Docstoc

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Document Sample
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Powered By Docstoc
					SPORT SCIENCE
     Sporiš Goran, PhD.
     http://kif.hr/predmet/mki
     http://www.science4performance.com/
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Introduction

   Science of Human Movement

   Interdisciplinary Science

   Multiple Applications
     Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

         Emergence of a Scientific Discipline

   Scientific discipline has central focus
   Merging disciplines create new ones
   More advances with combined research
   Common interests are sometimes the cause
    Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science


        Exercise Science and Related Discipline

   Multiple parent disciplines including:
       Physics
       Chemistry
       Physiology/Anatomy
       Medicine
Creation and growth of a new “discipline” or an
“interdisciplinary” area of study occurs as a result
of the interaction of previous work and the growth
of related disciplines – this interaction can be noted
from a historical perspective
The scope of Exercise and Sports Science –three
primary areas

     Psychology: deals with behavioral aspects of
     exercise and sport including learning aspects

     Physiology: How physiologic systems respond
     and adapt to human movement

    Biomechanics: Study of
    physical/mechanical principles that underlie
  human motion
     Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

       Exercise and Sports Science— “New”
              Interdisciplinary Sciences
             Characteristics of Science

   A “science” needs objectivity and evidence

   Need to distinguish between anecdotal and scientific
    evidence
        Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

   In search of Truth in Science (and Advertising)
       Testimonial approach – often incorrect assumptions
       Tenacity - Propaganda
       Knowledge of authority
       Rationalistic method – may lead to right or wrong
       hypothesis
   Scientific method can alleviate inappropriate
    conclusions
     Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

                    The Scientific Method
   Goal is discovering what is true – science is not a
    philosophical debate
   Basic tenet – truth is out there and it can be measured
   Questions lead to research
       Observation: Phenomenon to be explained
       Hypothesis: Logical explanations
       Experiment: Scientific study to verify hypotheses
   The statistical approach
       Mathematical tool to understand evidence
             The Research Continuum: a generalization


Basic                                                                     Applied




mechanisms                                                              performance

                                    Translational




              Exercise Scientists                   Sports Scientists
    Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science
               Basic Versus Applied Research
     Basic Research
        To acquire new knowledge
        Knowledge has to be developed before it can be applied

    Translational Research: bridging the gap between basic and applied –
     “assigns” mechanisms to applied findings

     Applied Research
        Obvious applications (sport – health)
        Answers very specific research question
    Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Animal Research in Exercise and Sports Science

   Many advances obtained through research on
    animals
   Animals have also benefited
   Often combined with human research
   Goal is to enhance knowledge of Exercise and
    Sports Science
    Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

              The Research Continuum

   Questions may lead to other areas of science

   Need both basic, translational and applied research

   Maximum usefulness when adjacent levels
    understand and communicate issues of other levels
    Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science


               Movement at Every Level
   Performance continuum: Individuals at different
    levels
   Three categories
       Subnormal
       Normal
       Supernormal
   Studying all three categories yields better
    understanding of Exercise Science
  Professional and Interest Group Organizations
   Associated with Exercise and Sports Sciences
                    (Examples)
American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and
Dance (AAHPERD)
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
European College of Sports Medicine (ECSM)
International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS)
National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)
United Kingdom Strength and Conditioning Association (UKSCA)
Sports Science – What is it?
    EXERCISE SCIENCE                SPORTS SCIENCE




                  MECHANISMS



ADULT FITNESS/                         PAEDIATRIC FACTORS
MEDICAL ASPECTS




      GERIATRIC FACTORS



                               NUTRITION
      ERGONOMICS



                                      PERFORMANCE
Biology: interdisciplinary study of life
EXERCISE SCIENCE: GENERAL TERM -
•study of biological responses and adaptations to
exercise and training
•depends upon the disciplines of biomechanics,
physiology, psychology, sociology, mechanical,
electrical, and computer engineering
• includes various specialities
SPORT SCIENCE:
• enhancement of sport performance
and sport equipment through the
application of scientific methods and
principles
EXERCISE SCIENTISTS:

-   uses exercise or training to understand
    biology

SPORT SCIENTISTS:

-   uses biology to understand sport
•   function to bridge the gap between science
    and sport
To be a better sport scientist(s):
1. be a very good scientist
2. be interested in the sport(s) and the development of elite
performance
3. knowledge of sport(s) – personal interest
4. knowledge of training practices and outcomes
5. be willing to train like they do ? – better understand the sport
6. regular discussions with athletes and coaches
7. understand the politics
8. provoke thought -challenge
Become part of the sport.
SPORTS SCIENCE:BASIC FUNCTIONS


    1. EDUCATION
    2. SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK
    3. RESEARCH
                    EDUCATION


1. coach (coaching the coach)/students
2. athlete
3. other sports scientists – mentor junior scientists
       SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK


• INTEGRATED APPROACH
• PICK THE BEST TESTS - BUT!!!
      - relatively simple test - good reliability
      - insure fast and reliable feedback for coaches and athletes
      - make sure results are comprehensible and usable


ONGOING RE-EXAMINATION OF TESTING SERVICE
                  RESEARCH
•a diligent and systematic enquiry or investigation
in order to discover facts or principles
•to investigate carefully


•SEARCH FOR TRUTH AND CLARITY
•CURRENTLY - WITHOUT RESEARCH – SPORT IS
RARELY PUSHED AHEAD
           RESEARCH AND SPORT SCIENCE


1. Practical
2. How can it be applied – not always apparent to the
coach/athlete
3. Performance oriented
      - coach - sport scientists interaction
      - results should be reported ASAP
      - often carried out within the sports testing
      programme
 DEVELOP INNOVATIVE TESTING-RESEARCH
            PROGRAMMES
Example:
1. get the coaches involved in collecting data
       - sport testing
       - research
       - talent ID
2. get NGB sport science committees involved in
collecting data
3. use on-line services (MONITORING)
         A NECESSITY: INTEGRATED
          PROGRAMME PLANNING

•Why should coaches be interested in Sport Science?
– a good coach does not simply imitate but innovates
- Art and Science


•IDEALLY- SPORT SCIENCE , NGB’S AND COACHES
WORK TOGETHER TO FORMULATE A
TRAINING/TESTING PROGRAMME
THE IDEAL: DELIVERING SPORT SCIENCE TO
THE ELITE ATHLETE AND COACHES

                       NGB


  USOC SPORT SCIENCE                COACH/ATHLETE




                          DATA
                       COLLECTION
   NGB SS
 COMMITTEE
TESTING/RESEARCH/PROGRAMME
          PLANNING:



TWO IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
           EXERCISE CONTINUUM


STRENGTH     POWER              ENDURANCE
EXERCISE    EXERCISE             EXERCISE

                        ?


STRENGTH     POWER              ENDURANCE
TRAINING    TRAINING             TRAINING
RECOVERY RECOVERY RECOVERY
          Foundations of Exercise Science


                    Summary Points

   Exercise Science and Sports Science are new fields of
    study formed by merging other disciplines
   Major areas of concentration include: physiology,
    biomechanics and psychology
   Anecdotal evidence can be presented through:
    testimonial approach, tenacity, knowledge of authority,
    and rationalistic method
           Foundations of Exercise Science


                 Summary Points (cont.)

   Scientific method uses : controlled observation,
    hypothesis, and experimentation
   Basic research lays foundation for Applied and
    “Translational” research, which allows for
    improvements to specific areas of Exercise and
    Sports Science
THE END

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:11/14/2012
language:English
pages:36