Sustainability & Resilience in Community Based Tourism

Document Sample
Sustainability & Resilience in Community Based Tourism Powered By Docstoc
					                     Community Based Tourism
                        in Natural Areas:
                       Sustainability, Life Cycles
                             & Resilience

 Alan A. Lew, Ph.D., AICP
    Northern Arizona University
Editor-in-Chief, Tourism Geographies
            AlanLew.com


      Nanjing University
        Nanjing, China
      13 November 2012
                                              Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
PPT Slides
Online
 DocStoc.com
   www.docstoc.com/docs/135960665/Sustainable-Tourism-
   Lessons-from-Around-the-World
     v.gd/No6drz
   www.docstoc.com/docs/135960962/NanjingU---Tourism-
   Incognita
     v.gd/RxAz1L

 www.slideshare.net/alew
 Outline
 Defining Sustainability & Sustainable Tourism
 New Global Challenges
 Resilience as an Alternative Approach
 Tourism Area Life Cycles and Persistent Resilience
 Transformational Resilience and Community
  Development
 Disaster Resilience
 Concluding Thoughts
“ Using resources to meet the needs of contemporary
society while ensuring their availability to meet the
needs of future generations. ”

(Brundtland Report 1987)




                                       Vancouver, BC, Canada
Sustainable Development – Definition Issues
= Oxymoron (contradictory concept)
   1- ‘Development’ perspective
     Sustaining economic activity
     Greenwashing
   2- ‘Sustainable’ perspective
     Environmental stewardship
     Ecosystem equilibrium
                                                          Green Building:
   Ambiguous - multiple interpretations                    Marina Barrage
                                                                  building in
Diversity of Planet Earth                                         Singapore:
 Reason for a flexible definition                             A green roof
                                                           with a large solar
 But, can mean almost anything to anyone = meaningless         power array

Is “Sustainable Development” just a distraction?
 Abandonment guarantees unsustainable outcomes
 An “ideal” to work toward -- widely embraced … in principle
     World’s Most Sustainable Cities
   Abu Dhabi, UAE                  London, England
   Austin, Texas, US               Malmö, Sweden
   Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador      Melbourne, Australia
   Bangkok, Thailand               New York, NY, US
   Barcelona, Spain                Oslo, Norway
   Bogotá, Colombia                Portland, Oregon, US
   Cape Town, South Africa         Reykjavik, Iceland
   Copenhagen, Denmark             Rotterdam, The Netherlands
   Curitiba, Brazil                San Francisco, California, US
   Doha, Qatar                     Singapore, Republic of Singapore
   Edinburgh, Scotland, UK         Sydney, Australia
   Frankfurt, Germany              Toronto, Canada
   Helsinki, Finland               Vancouver, BC, Canada
   Hyderabad, India                Victoria, BC, Canada
   Kampala, Uganda                 Wellington, New Zealand
 What Makes A Sustainable City?
(1) Environmental Footprint (MITIGATION)
   Non-carbon Energy Sources: Hydro, Bio-fuels, Wind
   Low/Non-Carbon Transit: Mass, EVs, Bikes, Walkability
   Green Buildings: Codes, Certifications, Retrofitting
   Recycling-based Waste Management
(2) Quality of Life / Sense of Place
(ADAPTATION)
     Community-wide Green Goals & Planning
     Open Green Space/Parks
     Healthy Air & Water Quality
     Targeted Benefits to Low Income
     Integrated Land Use & Transportation Planning
     Protected Forests, Agricultural Lands, Waterways, Heritage




  

Other Indicators: Education, Arts, Culture; Housing; Economy &
   Business Strength; Regulatory Framework, Transparency, Governance;
   Innovation & Investment; Freedom of Speech & Media
1.   Maintaining the Tourism Economy
        Focus of Destination Marketing Organizations
         (DMOs)                                         Fair Trade Products
                                                         sign in Chinatown
        Avoiding Tourism Industry Decline                    gift shop, San
                                                             Francisco, USA
          Destination Economy’s
            Adaptive Capacity & Resilience

