chest radiology - HeadNeckBrainSpine.xls by handongqp


									            Lymphocytic interstitial at increased risk for developing what diffuse lung diseases
Patients with Sjogren syndrome arepneumonitis (LIP). Non-Hodgkin pulmonary lymphoma.
            Young to middle-aged man with spine changes (kyphosis, spinal ankylosis). Increased lung volumes. Upper lobe fi
Ankylosing spondylitis lung involvement
            UIP. terms provide the most precise method of classifying the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias
These histologic Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). COP. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD)
            Most common of
Usual Interstitial Pneumonia the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Most cases are sporadic. 30% of cases associated with co
            Diffuse ground-glass opacity and consolidation with air bronchograms. Linear opacities, honeycombing, and tract
Acute Interstitial Pneumonia
            Viral infection (influenza, adenovirus, measles).
Conditions associated with BOOP, organizing pneumonia. Toxic fume inhalation (sulfur dioxide, chlorine). Collagen vascular
              Organizing Pneumonia
CryptogenicIdiopathic form of organizing pneumonia. Most common finding: Patchy consolidation or ground-glass opacity wi
              Bronchiolitis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease
RespiratoryTypically young, heavy smokers. Scattered ground-glass opacities. Small centrilobular nodules with upper lobe pre
            95% are cigarette smokers.
Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia Cannot be radiologically distinguished from UIP. Bibasilar reticular opacities. Normal o
            Generally asymmetric upper lung bullae. Generally symmetric lower lung interstitial fibrosis.
Neurofibromatosis ILD
Tuberous Sclerosis (TS) ILD from LAM. Symmetric bilateral reticular or reticulonodular opacities. Scattered lung cysts. Norm
            Exclusively in women. Lung cysts separated by interlacing bundles of smooth muscle. May obstruct lymphatics cau
            Simulates silicosis
Alveolar Septal Amyloidosis or lung sarcoidosis. Upper lung reticulonodular opacities.
            Irregular reticular interstitial opacities.
Chronic Aspiration Pneumonia
            Asbestosis. Silicosis. CWP.
3 major pneumoconioses
Asbestosis Pleura: Parietal pleural plaques. Pleural effusion. Localized visceral pleural fibrosis. Diffuse pleural fibrosis. Mesoth
Silicosis   Mining, ceramic work, and sandblasting. Upper lobe and parahilar nodules. Nodule calcification may occur. Egg sh
            Predominantly upper
Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis lung reticulonodular or small nodular opacities.
Rare Pneumoconioses Aluminum. Hard metal (cobalt, tungsten).
            Inhaled antigenic
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitisorganic dusts: Farmer's lung (moldy hay). Humidifier lung (thermophilic bacteria). Bird-fancier's
            0 Normal chest
Lung Sarcoidosis staging radiograph. 1 Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement. 2 Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement an
Sarcoidosis Common findings: Symmetric hilar adenopathy allows distinction from malignancy and TB. Symmetric mid and up
             Cell high association with
LangerhansVery Histiocytosis of Lung cigarette smoking. Mid and upper lung centrilobular small nodules. In late stages may
            Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis involving upper and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. Discrete nodules o
Wegener Granulomatosis
            Symptoms and radiographic abnormalities last longer than 1 month. Predilection for women. Responds to cortico
Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia
            Male predominance. Blood eosinophilia. Cardiomegaly. Pulmonary edema. Pleural effusions. Pulmonary parenchy
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
              Lung Disease Associated Sarcoidosis. Rheumatoid lung
EosinophilicWegener granulomatosis. With Autoimmune Diseases disease. Polyarteritis nodosa. Allergic angiitis and granulo
              Lung (Nitrofurantoin and Penicillins).
EosinophilicDrugs Disease of Identifiable Etiology Parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis).
            Lipoproteinaceous material deposits within alveoli. Predilection for males in their 20s to 40s. Bilateral symmetric
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
Alveolar microlithiasis of minute calculi within alveolar spaces. Confluent bilateral dense micronodular opacities. So-called bl
            Formation of bone
Diffuse pulmonary ossification within lung parenchyma. Associations: Mitral stenosis. UIP. Amyloidosis.
