope hydrology techniques in addressing practical problems
    related to water resource management in shared aquifers.
     4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY


4.2 WaterResources and Ecosystem Sustainability
4.2.2 Isotopic Hydrology

   Assessment of Groundwater Resources using isotopes to determine aquifer
    dynamics and water resources management;
   The IAEA and NBI project to integrate the Nile River Basin groundwater and
    surface water management for Sustainable development and equitable use
   Nubian Sandstone Aquifer;
   North Western Sahara Aquifer.
   Tanzania’s Integrated Ground Water and Surface Water Management Project
       4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY


4.2.3 Environmental Monitoring
   All substances that exist are likely to have radioactive atoms in them occurring
    naturally.

    The labeling property of radioisotopes allows them to be used in a wide range of
    environmental assessment techniques.

4.2.4 Geology and Element Identification
   Radioactivity is used to identify the location of deposits of uranium and other
    radioactive minerals.

   The intensity of detected radiation also is an indication of the amount of uranium
    that may be located there.
    5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF
           NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY

5.1 Non-destructive testing

   Maintenance is a vital part of industry.

   The checking for cracks can be done using the radiation emitted by
    radioisotopes.

   Using radioisotopes to check for cracks can be accomplished with a technique
    called gamma radiography.
    5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF
           NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY

5.2 Measurements and Industrial Analysis
Radioisotopes are commonly used for measuring viscosity, density and thickness in
conditions where other methods would be difficult or impossible to apply. Since
radiation does not require direct contact (unlike, for example, using a scale or tape-
measure) it is used where high heat or corrosive chemicals may exist.
    5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF
           NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY

5.3 Other Uses
   Determining the nature and extent of termite infestation in buildings;
   Measurement of Water age;
   Measuring environmental impact of mining;
   Sterilization;
   Soil erosion monitoring;
   Monitoring and measuring coastal erosion;
    5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF
           NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY

5.3 Other Uses

   Checking of aircraft welding faults;
   Sewage and sources of water pollution;
   Monitoring of sand movements in ocean floors and river beds;
   Blast furnace efficiency; and
   Sand age measurement.
    6. DEVELOPING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS


6.1 Multinational Fuel Banks and Nuclear Waste disposal Sites
   Multinational Fuel Banks

   IAEA’s Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycle Project(INPRO)

   Multinational Disposal Sites (MDS)

   Multilateral Nuclear Trade Agreements
    6. DEVELOPING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS


6.2 Multinational Nuclear Reactors                 and    Research       Institutes:
    Multilateral Joint Projects/Ventures
    Multinational Nuclear Power Plants/ Reactors/Laboratories
    Building regional networks geared at the safe development, management and
     transfer of nuclear knowledge to all the state parties.
     Expand IAEA’s Technical cooperation Programs through increased budget and
     coverage
    Facilitate technological transfer and the flow of information from states having
     the technology and best practices to those who don’t have it.
    Establish Regional/Multinational Nuclear Science/Technology Research and
     Development Institutes
    Strengthen support to AFRA
                 7. CONLUDING REMARKS


   Need for stepped efforts to enhance World Peace and Security through
    eradication of Poverty, Hunger, Diseases, Environmental degradation Nuclear
    accidents and terrorism.

   Successful experiences like the Insect Sterilization and Cancer Projects to be
    assessed and transfer of learning effected to other areas.

   Partnerships and International collective efforts to address the common
    dangers such as HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Climate change that are now
    threatening the existence of the human race are now overdue.

   Support for assured supply of nuclear fuel, including international banks of
    enriched uranium,establishment of additional multilateral fuel-cycle centers
    and multinational nuclear waste disposal centres.
  THE END


DR. PIUS NG’WANDU
 CHAIRMAN - DIRECTOR
    YCL / YASEKON


   WWW.YASEBASI.COM
 WWW.YASECONSULT.BIZ


   DAR ES SALAAM
      TANZANIA

				
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