2.   Environmental Footprint of
     Tourism Activities
        Focus of Tourism Businesses
        “Green Certification” programs

3.   Tourism’s Contribution to
     Quality of Life
        Focus of Community Development
         & Social Sciences Research
BUT – CONTEMPORARY Threats to Humanity
(2011 & 2012 News Items)

 Extreme Climate & Geologic Events
   2011 - Economic losses last year =$380 billion
       previous record $220 billion in 2005
   Major interruptions to global supply chain & international trade
 Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
   2011 – GHG Reached Highest Levels in past 250 years
       Growing at an accelerated rate
 Population Growth & Migration
   31 Oct 2011 - World Reached 7 Billion People
       Increasing Urbanization, Resource
             Pressures, and Income Inequality
 Economic Shock & Change
   Great Recession in the US; Eurozone Crisis;
      Cultural & Economic Globalization
   2012 –International Tourists to reach 1 Billion
       up from 674m in 2000; 980m in 2011
Sustainable Tourism?
- Environmental Footprint
- Quality of Life
Resilience
& Global
Warming
                             “RESILIENCE” as an Alternative?
 Physics /Engineering
   The property of a material to absorb energy when deformed and not fracture/break;
    the maximum energy per unit volume that can be elastically stored.
 Ecology
   The capacity of an ecosystem to absorb or
    respond to a disturbance without
    permanent damage to the relationships
    between populations.
 Psychology
   The tendency to cope with stress and
    adversity, including “bouncing back” to
    a previous state of normal functioning or
    developing an inoculating effect to improve
    functioning - “coping strategies”.
 Organizations
   The ability of an organization (company or government) to provide and maintain an
    acceptable normal level of service in the face of periodic or catastrophic system faults
    and errors.
        e.g., natural disasters, terrorist attacks, supply chain & electrical grid disruptions
Creating Climate Change Resilience
  Transportation: Raising roads & runways;
          increasing culvert sizes; strengthen bridges
  Agriculture: Shifting to drought resistant
          crop varieties; re-training farmers;
          emphasizing local agriculture                    on Pulau Kapas, Terengganu, Malaysia
  Business: Examining and altering supply chains;
          increasing transparency and disclosure regarding climate risk
  Water: Increasing protection for wetlands; installing permeable
          pavement, green roofs, and rain and water gardens
  Energy: Protecting or moving production & distribution facilities/
          vulnerable to flooding, extreme heat, drought or weather events
  Public Health: Identifying ways to reduce urban heat islands; assessing
          medical response vulnerabilities to weather/climate extremes
  Ecosystems: Planning for movement of habitat, changes in local plants
          and animals, sea level rise
  Land Use: Changing building codes; planning “retreat” from sea level rise
Urban Planning’s Shift to Resilience
Topics in a Call For Papers for “The Politics of
  Sustainability & Climate Change”
 Urban planning strategies for managing climate change
 Resiliency or adaptability paradigms within urban design
 Urban climate change policy and design
 Climate change denial and anti-climate change legislation
 Grassroots responses to climate change policy
 Effects of climate change on cities
 (Post) political dimensions of sustainability policy
 Sustainable or green architecture
 Disaster Preparation in cities
 Critiques of sustainability
 Artistic engagements with climate change
 Technological innovations for managing climate change
                   Resilience:
                   Learning & Adaptation

                   Severity of adverse events is
                   context dependent




Reduced Severity                 Quicker Recovery
Scale of Social & Environmental Change
(1) Unexpected Large Shocks & Sudden Changes
   Physical
     Typhoon/Hurricane/Cyclone System
     Earthquakes, Tsunamis/Floods, & Droughts
   Social
     Violent Overthrow of a Government
     Massive Famines, Deaths & Migrations
     Economic Collapse


(2) Unpredictable Gradual Shifts & Moderate Change
   Physical
     Biological Ecosystem (flora & fauna) Relocations & Endangerments/Extinctions
     Climate Change / Global Warming
   Social
     Globalization – Economic & Cultural
     Paradigm Shifts – Enlightenment/Science, Industrial, ICT
          Scale, Change &                      Resilience Issues
          Resilience in Tourism Places
                                               1. Facilities & Service
                                               Maintenance
Tourism/System Scale