Tracheocele Paratracheal air cysts. True diverticula. Occur at weakened posterior membrane of cervical trachea.
Tracheal bronchus suis. Accessory bronchus to all or a portion of right upper lobe. Arises from right lateral tracheal wall wit
            Malignant: Squamous cell carcinoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma). Benign: Chondroma. Fibroma. Squa
Primary neoplasms of trachea
            Saber-sheath trachea. Amyloidosis. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica. Relapsing polychondritis. Wege
Tracheal Narrowing
            Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome). Tracheomalacia. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.
Tracheal dilation
            Coronal diameter is less than two thirds of sagittal diameter. Affects older men with chronic obstructive pulmona
Saber-sheath trachea
            Multiple submucosal osseous and
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica cartilaginous deposits within trachea and central bronchi of elderly men. Spare
            Systemic autoimmune disorder. Affects cartilage of earlobes, nose, larynx, tracheobronchial tree, joints, and large
Relapsing polychondritis
            Congenital. (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome)
TracheobronchomegalyAssociated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Men under age 50. Trachea and central bronchi measure gre
            Diffuse tracheal and central bronchial dilation. Congenital or acquired (COPD, Chronic bronchitis, Cystic fibrosis, R
            Subtended lung remains collapsed against lateral chest wall. Secondary to bronchial injury. Responds poorly to ch
Fallen lung sign
            Calcified material within bronchus. Usually from eroding calcified lymph nodes (Histoplasmosis or TB).
Asthma      Transient bronchial narrowing. Peribronchial cuffing and tram tracking. Air trapping: Hyperinflation, Flattening or
Chronic bronchitis production of sputum on most days for at least 3 months in 2 consecutive years. 50% have normal chest ra
            Permanent dilation of bronchi. Cylindric bronchiectasis: mild diffuse dilation. Varicose bronchiectasis: cystic dilati
            Production of abnormally thick, tenacious mucus. Recurrent infection commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa o
Cystic fibrosis
            May result in
Dysmotile cilia syndromeRhinitis. Sinusitis. Bronchiectasis. Dysmotile spermatozoa and sterility. Situs inversus. Dextrocardia.
             syndrome triad
Kartagener Sinusitis. Situs inversus.. Bronchiectasis.
            Hypersensitivity reaction to
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosisAspergillus. Asthma, blood eosinophilia, bronchiectasis with mucus plugging, and circu
Emphysema   Permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal bronchiole. Destruction of alveolar walls without obvious
            Airspace distention in central portion of lobule. Spares distal portions of the lobule. Upper lobe predominance. As
Centrilobular emphysema
            Distention of
Panlobular emphysema airspaces throughout lobule. Destruction of central respiratory bronchioles and peripheral alveolar s
            Distention of
Paraseptal emphysema peripheral airspaces adjacent to interlobular septa. Spares centrilobular region. Generally involves
            Lung irregular emphysema
Paracicatricial or destruction associated with fibrosis. No consistent relationship to a given portion of the lobule. Commonly a
            Diffuse hyperlucency (panlobular). Flattening and depression of hemidiaphragms. Increased retrosternal airspace
Emphysema findings
            Arterial deficiency: versus increased markings
Arterial deficiency emphysema Predominantly panlobular emphysema. Hyperinflated lungs with peripheral vascular attenuat
            Thin-walled cystic space > 1 cm in diameter. Found within lung parenchyma.
Bulla defined
            be seen in diseases that cause chronic upper lobe fibrosis, such spondylitis.
Bullae may Sarcoidosis. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ankylosingas
            Isolated bullae
Primary bullous disease without intervening emphysema or interstitial lung disease. Associated with: Marfan or Ehlers-Dan
            Tree-in-bud opacities. Generally due to infection: Viral. Atypical. Mycobacterial.
CT findings and associations of infectious bronchiolitis
            Tree-in-bud opacities. Bronchial dilation and thickening.
