Sustainable Tourism: Lessons from Around the World

Document Sample
Sustainable Tourism: Lessons from Around the World Powered By Docstoc
					          Sustainable Tourism:
     Lessons from Around the World
            (USA, Scotland, Nepal & South Africa)

      Alan A. Lew
Northern Arizona University

    Nanjing University
      Nanjing, China
    11 November 2012
                                                    Khumbu Valley, Nepal
   Sustainable
    Development &
    Sustainable Tourism
   Case 1 - Policies for
    Cultural Protection
   Case 2 - Tourism in
    Peripheral Regions
   Case 3 - Adapting to
    Social & Environmental               Monument Valley,
                             Navajo Nation Park, Utah, USA
   Case 4 - Natural &
    Cultural Heritage
“ Using resources to meet
the needs of contemporary
society while ensuring
their availability to meet
the needs of future
generations. ”
(Brundtland Report 1987)

                             Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Sustainable Development – Definition Issues
 = Oxymoron (contradictory concept)
      – 1- ‘Development’ perspective
           • Sustaining economic activity
           • Greenwashing
      – 2- ‘Sustainable’ perspective
           • Environmental stewardship
           • Ecosystem equilibrium
     Culturally Constructed
      – Ambiguous - multiple interpretations
                                                                 Green Building:
      – Masks support for different selective interpretations
                                                                 Marina Barrage
                                                                     building in
 Diversity of Planet Earth                                           Singapore:
 •   Reason for a flexible definition                              A green roof
 •   But, can mean almost anything to anyone                        with a large
      – Becoming meaningless, and even diabolical                   solar power

 Is “Sustainable Development” worthwhile or just a distraction?
 •   Abandonment guarantees unsustainable outcomes
 •   An ideal to work toward -- widely embraced … in principle
 “Sustainable Tourism Development”
• Subset of Sustainable Development
    – a Type or Form of Sustainable Development             SD

• Subset of Tourism Development
    – a Type or Form of Tourism Development

ST = Applying “Sustainable
   Development” Concepts to the
   Tourism Industry and related
   Social, Environmental and
   Economic Aspects of Tourism
   and Travel
                      Electric “Go” Cars for
                   Tourists in San Francisco
1. Ecosystem Models
   ① Environment
   ② Economy
   ③ Society

2. Geographic Scales
   ① Global
   ② Community
   ③ Personal

3. Time Horizons
   ① Short-Term / Immediate
   ② Near-Term                National Forest,
   ③ Long-Term                  Hubei, China
Actions that…

     = Replenish Natural & Human
     Resources at the same rate that
     they are used                                                    Diving in Bali,
    –    “Circular Economy” & “Product Life Cycle Costing”                Indonesia
    –    “Green Certifications” – Science & Business Approaches

     - Evolution - Encourage Diversification & Niche Development to enable
     communities to meet new & varying challenges
           - “Community Resilience” – “Resort Life Cycle” – “Longtail Marketing”
     - Climax Communities - Maximize & Harmonize the Opportunities for All
     to achieve their optimal potential under present conditions
          - “Quality of Life“ – “Heritage Conservation” – “Upscaling Tourism”
    - Social Science & Economics Approaches
                                                  Near the
                                            Tonle Sap Lake,
 2. Geographic Scale
 Perspectives on Sustainability

                  Environment            Economy                    Society

                  Climate change,        Globalization, Resource    Human rights,
                  Ecosystem              inequities, Structural     Political instability,
Global Scale      degradation,           dependencies               Freedom of travel
                  Biodiversity loss

Local /         Infrastructure           Employment, Cost of        Housing, Health,
Community Scale (water, energy,          living, Business climate   Sense of place,
                  transportation ...),                              Quality of life
Personal / SME    Housing, Food, &       Career & Investment        Political choices,
Scale             Transportation         choices, Educational       Cultural traditions
                  choices, Recycling     access, “Affluenza”
• The Problem of Time :
   – Same Problem Changes Over Time
   – Change is Not Linear
   – Limited Human Perception
• Short-Term / Immediate
   – Pandemic Diseases; Economic Job Losses;
     Windfall Profits; Political Changes;
     Sudden Fluctuations in Tourist Arrivals                 Panda in Hong Kong