                       3.          4.
                       Public      Public
                                               2. Major Attraction or
                       Tourism -   Tourism -   Market Loss
                       Slow        Sudden
                       Change      Shock
                                               3. Climate Change &
                       1.                      Globalization
                                   2.
                       Private     Private
                       Tourism -   Tourism -   4. Major Natural &
                       Slow        Sudden
                       Change                  Human Disasters
                                   Shock

                             Change Rate
Scale of
Resilience Entities
       Individual
       Family
       Business
       Community
       Society / Country
       Ecosystem / Bioregion             Kampung Setiu Lama, Terengganu, Malaysia
       Planet

                                “Persistent Resilience”:
                                coping with the mundane
                                pressures of social &
                                economic transformation

                                Vulnerability : the opposite of
                                resilience
Tourism Business Resilience in Cherating, Malaysia
 Cherating Village
   Small, Laid-back Fishing Village
   Nice, wide Surfing Beach; Asia's first Club Med
   Many Guesthouses & Small Hotels (Chalets)


 1973 - residential houses started to be
     converted into chalets
   some residence (fishermen) moved away from
    tourist areas (beach & highway)
      Also driven out by coastal erosion
       – common on East Coast of Malaysia

 Early 1990s – tourism became main source of
   income for most in the beach area
   Backpacker Tourism = major income source
   1999 – 42 houses rented rooms to tourists
The 4 R’s of Resilience
(based on the Emergency Management definition)
Cherating, Malaysia
Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) Model
ENTREPRENURIAL RESILIENCE
Decline Factors
 Internal
   Seasonality
   Low tourist arrival
   Location disadvantage due to
         new development
     Lack of family support
     Lack of government support
     Old age
     Ill-health
     Death of owner

 External
     Economic Crises
     Iraq war
     September 11th 2001 terrorism
     Diseases and endemics
Consistent Stability & Growth Factors
 Support from government
 Partnership with other
    organizations
 Property ownership
 Introduction of new activities
 Improves quality of facilities
    & services
Decline & Bounce Back Factors
 Decline
     Location disadvantage
     Economic crises
     Iraq War
     Seasonality

 Bounce Back
     Offer new activities
     Enhanced promotion
     Collaboration/partnership
     Family support
     Improved & enhance
      facilities and services
       Wireless services
       Meeting rooms
       Bars/restaurants
       Mosque
Resilience Lessons from the Cherating
1.     Tourism area separated from local residential area
      Non-tourism involved residents may be “forced” out by nuisance impacts
2.     Need for market/niche development
        New products & continuous marketing
3.     Global events influencing local economy
4.     Business lifecycle of small enterprises related to the entrepreneur’s life
       expectancy & descendents
5.     Availability of other options for economic livelihood
   Three Approaches to Resilience
(1) Engineering Resilience
 Ability of to return to a steady-state
                  equilibrium after a disturbance
    emphasis on the speed of return to equilibrium
     (bounces back); efficiency &predictability

(2) Ecological Resilience
 Ability to learn from a disturbance &
                 prepare for future stresses                                       Recreational
    acknowledges multiple equilibriums &                                          fisherman in
        potential flip into alternative stabilities                                   Singapore


(3) Transformational Resilience
 Ability to evolve, transform and adapt over mixed timeframes and
  geographic scales into new models in response to stress
    Whole system changes & Paradigm shifts
    aka Evolutionary Resilience, Socio-ecological Resilience & Persistent Resilience
                      Engineering Resilience
                      - Return to Equilibrium
                                                  Transformational Resilience
                                            - Learn & Create a New Paradigm