CT findings of diffuse panbronchiolitis
            Centrilobular and geographic ground-glass opacities. Cigarette smoking.
CT findings and associations of Respiratory bronchiolitis–associated interstitial lung disease
            Centrilobular ground-glass nodules. pneumonitis (subacute)
CT findings and associations of Hypersensitivity Air trapping on expiratory scans. Inhaled organic antigen.
            Centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Rheumatoid arthritis. Sjögren syndrome.
CT findings and associations of Follicular bronchiolitis
            Mosaic attenuation with air trapping on expiratory scans. Bronchial dilation (late). Transplant patients. Drug react
CT findings and associations of Constrictive bronchiolitis
            Pleural/serum protein ratio
Transudative pleural effusion lab valuesless than 0.5. Pleural/serum LDH ratio less than 0.6. Pleural LDH less than 200 IU/L.
Infectious causes of pleural effusion?Viral. Fungal. Parasitic.
            Heart failure. Pericarditis. Superior vena cava obstruction. Postcardiac surgery. Myocardial infarction. Pulmonary
Cardiovascular causes of pleural effusion?
            Bronchogenic carcinoma.
Neoplastic causes of pleural effusion?Metastases. Lymphoma. Pleural or chest wall neoplasms (mesothelioma).
            Systemic lupus erythematosus.
Immunologic causes of pleural effusion? Rheumatoid arthritis. Sarcoidosis (rare). Wegener granulomatosis.
              cause of pleural effusion?
            Blunt pleural effusion?
Trauma causes ofor penetrating chest trauma.
            Cirrhosis (hepatic hydrothorax). Pancreatitis. Subphrenic abscess. Acute pyelonephritis. Ascites (from any cause).
Abdominal disease causes of pleural effusion?
            Drugs. Myxedema. Ovarian tumor.
Miscellaneous causes of pleural effusion?
            Transudative. Bilateral, right larger than left.
Pleural effusion from congestive heart failure features Isolated right effusion twice as common as isolated left effusion.
             CT that are fairly specific for of presence of an Loculations. Soft effusion
Findings on Thickening and enhancementthe parietal pleura. exudative pleuraltissue lesions along parietal pleura outlined by p
            Lung carcinoma. Breast with pleural effusion are, in order of frequency,
Tumors most commonly associatedcarcinoma. Pelvic tumors (ovarian fibroma = Meigs syndrome). Gastric carcinoma. Lympho
            Empyema: Oval. Oriented longitudinally. Thin. Smooth (split pleura sign). Obtuse chest wall angle. Compresses lun
Lung abscess versus empyema?
            Pleural effusion.
Most common intrathoracic manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis
            Malignancy. chylothorax are
Most common causes ofIatrogenic trauma. TB
            Left versus right chylothorax?
Left chylothoraxchylothorax: Injury to upper duct. Right chylothorax: Injury to lower duct.
            Communication between lung and pleural space. If bronchus involved, may result in empyema. If peripheral airsp
Bronchopleural Fistula
            Often occurs in young or
Primary spontaneous pneumothoraxmiddle-aged men. Predilection of taller individuals. Results from bleb or bulla rupture, us
            COPD. Asthma. Valsalva (cocaine, marijuana, labor). Sarcoidosis. Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Lymphangioleiomyo
Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Catamenial Rare recurrent pneumothoraces. Occurs with menses. Pleural endometrial implants. Treated with OCPs.
            Iatragenic trauma in mechanically ventilated patients.
Most common cause of tension pneumothorax
            Pneumonia. Pulmonary infarct. Trauma. Asbestos exposure (bilateral).
Causes of pleural thickening
            Visceral pleura: Hemothorax, Empyema (tuberculosis). Parietal pleura: Asbestos exposure (bilateral).
Causes of pleural calcification
            Benign: Fibroma. Lipoma.
Causes of pleural/extrapleural massesNeurofibroma. Malignant: Metastases (usually multiple). Mesothelioma (usually diffuse
              calcified pleural Most commonly suggests
Fluid withinActive empyema.layers seen on CT within patients with prior TB.
