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					If you would like to find out more about these projects and/or the issues discussed in this
                                                                                                                                                 NATURE AND SUSTAINABLE GROWTH
booklet, please contact Lloyd Austin, Head of Conservation Policy, at RSPB Scotland
Headquarters, contact details below.                                                                                                             Investing in Scotland’s natural heritage
RSPB SCOTLAND
SCOTLAND HEADQUARTERS
Dunedin House, 25 Ravelston Terrace, Edinburgh EH4 3TP
Tel: 0131 311 6500

EAST SCOTLAND REGIONAL OFFICE
10 Albyn Terrace, Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire AB10 1YP
Tel: 01224 624824
NORTH SCOTLAND REGIONAL OFFICE
Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness IV2 3BW
Tel: 01463 715000
SOUTH AND WEST SCOTLAND REGIONAL OFFICE
10 Park Quadrant, Glasgow G3 6BS
Tel: 0141 331 0993




RSPB Scotland is part of the RSPB, the UK charity that speaks out for birds and wildlife, tackling the problems that
threaten our world. Nature is amazing – help us keep it that way. We belong to BirdLife International, the global
partnership of bird conservation organisations.


www.rspb.org.uk
Front cover image by Alan Lauder (rspb-images.com)
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a registered charity: England and Wales no 207076, Scotland no SC037654 780-0858-07-08
                                                                                                                                                                           Alan Lauder
Andy Hay (rspb-images.com)




                                                                                    Investing in                                                                                         Environmental action
                                                                                    Scotland’s future                                                                                    and economic growth
                                                                                                                                                                                         ‘My thirty years experience of working in
                                                                                                                                                                                         Scotland has reinforced my belief that its
                             ‘In recent years, we have begun to break               Scotland's natural heritage is one of our                                                            future prospects are constrained by the
                                                                                    biggest assets. Already, Scotland's natural                                                          state of its environment. In contrast to its
                             the link between economic development and              landscapes and wildlife provide the                                                                  valued and beautiful remote landscapes,
                                                                                    backdrop for a number of our industries,                                                             too many businesses and communities are
                             environmental damage. Now, we must go much             including food, drink and tourism.                                                                   handicapped by the impoverished
                                                                                                                                                                                         environment which characterises much of
                             further. We must see environmental investment as a     Like any other asset, however, it requires                                                           Scotland.
                                                                                    investment to realise its true potential.
                             catalyst for economic development.                     Nature and Sustainable Growth outlines                                                               A new vision for planning is required if we
                                                                                    why we must invest in our natural assets;                                                            are to achieve sustainable development
                                                                                    how this can be achieved; and details                                                                away from a reliance on regulation to one
                             This booklet makes the case. supported by examples     superb examples of what has been                                                                     which is action oriented. There is a need to
                                                                                    achieved elsewhere.                                                                                  shift the focus on the environment to
                             from across Europe, for greater public investment in                                                                                                        positive action to realise the economic and
                                                                                    Scotland is already falling behind, in
                                                                                                                                                                                         social benefit of creating green networks,
                             Scotland’s natural assets. Such investment makes       comparison with elsewhere, in grasping
                                                                                                                                                                                         restoring lost habitats and removing
                                                                                    these opportunities. Also, we may not
                             economic and environmental sense.’                     have much choice but to address the issue,                                                           inherited dereliction.
                                                                                    given the growing impact of climate                                                                  To achieve these environmental benefits
                                                                                    change and past development with its                                                                 requires a fresh approach which requires
                             Stuart Housden, Director,                              resulting dramatic loss of habitats and                                                              the provision of a ‘green infrastructure’ in
                                                                                    wildlife.                                                                                            all major planned development, thereby
                             RSPB Scotland                                                                                                                                               making a major contribution to driving
                                                                                    We hope that this booklet can provide a
                                                                                                                                                                                         forward the renaissance of Scotland.’
                                                                                    backdrop to the debate about how
                                                                                    Scotland can achieve truly sustainable
                                                                                    development.                                                                                         Vincent Goodstadt
                                                                                                                                                                                         Manager, Glasgow and Clyde Valley
                                                                                                                                                                                         Structure Plan Committee (1996-2006)