• Near-Term
   – Loss of Coral Reefs & Fishing Grounds; Oceanic Island Erosion; Legal &
     Illegal Migration; Shift in Job Locations & Types; Growing Global
     Internet Access; Creating more Green Destinations
• Long-Term
   – Flooding of Coastal Lands & Cities; Need for New Types & Areas of
     Education & Training; Need for New Types & Forms of Governance;
     Greening Airlines & Mass Tourism
CASE 1 - American Indian
                     Cultural Tourism Policy
       • Indian Wars (1860-1890)
          – Ethnic conflict; Near genocide many tribes

       • “Reservations”
          = Not available for settlement by European

       • First Reservations
          – California (1849)
               • Following “Gold Rush”
               • The California solution to
                     the "Indian problem"    Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico
                   – quickly spread
                      throughout the western West
Lockett Meadow, San Francisco Mountain, Flagstaff, Arizona
           Competing Values on American Indian Reservations
1- Cooperation                                   1- Competition

2- Prestige & Authority = Age & Religion         2- Prestige & Authority = Family, Political
                                                 Position, Education & Wealth

3- Education from Elders                         3- Education in Schools

4- Animist Religious Beliefs                     4- Scientific Rationalism

5- Morality = Social Conformity                  5- Morality = legally defined Good & Bad

6- Life organized around Ceremonial Activities   6- Life organized around Work Activities

7- Communal land ownership & management          7- Fee simple land tenure and private
                                                 property rights

                                                          Arizona Snow Bowl Ski Area,
                                                          San Francisco Peaks, Flagstaff, Arizona
      How to Maintain Traditional Culture?
• Hopi Indian Tribe
     - First Mesa Villages

• Possibly the most traditional
  (authentic?) tribe in the US

• Struggling to maintain                          Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico

   – Threatened with loss of
       Language &Traditions

• Among six Hopi pueblo villages
   – only First Mesa has considered these rules
                                                   Tourism Policy
Decision Making Approaches
1 - ad hoc
   potential for poor decision making
      & corruption of the process
2 - Policy based
   continuity, predictability, & a legal
      basis for decision making

Tourism Policies =
                                                                 Monument Valley,
   Legally govern the type & extent of                          Navajo Nation Park
     tourism development desired                          Arizona-Utah Border, USA

        - Laws that implement Goals & Objectives

Basic Question:
   What is the Preferred Tourism Situation for Us?
                First Mesa, Hopi - Tourism Goals
  •       To enable the First Mesa Consolidated Villages to provide for the health, safety,
          welfare and economic security of the Villages of First Mesa, and specifically:

           – A. To control and regulate visitors, visitor tours, and tour operations within
             their jurisdiction.

           – B. To assist the Villages of First Mesa to protect and preserve the arts, crafts,
             traditions and ceremonies of the Hopi culture.

           – C. To provide tour services and charge a fee in accordance with a fee schedule.

        Hopi Reservation-wide Visitor Rules (Posted on Signs)

1.   Visitors are welcome, but must
     remember that they are guests of
     the Hopi, and should act accordingly.

2.   Possession of alcohol or drugs
     anywhere on the reservation is
     prohibited by Tribal Law.

3.   Archeological resources and ruin
     sites are off-limits to all non-tribal                   Simulated Hopi Kiva at the
     members - removal of artifacts is                        Museum of Northern
     a criminal offense.                                      Arizona, Flagstaff

4.   Photographing, recording, and/or sketching of villages, religious ceremonies or
     individuals is strictly prohibited on the Reservation, unless permission is granted
     by the village chief or governor.

5.   If spending an unusually lengthy period of time in a village, permission must be
     obtained from the village chief or governor.