FibrothoraxPleural thickening extending over more than one fourth of the costal pleural surface. Commonly results from reso
            Metastatic adenocarcinoma (lung, breast, of four conditions:
Malignant pleural disease is most often caused by oneovary, kidney, GI tract). Invasive thymoma or thymic carcinoma. Mesot
             malignant Asbestos-Related Pleural Diseases
Benign and Benign: Pleural plaques. Pleural effusions. Diffuse pleural fibrosis. Malignant: Mesothelioma.
             Geographic opacities. Llikened to a holly leaf.
When viewed en face, calcified pleural plaques appear as
             Autosomal recessive disorder. Unilateral absence of sternocostal head of pectoralis major. Ipsilateral syndactyly. R
Poland syndrome
Most common benign neoplasm of chest wall
             Fibrosarcomas. Liposarcomas.
Most common malignant soft tissue neoplasms of the chest wall in adults.
             Askin tumor. Arises from primitive neuroectodermal rests. Very aggressive
A rare malignant neoplasm arising from the chest wall of children and young adults with a poor prognosis.
             Abscess. Hematoma. Lipoma. Hemangioma. Desmoid tumor.
Benign chest wall lesions
             Coarctation of aorta. Aortic thrombus. Takayasu arteritis. SVC syndrome. Neurofibromatosis.
Inferior rib notching causes
Suprior rib notching cause
             Osteochondroma. Enchondroma. Osteoblastoma.
Benign rib neoplasms, most common first
Most common primary rib malignancy
Rib malignancies common: Myeloma. Metastatic carcinoma. Primary malignancies: Chondrosarcoma. Osteogenic sarcoma. Fi
             Breast cancer. lesions to ribs
Most common metastatic Lung cancer.
             Renal metastases are Thyroid carcinoma.
Expansile lytic rib cell carcinoma. seen most commonly from
              metastases are most commonly
Sclerotic ribBreast cancer. Prostate cancer. seen in
             TB. Actinomycosis. Nocardiosis.
Pleuropulmonary infections that may traverse the pleural space and produce a chest wall infection include
Sprengel deformity hypoplastic and elevated scapula.
Klippel-Feil Sprengel deformity (hypoplastic, elevated scapula). Omovertebral bone. Fused cervical vertebrae. Hemivertebrae
             Rheumatoid arthritis: Well-defined pointed distal clavicle. Hyperparathyroidism: Irregular and wide distal clavicle
Erosion of the distal clavicles
             Sickle cell anemia.
H-shaped or Lincoln log vertebrae on lateral chest radiographs
             Renal osteosclerosis.
Rugger jersey appearance to thoracic spine on lateral chest radiographs
             Marfan syndrome. Poland syndrome. Osteogenesis imperfecta. Congenital such as
Pectus excavatum is commonly associated with congenital connective tissue disorders,scoliosis.
Pectus carinatum bowing of sternum. May be congenital or acquired.
              of the diaphragm
EventrationCongenital absence or underdevelopment of diaphragmatic musculature. Localized elevation of anteromedial hem
             Surgical injury or neoplastic involvement of
Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is usually caused by phrenic nerve.
             Neuromuscular disturbance. not effort related may be caused by
Bilateral Diaphragmatic Elevation that is Intrathoracic or intra-abdominal disease.
             Herniation through embryonic pleuroperitoneal canal. Neonates present with large hernias with lung hypoplasia a
Bochdalek Hernia
             Parasternal diaphragm defect. Invariably right sided. Asymptomatic cardiophrenic angle mass.
Morgagni Hernia
             Benign: Lipomas. Fibromas. Schwannomas. Neurofibromas. Leiomyomas. Echinococcal cysts and extralobar seque
Primary diaphragmatic tumors
             Usually seen in infancy.
Cystic adenomatoid malformation One or several large cysts lined with respiratory epithelium with scattered mucous glands
             Central bronchial mucocele with peripheral hyperlucency in a young, asymptomatic patient.