                                                                                                                                  RSPB Inner Clyde reserve, near Erskine




2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mark Hamblin (rspb-images.com)
 Why invest in natural assets?                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Why is this important for Scotland now?
 •                           A high quality environment, rich in biodiversity, supports economic regeneration by                                                                                                                                           The time is right! Current policy challenges and recently adopted laws create
                             attracting inward investment, improving land values and attracting visitors1.                                                                                                                                                 opportunities for a fresh approach:
 •                           Richness of biodiversity and a variety of natural species are closely linked to our                                                                                                                                           •     Climate change requires urgent action – investment in wetlands and coastal
                             cultural heritage, and well-loved by Scots and visitors alike.                                                                                                                                                                      realignment can help us adapt6.
 •                           High-tech companies want to be associated with ‘pristine’ environments and                                                                                                                                                    •     The new Flood Risks Directive places more emphasis on ‘soft engineering’ solutions –
                             places which attract high-calibre employees2.                                                                                                                                                                                       eg using natural floodplains and wetlands to store water7.
 •                           Functioning ecosystems – notably water resources – are needed to support                                                                                                                                                      •     Some major investments are already being planned – eg in Glasgow & Clyde Valley –
                             economic activity and greater species diversity3.                                                                                                                                                                                   initiatives like the ‘green network’ have potential, but habitat creation/restoration
 •                           Physical well-being is increasingly linked to access to a high quality natural                                                                                                                                                      opportunities are being missed, requiring the necessary investment.
                             environment4.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 •     Wetland restoration that enhances biodiversity along the Clyde could be a legacy of
 •                           Scotland is rich in natural assets – lack of investment means they are not achieving                                                                                                                                                the 2014 Commonwealth Games.
                             all they could for society.                                                                                                                                                                                                   •     The Cities Growth Fund and other investment programmes could support large-scale
 •                           Investing in natural capital is the right thing to do – we have a moral duty to leave a                                                                                                                                             nature restoration initiatives as part of the growth strategy.
                             high quality environment, rich in biodiversity, for future generations.                                                                                                                                                       •     New funding sources (eg Scottish Rural Development Programme, new Regional
 •                           Restoring and sustaining natural habitats helps us to adapt to the impacts of                                                                                                                                                       Funds, CAP funds post 2008) offer opportunities to look again at how Scotland
                             climate change.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     invests capital.
 •                           Well-targeted investment in natural assets delivers good value to the public purse5.                                                                                                                                          •     Our competitors, elsewhere in the UK and Europe, are already investing heavily, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 on a large scale, for environmental renewal.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ‘Building sustainable growth is at the heart of the Scottish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Government's aspirations for 21st century Scotland and the Highlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Islands have a key role to play.
Andy Hay (rspb-images.com)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           At Highlands and Islands Enterprise, we recognise that the abundance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of nature in our part of Scotland already makes a great contribution to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           a sustainable tourism industry, as an attractor of new residents and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           new businesses and potentially as a huge source of renewable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           energy activity.’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sandy Brady, Director of Strategy, Highlands & Islands Enterprise
 Insh Marshes National Nature Reserve helps protect communities from flooding                                          Physical wellbeing is increasingly linked to access to a high quality natural environment                                                                                                                                         Coastal realignment at RSPB Nigg Bay reserve develops intertidal habitat and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         contributes to alleviating sea level rise

 1 Economic impacts of protecting rivers, trails and greenway corridors – a resource book (1995) Ray Murray                                                                                                                                                6   Seas of Change (RSPB) and Time for a Change (RSPB)
 2 For example, Lifescan in the Highlands & Islands, Nokia in Finland                                                                                                                                                                                      7   See RSPB Scotland briefing at www.rspb.org.uk/scotland
 3 Nature for water – protecting water-related ecosystems for sustainable development – United National Economic Commission for Europe. See also www.rspb.org.uk/ourwork/policy/economicdevelopment/waterframework.asp.