Ecological Resilience
- Learn & Return to Equilibrium

                                                • People become resilient in
                                                response to adversity
                                                • Disturbances include both acute
                                                shocks and chronic slow burns
                                                • Tools: institutions, leadership,
                                                social capital & social learning
Community Resilience in Batu Puteh, Sabah
                                                         1% Fruits  3% Fishing   1% Paddy
  Batu Puteh = 4 villages, 1762 villagers                1% Shopkeeper           1% Vegetables

                                                    Government                          Oil Palm
                                                                   5%             69%
                                             Private Sector
                                                              9%


                                               Tourism 10%




 Tourism Income: (260 tourism cooperative members)
 2007 = RM300,000 (USD $100,000); 2011 = RM1.37 million
  1,400,000
  1,200,000
  1,000,000                                                                 Tourism Income
                                                                            Malaysian Ringgit (RM)
    800,000
    600,000
    400,000
    200,000
          0
32
           2007        2008           2009                    2010               2011
                                   Natural attractions




KOPEL Tourism Cooperative




ISSUES: - Retaining youth
        - Human resource development
Kinabatangan
River Wildlife
                                Tourism Income - Categories
$1,600,000.00   KOPEL River View Café
                 Crafts
                kraftangan
$1,400,000.00   Lain lain
                                                                           53,386.50
                MCG Dance Group                                            42,643.30
                                                                           75,075.90
$1,200,000.00
                Hammock Camp
                                                                           44,562.25
                Conservation Fees                             30,307.80    126,954.40
                                                              31,595.50
                 Forest
                TREC Camp                                     55,981.49
$1,000,000.00                                                 40,892.00    90,235.32
                Village Bus Services                          85,347.25
                                                                           128,844.15
                KOPEL F&B                                     70,295.32
 $800,000.00
                Village Boat Service                          93,219.93
                                                                           194,903.27
                Local Guides                                  151,677.81
 $600,000.00                                  $65,728.40
                Miso Walai Homestay Only      $38,559.20
                                                                           186,842.93
                                              $83,704.50      155,065.79
                                 $50,195.81
                                 $28,524.70
 $400,000.00                                  $100,044.69
                                 $58,296.25

                                 $82,031.64
                                              $82,539.12      194,323.61   238,701.31
                 $79,966.05
                 $12,698.00      $78,156.07   $69,253.85
 $200,000.00     $34,145.75
                                 $63,399.46
                 $29,927.74                                   215,878.50
                                              $186,950.00                  193,274.30
                                $130,380.00
                 $82,850.00
         $-
                   2007            2008          2009           2010         2011
Miso Walai Homestay
Cultural Attractions of the
Orang Sungai (“river people”)
                                          Rain Forest Eco Camps
                                                    (2007 & 2009)




          Tourist Arrival Data
3500     Groups
3000     FIT’s       398
2500                               404
                             465
2000          293
1500   282
                     2545          2368
1000          1856          2055
 500   1314
   0
       2007   2008   2009   2010   2011
        Lake
2001    Restoration




 2006
2007




              Forest Restoration
       2010   Tourism = RM 1.3 million in 2011
              Forest Restoration = RM 240,000 in 2010
   KOPEL Tourism Cooperative - 260 members – since 2003

                  Treasurer & Vice              Chairman & Vice             Secretary & Vice
                     Treasurer                     Chairman                    Secretary


                                              Boat                                  Promotion   Conserva-
 Home Stay    Cultural      Tour Guide                      F&B       Transport
                                             Service                                  & PR        tion
  Bureau      Bureau          Bureau                       Bureau      Bureau
                                             Bureau                                  Bureau      Bureau