Bronchial atresia presentation
             Intralobar sequestration: Single large artery from infradiaphragmatic aorta. Pulmonary vein drainage. Extralobar
Intralobar and extralobar sequestration blood supply and drainage
             Variant of hypoplastic lung
Hypogenetic lung-scimitar syndrome with abnormal venous drainage to the IVC just above or below right hemidiaphragm. S
             Extensive bilateral aspiration pneumonitis
Three radiographic patterns ofairspace opacification. Diffuse but discrete airspace nodular opacities. Irregular parenchymal o
             Older patients with
Exogenous lipoid pneumonia swallowing disorders or gastroesophageal reflux. Use mineral oil as a laxative or inhale oily no
             Lupus-like syndrome (procainamide, isoniazid, hydralazine). Nitrofurantoin. Bleomycin. Methotrexate. Amiodaron
Drug that cause drug induced chest diseases
              diagnosis of hamartoma can a smooth or lobulated border
A confidentNodule less than 2.5 cm with be made when HRCT shows and containing focal fat. May have popcorn calcificatio
             Granular cell from neural elements in the central airways or lung parenchyma. The skin is the most common site f
Benign neoplasm arising myoblastoma.
             Most common type of lung cancer (nonsmokers, too). Arise from bronchiolar or alveolar epithelium. Irregular or s
Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma features
             Grows cell carcinoma (BAC)
Bronchioloalveolaralong bronchiolar and alveolar walls (lepidic growth). May appear as: Solitary nodule. Focal ground-glass op
             Arises centrally within
Squamous cell carcinoma featureslobar or segmental bronchi. Central necrosis with cavitation may be seen. Generally presen
             Arises centrally within main or lobar bronchi from bronchial neuroendocrine (Kulchitsky) cells. Hematogenous diss
Small cell carcinoma features
             Large peripheral mass.
Large cell bronchogenic carcinoma radiographic feature
             Asbestos exposure. Previous Hodgkin lymphoma. Radon exposure. Viral infection. Diffuse interstitial or localized l
In addition to cigarette smoke, well-recognized risk factors for the development of bronchogenic carcinoma include
             Resorptive atelectasis. Obstructive pneumonitis.
Most common radiographic findings from endobronchial tumor obstruction.
             pancoast tumors, histology type
Majority of SCC. Adenocarcinoma.
             Arm symptoms
Pancoast tumor pain and muscular atrophy due to brachial plexus involvement. Horner syndrome (ptosis, anhydrosis, miosis)
             Filling and BAC
CT angiogram signof airspaces with mucoid material produced by malignant cells creates low-density airspace opacification su
              Linear and reticulonodular opacities. Peribronchial cuffing. Subpleural edema or pleural effusion.
Typical radiologic findings of lymphangitic carcinomatosis
              Unilateral or asymmetric involvement to lung suggests lung cancer rather than
Helps distinguish lymphangitic carcinomatosis dueof lungs cancer from other metastases an extrapulmonary site.
              Disease of small cell lung cancer
Two patient groups limited to one hemithorax (limited disease). Contralateral lung or extrathoracic spread (extensive disease
              SCC > Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Two most common primary tracheal malignancies
              Masses > 2 malignancy
Tracheal mass size and cm are likely to be malignant. Less than 2 cm are more likely benign.
              Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoid
Other, less common primary tracheal malignancies tumor. Adenocarcinoma. Lymphoma. Small cell carcinoma. Leiomyosarcom
              Squamous cell carcinoma. Small bronchi include
Primary malignant neoplasms of the central cell carcinoma. Carcinoid tumor. Bronchial gland tumors (adenoid cystic carcinom
              Prefers right upper
Carcinoid radiologic features and middle lobes. Well-defined smooth or lobulated nodules or masses. Iceberg tumor: small
              Pulmonary hamartoma.
A benign neoplasm comprised of disorganized epithelial and mesenchymal elements normally found in the bronchus or lung.
              Thickened septal lines of lymphangiti carcinomatosis do not distort the pulmonary lobule.