6.   Drivers are cautioned to obey posted speed limits on the reservation and to
     watch for livestock on roads and highways, especially at night.
                     The Ideal & The Real
• Regulations are Difficult to Implement
   – Locals:
       • Sell arts & crafts from their homes
       • Offer services as unauthorized
         guides in exchange for money
   – Tourists:
       • Do not pay attention to rules
                            - on purpose?
       • Sneak photographs
           – strong desire to remember place

• Cost of Enforcement - can be too high
                                                       Hopi Indian
• Culture of Enforcement – the Legal System           Reservation,
   – may not be compatible with traditional culture
                       Lessons from the Hopi
     – Emphasis on conservation of traditional culture economic and
       social/community relationships; May require legal barriers (walls)
     – Focus on community and personal privacy, though Hopi religion also has
       global perspectives
     – Using the legal system to conserve cultural heritage (past & present) against
       acculturation (globalization/Americanization) for future generations

     Pueblo Indian Dancers, 4th of July Parade,                   Selling Indian Crafts at
                             Flagstaff, Arizona               Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona
                                      Pow Wow      Souvenir
                                      Festival      shop at
                                      Dancers      the Four
                                      at Arizona    Corners
                                      State          Navajo
                                      University       Park


Pow Wow Festival Drummers at
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

                                                        Yavapai Apache Reservation, Arizona
CASE 2 : Peripheral Regions:
  The Scottish Highlands
 A Peripheral Economy
Scottish Highlands
• One of the most scenic regions
     of Europe
• May tourists in summer
• Among most sparsely
     populated regions of Europe

Peripheral Economies
• Often dependent on one or two industries
• Often resource-based industries, such as
     mining, forestry, fishing or extensive grazing
   – Some industries may be tourist attractions
Glacier carved landscapes, peat bogs,
tourists in Fort William, and Urquhart Castel
Scottish Souvenirs

Most of the tourists come to the
Scottish Highlands in the summer
months by motorcycle, car, tour bus,
and caravan/RV.
Loch Ness
Loch Lomond
National Park

                Loch Lomond
                National Park is
                in the Scottish
                Lowlands. It is
                a popular
                camping, hiking
                and fishing area
                close to
         Loch Lomond

A fault line runs from northeast
(top-right) to southwest (bottom-
left) of this model of Loch Lomond.
To the north is the Scottish
Highlands, to the south is the
Scottish Lowlands.
                   Lessons from Scotland
   – Remote location (geography/time, economy/cost, climate/seasons)
     helps conserve sensitive ecosystem; Good infrastructure helps tourism
   – Internationally known icons to attract tourists; Peripheral, but accessible,
     with open borders
   – Adjustment to a high seasonality in its tourism economy; Resources
     based on geologic time scale
• Before 1950 - Nepal closed to world

• 1953 - Tenzing Norgay Sherpa &
  Edmund Hillary (NZ) – first ascent of
  Mr. Everest

• 1957 - Closing of Tibetan Border
   – Loss of Trade & Influx of Refugees

• 1964 - First ever visit of a high-level
  Nepal government official to the
   – Edmund Hillary School opening
   – Firsts: Airport, Post Office &

• 1975 - Sagarmatha National Park

• Nepalization of the Khumbu
   – Kathmandu Nepalis = Hindu
   – Khumbu Sherpas = Tibetan
1.   Deforestation
     – Fuel for Cooking and Heating
2.   Overgrazing
     – Loss of Vegetation and Top Soil

3.   Solid waste, sanitation & litter
     – Along trekking routes

4.   Recent Warming Trend
     – Glacial Retreats (Ama Doblam)
     – Glacial Lakes Increase in Size
     – Desertification in some areas