 Unravelling the web - the global value of wild nature (RSPB/Birdlife International)
 4 Natural Fit – can biodiversity and green spaces increase levels of physical activity? Dr William Bird (www.rspb.org.uk/policy/health) endorsed by the Faculty of Public Health www.fph.org.uk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5
 5 See case studies from Denmark and the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lars.S.Madsen (Alamy)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Andy Hay (rspb-images.com)
Investing in Europe’s natural heritage                                                                                                                                                                                                England – Dearne Valley
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      South Yorkshire is blighted by its image               A socio-economic appraisal of the project
The projects outlined here demonstrate what can happen when public authorities                                                                                                                                                        as a run-down industrial centre – a study              by Sheffield Hallam University notes that:
recognise the value of nature, act with vision at a large scale and commit capital                                                                                                                                                    for the regeneration agencies concluded                ‘Economic impacts may be direct [16 FTE
funds for the long-term. As well as improving ecosystem services – such as clean                                                                                                                                                      that without significant improvement to                jobs at the reserve, excluding construction
water – projects should deliver significant biodiversity benefits, although some of                                                                                                                                                   both the environment and social                        jobs] or indirect [up to 15 local jobs
these may be harder to value in monetary terms.                                                                                                                                                                                       conditions of the area economic                        supported within 5 years]… However, there
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      development would be seriously                         are less quantifiable effects such as on
Some of the projects described here have been subjected to full cost-benefit                                                                                                                                                          hindered.                                              environmental quality, PR and profile, and
analysis, but assessment of non-market environmental benefits (such as the                                                                                                                                                            The RSPB is leading a programme of                     the desirability to live, work, or
aesthetic, social and mental health benefits of a high quality environment) is still in                                                                                                                                               environmental restoration and                          importantly, to invest in the area. Difficult
its infancy. This means that in many cases the full range of benefits are not fully                                                                                                                                                   improvement in the Dearne Valley, in                   to determine, these may be more
valued. Despite this, these examples show how economic, social and environmental                                                                                                                                                      partnership with local development                     significant and more deeply acting than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      agencies, which is central to the                      the immediate and the obvious’.
policy objectives can be achieved by restoring and improving wildlife habitats.
Specific investment opportunities of this kind exist in Scotland today – some of                                                                                                                                                      re-branding of the area.                               Experience in the Dearne Valley and at
these are outlined at the end of this booklet.                                                                                                                                                                                        Focused on the 75 hectare RSPB Old                     Rainham Marshes in the Thames Estuary –
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Moor nature reserve and a network of                   where RSPB is part of the Thames Gateway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      linked sites, the creation of high quality             regeneration initiative11 – shows that these
Restoring wetlands, creating green networks                                                     Netherlands – National                                    Amsterdam. Created on land reclaimed as
                                                                                                                                                          recently as 1968, the area is now
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      natural habitats and visitor facilities in             projects offer amenities for local people,
                                                                                                Ecological Network                                        internationally recognised as an important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      this blighted industrial landscape has                 attract tens of thousands of visitors,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      attracted nature-based leisure and                     provide educational opportunities and
Denmark – Skjern river                                                                          The area of open countryside in the                       wetland – home to an array of birdlife,                                                                                            have a lasting effect on the transformation
                                                                                                Netherlands halved between 1900 and                                                                                                   tourism spend to the area, and is having
A densely populated country, where much of the land is used intensively, Denmark’s                                                                        wild horses, deer and cattle. Here, people                                                                                         of the landscape, supporting wider
                                                                                                1990. What remained had become                                                                                                        a lasting effect on the area’s appeal for
environment has suffered over the years. The Danish government embarked on a major                                                                        can experience – close to one of Europe’s                                                                                          economic and social regeneration.
                                                                                                fragmented and damaged. The Dutch                                                                                                     other businesses and house-buyers.
nature restoration programme in 2002, including transforming 2,200 hectares around the                                                                    main cities – what Europe’s riverbanks
Skjern river, Denmark’s largest. What was once a canalised watercourse surrounded by            landscape is now being transformed                        and deltas are thought to have looked
intensive agriculture has been restored to its natural profile, in a valley with pastures and   through the creation of a National                        like before man’s intervention.
shallow lakes.                                                                                  Ecological Network (NEN), a series of                                                                                                 ‘The Old Moor wetlands centre has demonstrated that it is possible to deliver
                                                                                                                                                          Early evaluation of the NEN, taking
                                                                                                restored and newly created spaces for
A cost benefit analysis of the project looked at the range of benefits it offers to society –                                                             account of ecosystem services – such as                                     green infrastructure, enhance wildlife populations and conserve natural
                                                                                                nature. Ultimately the combined core
from crops produced on riverside farmland and reedbeds, to ecosystem services                                                                             clean water and absorption of carbon                                        resources while offering jobs, education and recreational opportunities to
                                                                                                areas, corridors and buffer zones will cover
(retention of nutrients, flood risk reduction), outdoor recreation opportunities (hiking,                                                                 dioxide – as well as recreational value,
                                                                                                some 730,000 hectares – 17% of the                                                                                                    local people…The benefits from investing in wildlife and places such as the
boating, wildlife watching, angling, hunting) and the intrinsic value of biological                                                                       the health and other benefits of an
                                                                                                country’s land area – by 2018.                                                                                                        Old Moor centre are manifold. We need to convince all in Government that
diversity8.                                                                                                                                               improved natural environment, suggests
                                                                                                The spectacular Oostvaardersplassen                       there will be a good long term return on                                    that is the right path to take.’
It concludes that ‘even the most conservative estimate demonstrates that the Skjern River
                                                                                                nature reserve is part of the project – a                 investment9.
project turns out to be clearly beneficial for society’ – generating €32.1m worth of                                                                                                                                                               ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jeff Ennis MP Barnsley East & Mexborough
                                                                                                5,600ha wetland just 20 miles from
net benefits’.