A feature that helps distinguish lymphangitic carcinomatosis from interstitial fibrosis,
              Infiltration of pulmonary
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis interstitium by mature lymphocytes. CT findings: Diffuse ground-glass opacity. Poorly de
              Spectrum of entities. Ranging from benign
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) polyclonal lymphoid proliferation to aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphom
              Rare malignant tumor affecting children and young adults. Histology simulates fetal lung at 10 to 16 weeks’ gestat
Pulmonary blastoma
              Typical of pneumococcal pulmonary infection. Inflammatory process spreads via pores of Kohn and canals of Lam
Lobar pneumonia features
              Most common pattern of pneumonia. Typical of staphylococcal pneumonia. Inflammation centered around lobul
Bronchopneumonia features
              Viral and mycoplasma
Interstitial pneumonia features infection. Inflammatory thickening of bronchial and bronchiolar walls and pulmonary inters
              Thin walls. Rapid change in size. Generally develop during late phase of infection.
Pneumatoceles may be distinguished from abscesses by
Ranke complex Calcified parenchymal focus (Ghon lesion) and lymph nodel calcification. Primary TB.
Postprimary TBReactivation occurs in apical and posterior segments of upper lobes and superior segments of lower lobes. Ill-defi
Rasmussen Erosion of cavitary focus into pulmonary artery branch can produce an aneurysm.
Miliary TB May complicate primary or reactivation disease. Hematogenous dissemination. Diffuse bilateral 2- to 3-mm pulmo
              Aspergillus. Candida. Cryptococcus.
Opportunistic fungal lung pathogens
              Aspergilloma or mycetoma within preexisting cavities. Semi-invasive (chronic necrotizing) aspergillosis in mildly im
Aspergillus lung involvement
              Inside out: Endocyst, produces daughter cyts. Exocyst (chitinous layer), protective membrane. Pericyst, surroundi
Pulmonary echinococcal cysts are composed of three layers:
CT halo signDecreased attenuation surrounding a dense, mass-like opacity. Relatively specific for invasive aspergillosis in a neu
Most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infection.
               (Septal) Lines
InterlobularThin, short, 1- to 2-cm lines oriented perpendicular to and intersecting costal pleura.
               (septal) lines DDx:
InterlobularInterstitial edema. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis. Sarcoidosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (other forms o
               lines ILD DDx
IntralobularIPF (UIP). Asbestosis. Alveolar proteinosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
              Pulmonary edema. Sarcoidosis. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis.
Thickened fissures ILD DDx
              Pulmonary edema (smooth).
Peribronchovascular interstitial thickeningSarcoidosis (nodular). Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (smooth or nodular).
              Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP)/cryptogenic organizing
Centrilobular nodules ILD DDx
Subpleural lines ILD DDxIPF (UIP).
              Asbestosis. IPF
Parenchymal bands ILD DDx(UIP). Sarcoidosis.
Honeycombing(UIP). Asbestosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (chronic). Sarcoidosis.
               cysts ILD DDx
Thin-walledEosinophilic granuloma (EG). Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Tuberous sclerosis. Neurofibromatosis (pneumatocele
              Miliary tuberculosis or histoplasmosis. Hematogenous metastases. Silicosis/coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP
Micronodules, random distribution ILD DDx
              Sarcoidosis. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis. Silicosis/CWP.
Micronodules, perilymphatic distribution ILD DDx
              Desquamative DDx
Ground-glass opacities ILDinterstitial pneumonia. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. BOOP/CO
              Sarcoidosis. Silicosis/CWP.
Traction bronchiectasis ILD DDx
              Sarcoidosis. Silicosis. CWP. Radiation fibrosis.