• Impacts on
     – Agricultural practices
     – Wildlife Habitats, and                    At Mongla Pass (3973m),
                                                     Trekker Restaurant,
     – Vegetation Patterns
                                                 Ama Dablam (6812m) &
• Development Pressures for over past 40 years       Mt. Everest (8850m)
     – Built Environment                                   in mid-Winter
     – Natural Environment Uses
                   Glacial Retreat in Nepal

Source: WWF 2005
• UN Human Development Index
    – Nepal = #157 out of 177 countries (2011)

• Tourism
    – 1963 - Time to Kathmandu from 14 days to 40
    – 1964 - First airport at Lukla
    – 1999 - 491,000 international visitors to Nepal
       • 2002 - 275,000 due to “State of Emergency”
    – Among Nepal’s largest source of foreign currency
        • 3.5% of GDP, 20% of Export Income

• Sagarmatha National Park (1976)
    – 2005 = 21,960 visitors
       • Plus 17,000 porters & staff
       • 1000s of yak & zopkio
    – 65% near park depend
          on Trekking economy
     – Environment, Society/Culture &
       Economy all change over time
     – Isolation enables community &
       regional integration; Increased
       connections to world creates
       globalization challenges
                                                  Namche Bazaar,
•   TIME SCALE LESSONS                       the “Sherpa Capital”
     – Issues and their importance
       change over time
     – Memories are difficult to recall as
       we paint the past with feelings and
       concerns of the present
 Case 4 – Protected Areas:
Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa
    History of National Parks
•   USA
     – 1864 - US Congress gave Yosemite Valley to
        California for “public use, resort & recreation”
          • First large protected land for public use
     – 1872 - Yellowstone National Park
          • World’s 1st true national park
•   Australia
     – 1866 - British Colony of New South Wales                      Grand Canyon Preserve (1906)
        reserved the Jenolan Caves (Sydney)                                   National Park (1919)
          • Later expanded into the Blue Mountains National Park
     – 1879 - Royal National Park established
          • to provide a natural recreation area for the Sidney metropolitan area
•   Canada
     – 1885 - Bow Valley Hot Springs in the Rocky Mountains
          • 1887 - renamed as Banff National Park
•   New Zealand
     – 1894 - Tongariro National Park
          • by agreement with the Maori people - important spiritual site
•   South Africa
     – 1895 - Greater St. Lucia Game Reserve – first protected wetland in Africa
     – 1895 - Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve – first wildlife conservation area in Africa
St. Lucia
- Sharks &
The Zulu Kingdom
          - Created in 1825
          - Cultural Heritage Conservation
                               Battlefield Heritage Conservation

- Zulu-Boer Wars - 1830s-40s
- The Anglo-Zulu War of 1879
- The Anglo-Boer War of 1899
A Private Game Reserve
Game Reserve
• Zulu royal hunting ground
• Oldest proclaimed wildlife
  park in Africa – 1895
   – 3 parks merged in 1899
• Created to protect white
   – Most white rhinos in
     world today
• Only government park in
  KwaZulu-Natal with all “Big
  Five Game” animals
Africa’s Big Five
Safari Game Animals
1. African Elephant
2. Leopard
3. Lion
4. Cape Buffalo
5. Rhinoceros
        Lessons from Kwa-Zulu Natal, SA
   – Integrated conservation program, including nature and culture,
     public and private preserves, and local economic opportunities
   – Role of global trends and national legislation on local tourism
   – Heritage includes both human history and natural ecosystem
     time frames
                             1. Ecosystem Models
                                Environment, Economy, Society
                             2. Geographic Scales
   Sustainable
                                Global, Community, Personal
    Development &            3. Time Horizons
    Sustainable Tourism         Short-Term / Immediate, Near-Term, Long-Term
   American Indians –
    Policies for Cultural
   Rural Scotland –
    Tourism in Peripheral
   Khumbu, Nepal –
    Adapting to Social &
    Environmental Change
   South Africa – Natural
    & Cultural Heritage
                                        View from Isandlwana Lodge, South Africa

Description: Discusses variations in the concept of sustainable tourism by looking at how it works in different parts of the world.