8Cost-benefit analysis of the Skjern river restoration in Denmark Dubgaard A, Kallesøe M F,     9 www.grazingnetworks.nl/ecological-networks. Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality – Natuur en                      11   www.rspb.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/projects/thamesgateway.asp
Ladenburg J, Petersen M L (2003) – Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University,                landschap op waarde geschat
Department of Economics and Natural Resources, Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7
                                                                                                                                                                                     Blickwinkel/Ziese (Alamy)
                                                                  Matthew Cook (RSPB)
Wales – Newport Wetlands                                                                Germany – River Elbe
On the northern shore of the Severn                                                     An ambitious programme in this heavily industrialised part of Germany set out to tackle
Estuary, RSPB Newport Wetlands reserve                                                  decades of decline in the biodiversity of the Elbe, one of Europe’s largest rivers. The
has been created on 439 hectares of land                                                project aimed to restore a vast 15,000 hectares of wetland – 80% of the original
formerly used as storage lagoons for spent                                              floodplain area had been cut off by dykes.
fuel ash from the neighbouring Uskmouth                                                 A cost-benefit assessment of this project11 indicated that the value of the benefits in
power station, and farmland. The                                                        terms of water quality improvement and species conservation alone were €162-278m
restoration of the site was compensation                                                per year. This does not take account of wider benefits – such as prevention of
(under the EU Habitats Directive) for the                                               downstream flooding, amenity and recreational value – which the Danish Skjern River
loss of the Cardiff Bay mudflats when the                                               project suggests can be significant.
Taff River was barraged at its estuary.
                                                                                        The Elbe and Skjern river projects show how action required by the Water Framework
Recognising the potential to create an                                                  Directive and the new Flood Risks Directive could, if approached the right way, achieve a
important asset for the area, land three                                                wide range of economic, social and environmental benefits for communities in Scotland.
times the area lost has been restored to
create reedbeds, lowland wet grassland
and saline lagoons, where avocets have
already started to breed. A partnership of
RSPB, Countryside Council for Wales,                                                    Germany – Ruhr Valley
Newport City Council and other public                                                   The Emscher Landscape Park, in the Ruhr Valley, is transforming some 450 sq km at the
agencies10, supported by EU Objective 2                                                 heart of Germany’s industrial landscape. This ambitious initiative, now entering its third
funding and the Welsh Assembly                                                          decade, is central to the regional government’s vision for the economic regeneration of
Government’s Regeneration Fund, has                                                     the area.
invested over £10m in enhancing the                                                     The restoration of the heavily polluted Emscher river – which flows through the region
natural assets. A visitor and environmental                                             from East to West – is central to the vision and has been a catalyst for the
education centre is now being built – due                                               transformation of the wider area into an attractive place to live, work and invest. Some
to open in 2008 – with a further £3m of                                                 80 km of the river’s length is being restored, creating a ‘green backbone’ which has
funding support from the project partners                                               become a symbol of the region’s ecological recovery. The new Emscher river valley
and Carron Energy, who operate                                                          includes 1,470 hectares of water/wetland, 5,570 hectares of greenspace, as well as
Uskmouth power station. The site, just 3                                                4,900 hectares of farmland and 2,400 hectares of forestry.
miles from Newport city centre, already
                                                                                        The network of green spaces within the valley and across the wider Landscape Park
attracted 18,000 visitors in 2006, and this
                                                                                        area have been opened up for public enjoyment through 580 km of new cycle paths and
number is expected to triple once the
                                                                                        walking trails.
visitor centre opens, drawing both locals
and people from Cardiff, Bristol, Swindon                                               This visionary project has involved 20 towns, three counties and their local
and beyond.                                                                             communities. It shows what can be achieved on a vast scale through bold decision-
                                                                                        making and long-term funding.