Outdoor Experiences                  Partners
Boat Trips                           Sabah Forestry Department - forest restoration; 2009 Eco-Camp
Wildlife Observation                 LEAP Conservancy: sourcing funds; capacity building
Tree Planting                        Alexander Abraham Foundation: lake & forest restoration
Forest Camps & Camping               American Forests: Orang-utan habitat restoration; forest restoration
Forest Interpretation                Arcus Foundation; Shell Oil Malaysia: 2007 Eco-Camp
Limestone Caving                     Volunteer Organisations & High Schools: Rakuno Gakuen
                                     University, International School Brunei, Global Vision International
Homestay & Culture                   (GVI) , plus independent volunteers
Cooking Lessons                      Adventure Tour Companies: Outlook Expeditions (school groups),
Traditional Games                    Exodus Travel, Intrepid Travel, Geckos Travel, Imaginative Traveller
Traditional Music & Dance            - “responsible tourism” adventure holidays
Resilience Lessons from Batu Puteh
     Diversification of both tourism product and other economic activities
     Early planning to enhance community buy in for cooperative approach
     Long term commitment to capacity building by local and external leaders
     Entrepreneurial approach to partnerships building and external funding
     Sensitivity of international market conditions and opportunities




                                                            Terrapuri Heritage Village Resort,
                                                                       Kg Setiu, Terengganu




Borneo Nature Lodge,
Sandakan, Sabah
 Summary & Conclusions
 Sustainable Development (SD)
   Major Shortcomings: Oxymoron & Culturally constructed
   Focus on Engineering Mitigations & Certifications
 New Global Challenges
   Climate, Economy, Governance Issues – Overwhelming SD
 The ‘Resilience’ Alternative
   Focus on Adaptation to Change
   Big Resilience (Disasters) & Small Resilience (Persistence)
 Resilience in Tourism Development
   Tourism Area Life Cycle & Entrepreneurial Resilience
   Community-Based Tourism & Transformational Resilience
Tourism & Disaster Resilience in Taiwan
Tourism Resilience in Taiwan
The 4 R’s of Resilience
(based on the Emergency Management definition)




Resilience = “adaptive capacity”
KPI = key performance indicators
Resilience Planning &
                  Sustainable Planning
 Planning after a Disaster
   Same as before – But Time is Compressed
     Much more to do - at a much faster pace
     Due to High Change Rate
   Process flexibility varies
     Information flows, Development of social capital
     Demolition and debris removal
     Commerce
 A Sustainable City
  is a Resilient City
          Scale, Change &                      Resilience Issues
          Resilience in Tourism Places
                                               1. Facilities & Service
                                               Maintenance
Tourism/System Scale




                       3.          4.
                       Public      Public
                                               2. Major Attraction or
                       Tourism -   Tourism -   Market Loss
                       Slow        Sudden
                       Change      Shock
                                               3. Climate Change &
                       1.                      Globalization
                                   2.
                       Private     Private
                       Tourism -   Tourism -   4. Major Natural &
                       Slow        Sudden
                       Change                  Human Disasters
                                   Shock

                             Change Rate
  Small/Private Tourism -                   Small/Private Tourism -
  Slow Change Resilience                    Sudden Shock Resilience
   Facilities & Service Quality          Major Attraction or Market Loss
Tourism as a distinct economic           Infrastructure Planning: Indentify
    activity in a diversified economy         Vulnerabilities to Diversify & Change
                                              Delivery Systems for Transportation,
Need for market development; new              Food & Water Supply, Public Health
    products & continuous marketing;          & Basic Needs, Energy &
    Entrepreneurial approach to               Communication, and Business
    partnerships building and external        Supply Chain
    funding; Awareness of how global     Land Use Policies & Planning: Support
    market conditions events                  Natural Ecosystem Planning &
    influencing local economic                Conservation; Mitigation planning to
    opportunities                             avoid disaster prone areas (e.g.,
Business lifecycle of small                   floodplains & active fault zones;
    enterprises related to the                Adaptive construction & design
    entrepreneur’s life expectancy &
    descendents
Early planning to enhance community
    buy in for cooperative approach;
    Long term commitment to capacity
    building by local and external
    leaders
Tourism as a Highly Resilient Industry
  Outline
 Defining Sustainability & Sustainable Tourism
 New Global Challenges
 Resilience as an Alternative Approach
 Tourism Area Life Cycles and Persistent Resilience
 Transformational Resilience and Community
  Development
 Disaster Resilience
 Concluding Thoughts

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Questions whether sustainability is the best model for contemporary issues in community based tourism, and suggests that resilience planning may be a better approach. Case studies from Malaysia.