10   www.rspb.org.uk/reserves/guide/n/newportwetlands/index.asp                         11 The restoration of floodplains along the river Elbe Working Paper on Management in

                                                                                        Environmental Planning – Meyerhoff J, Denhardt A (2004)

                                                                                                                                                                                     9
BirdLife




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Birdlife
                                                                                       New approaches to rural development
                                                                                       Norway – Aurland                               Spain – Ebro Delta
                                                                                       Modern farming threatened a spectacular        The Ebro Delta is of one of the most
                                                                                       landscape and a traditional way of life in     important wetlands in the Western
                                                                                       Aurland, Sogn og Fjordane, on Norway’s         Mediterranean. It is also the main centre of
                                                                                       mountainous west coast. Local farmers          Catalonia’s farming industry, with rice
                                                                                       responded by developing the traditional        accounting for 50% of production. Around
                                                                                       Underdal goat’s cheese – whose distinctive     half of the delta is threatened by sea level
                                                                                       flavour results from mountain pasture          rise and erosion, and the lagoons suffer
                                                                                       grazing on diverse plants – into a symbol of   from agricultural pollution.
                                                                                       the area. The cheese now has a strong          A pioneering conservation project set up
                                                                                       brand and local designation, and has been      by conservation body SEO/Birdlife
                                                                                       awarded a ‘Slow Food’ label. The product       combines rice production with wetland
                                                                                       supports the wider marketing of Aurland        restoration and environmental education in
                                                                                       based on its high quality environment,         the Delta. A company, Riet Vell, was
                                                                                       culture and culinary traditions.               created to produce a commercial organic
                                                                                       This initiative shows how conservation of a    rice crop, while providing information and
                                                                                       landscape and its rich ecology can act as a    training to other local farmers to
                                                                                       catalyst for diversification of the local      encourage them to convert to organic and
                                                                                       economy. Strong co-operation between           extensive farming methods. The public are
                                                                                       local farmers, food retailers, restaurants     encouraged to visit and find out more
                                                                                       and other local businesses has been key to     about the delta, its ecology and organic
                                                                                       its success.                                   food production.
                                                                                       Visitors come to see how the cheese and        The rice is labour intensive to produce, but
                                                                                       other local products are made, with tours      due to its quality and marketing as a
                                                                                       including an element of natural adventure,     nature-friendly product it commands a
                                                                                       culture, music and tasting. There have been    higher market price. Riet Vell has also
                                                                                       a range of other spin-offs, such as the        developed an organic pasta product from
                                                                                       Underdal cheese festival, linked to the        wheat grown on the steppes of the Ebro
                                                                                       movement of goats from spring to summer        valley in Aragon. These projects show how
                                                                                       pastures.12                                    conservation management can be
                                                                                                                                      combined with production of commercially
Farmers are encouraged to convert to organic and extensive                                                                            marketable ‘commodity’ crops.                  The Ebro Delta is one of the most important wetlands in the western Mediterranean
methods in the Ebro Delta

12         For more information on this and other projects see www.euromountains.net


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         11
                                                                    Nature supporting                              East Ayrshire coalfields                                   ‘As the extraction of coal may sometimes
                                                                                                                                                                              be seen as being in conflict with
                                                                                                                   A novel partnership of East Ayrshire
                                                                    development in                                 Council, conservation and coal industry
                                                                                                                                                                              environmental interests, local
                                                                                                                                                                              communities can be polarised between
                                                                                                                   organisations (www.ea-cei.org.uk) has
                                                                    Scotland                                       worked together to improve a rural area
                                                                                                                                                                              those who rely on the mining industry
                                                                                                                                                                              for jobs and those who are concerned
                                                                    There are examples in Scotland where           which has been the focus of decades of
                                                                                                                                                                              that there may be environmental conflict.
                                                                    environmental projects have successfully       deep-mine and opencast coal extraction.
                                                                                                                                                                              By working closely together, we agreed
                                                                    delivered economic and social outcomes.        More recently the area has experienced
                                                                                                                                                                              that not only could any immediate
                                                                    Some of these are outlined briefly here.       unemployment and de-population. A range
                                                                                                                                                                              conflicts be avoided but there would be
                                                                    These projects have been made possible by      of environmental and interpretation
                                                                                                                                                                              a great opportunity to maximise the long
                                                                    capital commitments from businesses,           projects have encouraged local people to
                                                                                                                                                                              term environmental and other benefits to
                                                                    Lottery and public grants, and charitable      explore and take pride in their area, which,
                                                                                                                                                                              the wider community, which would
                                                                    funds. However, there is a lack of public      for example, has recently been recognised
                                                                                                                                                                              continue long after the mining had been
                                                                    money available for such projects, despite     for its internationally important population
                                                                                                                                                                              completed.’
                                                                    the potential economic, social and             of hen harriers. This and other projects
                                                                                                                   show that the involvement of local people,                 Niall Crabb, Director, Scottish Coal
                                                                    environmental gains.
                                                                    Many companies use Scotland’s natural          stimulating their interest and a sense of
                                                                    assets – stunning landscapes, clean water,     pride is critical to regenerating
                                                                                                                   communities. These programmes could be                   Insh Marshes
                                                                    totemic species – in their marketing, or are                                                  The management of Britain’s largest
                                                                    attracted to invest here because of our high   expanded with appropriate investment.
                                                                                                                                                                  floodplain mire at Insh Marshes in
                                                                    quality environment. Public funds could be
                                                                                                                   Nigg Bay                                       Badenoch & Strathspey as an RSPB nature
                                                                    used to attract more corporate investment                                                     reserve delivers a wide range of economic
                                                                                                                   Inter-tidal areas around Scotland’s coasts
                                                                    in the environment. Some of these                                                             as well as environmental benefits. Visitor
                                                                                                                   are under increasing pressure from sea
                                                                    examples point to how companies can                                                           spending and local tourism, agricultural
                                                                                                                   level rise. They are important habitats for
                                                                    get involved.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Andy Hay (rspb-images.com)
                                                                                                                   wildlife, and protection and restoration of    activities, fishing, water quality
                                                                    Compared with the scale of other public
                                                                                                                   these areas is also important to the shellfish improvements, environmental education
                                                                    capital investment programmes, the sums                                                       and flood prevention all mean that the
                                                                                                                   industry  13, for recreation, and can help us
                                                                    required to protect and enhance some of                                                       reserve makes a substantial contribution to
                                                                                                                   adapt to climate change. The managed
                                                                    Scotland’s greatest natural assets are                                                        the local economy14. By allowing natural
                                                                                                                   realignment of coastal areas, piloted by
                                                                    relatively modest, and the potential gains                                                    flooding of the Spey, the need for hard
                                                                                                                   RSPB Scotland at Nigg Bay, shows what
                                                                    are substantial.
                                                                                                                   could be done in our Firths to help manage flood defences – estimated to cost of over
                                                                                                                   flooding. By allowing the sea to encroach on £1m – is avoided, and space is created
                                                                                                                   areas where it will not damage communities elsewhere for much-needed housing.
                                                                                                                   and businesses, space can be created for
Drongan Cubs taking part in the Coalfields Environment Initiative                                                  housing and other development elsewhere.                                                                Species like hen harriers benefit from restoration of industrial land and sensitive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           floodplain management

                                                                                                                   13 The potential for fisheries enhancement associated with managed realignment Colclough et al (2003)

                                                                                                                   CSERGE working paper PA-04-01
                                                                                                                   14 Conservation Works – Rayment M & Dickie I (2001) RSPB

12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Location                                       Opportunity
What are Scotland’s opportunities?                                                                                                                                                                                                Tips for success
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Former coalfields and other Central Scotland Develop and expand the East Ayrshire
Argyll Islands                                           Ardnamurchan and Morvern. The initiative                                                                                                                                 Examples both in Scotland and other parts of Europe highlight some elements which are         brownfield sites                             Coalfields Environment Initiative approach
A programme of heritage-based projects                   has brought new employment, enriched                                                                                                                                     key to successful projects:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clyde Valley                                  Wetland creation as part of the planned
across Argyll has been under way since                   wildlife habitats and improved access to                                                                                                                                 •   Identify opportunities early – environmental improvements which enhance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ecological networks/as a legacy of the
2000, co-ordinated by the Nádair Trust15.                the forests. The contribution management                                                                                                                                     biodiversity also create attractive places for people to invest, live and work. They
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Commonwealth Games
The projects aim to protect, nurture and                 of the woodlands can make to the local                                                                                                                                       should be integral to economic regeneration and development plans from the outset.
promote all aspects of the local heritage,               economy has been maximised – through                                                                                                                                     •   Involve the community – this helps create a sense of ownership and pride, which           Firths and estuaries                          Managed realignment and wetland
while enhancing the economic and social                  skills development, tourism and using                                                                                                                                        leads to dynamism and economic spin-offs.                                                                                               restoration to help manage flood risk and
wellbeing of local communities. An                       timber to support other business activities                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          adapt to a changing climate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  •   Think on a landscape scale – larger projects can deliver multiple benefits more easily,
independent evaluation of the first phase of             e.g. using timber for woodfuel,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      allowing for zoning to avoid conflicts between different uses (e.g. wildlife and          Western Isles, Orkney, Shetland,              Adapt the Argyll Islands approach to
the project (2000-5)16 concluded that: ‘the              boatbuilding, fencing, house construction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      recreation).                                                                              Inner Hebrides                                development based around natural
Nádair 1 programme has been successful                   and crafts.18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  •   Invest for the long term – once ecosystems are restored, they become largely self-                                                      heritage assets
in generating a wide range of local impacts
across the Argyll islands in terms of
                                                         Trossachs Forest                                                                                                                                                             supporting. Initial capital investment pays off long-term.                                River Tay                                     Habitat restoration and nature-friendly
employment, skills and learning,                         One of the largest native woodland                                                                                                                                       •   Deliver through partnership – most successful projects involve the public, voluntary                                                    reed production as a catalyst for wider
networking and capacity building.’                       restoration schemes in Europe is getting                                                                                                                                     and private sectors and local communities working together.                                                                             economic development
                                                         under way in the Loch Lomond and The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Strathspey                                    Forest restoration in the Cairngorms
Flow Country                                             Trossachs National Park. RSPB Scotland is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              National Park
An urgent conservation project in                        pleased to be part of the Scottish Forest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Loch Leven
Caithness and Sutherland has become a
key part of the economic and social
                                                         Alliance19, working with Forestry
                                                         Commission Scotland, Woodland Trust
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      What next?                                                                                                                              Creation of a national wetland for Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Flow country                                  Complete the peatland restoration
development of the area – creating and                                     ,
                                                         Scotland and BP who have provided a                                                                                                                                          The examples from Scotland and across Europe in this document show                                                                      programme
supporting local jobs, both directly and                 significant capital injection for the scheme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      investment in environmental restoration as an integral part of social and
indirectly through use of local contractors              It is helping to deliver the environmental
                                                         objectives of the National Park, while                                                                                                                                       economic regeneration. We hope the above tips for success are grasped by
and tourism. Central to the Peatland                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More examples of large-scale habitat restoration around the UK are featured on the
                                                         supporting local jobs and creating new                                                                                                                                       policymakers in Scotland, and that funding be made available to take full




                                                                                                                                                                                                 Mark Hamblin (rspb-images.com)
Management Strategy 2005-201517 is the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RSPB’s web site:
philosophy that protection and restoration               opportunities for recreation and learning                                                                                                                                    advantage of the opportunities arising over the coming years.                             www.rspb.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/managingreserves/casestudies/habitats/index.asp
of this important landscape can go hand-in-              close to the Central Belt.
hand with supporting the needs of local                  Studies indicate that sustainably managed
communities and the economy.                             forests offer a wide range of economic
                                                         benefits. As well as creating and
Sunart Oakwoods                                          supporting jobs directly and in
The Sunart Oakwoods Initiative is a broad-               downstream processing, forests support
based partnership working to restore the                 tourism and provide non-market benefits
very special native oakwoods of                          such as recreation and carbon retention.20


15www.nadair.org.uk                                                                           18   See www.sunartoakwoods.org.uk
16
 Evaluation of the socio-economic outputs of Nadair Trust projects – Final report for HIE &   19   www.scottishforestalliance.org.uk
SNH by HECLA consulting (2005)                                                                20   Assessing the economic benefits of forestry in the UK – Dickie I, Rayment M (RSPB) rev 2001
17 The
     Peatlands of Caithness & Sutherland – Management Strategy 2005-2015. www.snh.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                15

				
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