Conglomerate mass ILD DDx
              5- to
Subpleural Lines 10-cm-long curvilinear opacities are found within 1 cm of the pleura and parallel the chest wall. Most often s
              Nontapering linear opacities, 2 to 5 cm in length. Extend from lung to contact pleural surface. Asbestosis. IPF. Sarc
Parenchymal bands
Honeycombing (6 to 10 mm) cystic spaces with thick (1 to 3 mm) walls. usually have shared walls . Usually in posterior subp
Thin-walledSlightly larger in diameter (10 mm) than honeycomb cysts. Uniform in size. Thinner walls. Do not share walls with
Micronodules to 3-mm. Sharply marginated. Round opacities seen on HRCT. Represent conglomerates of granulomas or tumo
              Granular appearance with maintained visibility of pulmonary vessels. Absence of air bronchograms. Desquamative
Ground-Glass or Hazy Increased Density
              Fibrosis causes
Traction bronchiectasis traction on the walls of bronchi, resulting in irregular dilation.
              Tuberculosis (postprimary). Chronic fungal infection (Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis). Sarcoidosis. Eosinoph
ILDs Upper zone distribution
              Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asbestosis. Rheumatoid lung. Scleroderma. Neurofibromatosis. Dermatomyositis
ILDs Lower zone distribution
                or increased lung volumes
ILDs normalSarcoidosis. Eosinophilic granuloma. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Tuberous sclerosis. Interstitial disease superim
ILDs Honeycombing pulmonary fibrosis. Sarcoidosis. Eosinophilic granuloma. Rheumatoid lung. Scleroderma. Pneumocon
ILDs miliaryTuberculosis. Fungi (Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Cryptococcosis). Silicosis. Metastases (Thyroid carcinom
              Sarcoidosis. node enlargement
Hilar/mediastinal lymph Lymphangitic carcinomatosis. Lymphoma. Hematogenous metastases. Tuberculosis. Fungal infectio
ILDs PleuralAsbestosis (plaques). Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (effusion). Rheumatoid lung disease (effusion/thickening). Ly
              Pleural effusion. Pleural Disease
Manifestations of Rheumatoid Lungthickening. Pericarditis. Pericardial effusion. Pulmonary fibrosis (basilar predominance).
Caplan syndromewalled cavitating lung nodules. Rheumatoid arthritis patients with hypersensitivity to inhaled dust particles
              Interlobular septal thickening. Ground-glass opacities. Honeycombing. Lower lung predominance. Patulous esoph
Scleroderma ILD findings
              Intrapulmonary vascular shadows.
Interstitial pulmonary edema CXR findings? Peribronchial cuffing. Tram tracking.
              Kerley A
Kerley A and B lines?lines thickening of central connective tissue septa. Kerley B lines thickening of peripheral interlobular sep
              Severe mitral regurgitation.
Alveolar pulmonary edema localized to the right upper lung may be seen in patients with
              LV failure. Mitral Hypertension and Pulmonary Edema
Causes of Pulmonary Venousvalve disease (Mitral stenosis, Mitral insufficiency). LA myxoma. Cor triatriatum. Obstruction of c
              Enlargement of pulmonary veins (progressive are
Radiographic findings of pulmonary venous hypertension dilation of horizontally oriented pulmonary veins). Redistribution of
ARDS          Respiratory failure due to increased capillary permeability edema. Associated with increased lung stiffness (nonco
              Shock. ARDS
Common causes ofSevere trauma. Burns. Sepsis. Narcotic overdose. Pancreatitis.
              Patchy findings
ARDS radiographic peripheral airspace opacities (12-24 hrs). Confluent bilateral airspace opacities with air bronchograms (day
              Head trauma. Seizure. Increased intracranial pressure.
Causes of neurogenic pulmonary edema
              Trauma. Bleeding diathesis. Infections (invasive aspergillosis, mucormycosis, Pseudomonas, influenza). Drugs (pen
Hemorrhage or hemorrhagic edema of the lung can result from
              Damage to alveolar and renal glomerular basement membranes by cytotoxic antibody.
Goodpasture syndrome
              Indistinguishable from
Idiopathic Pulmonary HemorrhageGoodpasture syndrome. Pulmonary hemorrhage and anemia in patient with normal renal f
                that can granulomatosis. hemorrhage
VasculitidesWegener cause pulmonarySystemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatoid arthritis. Polyarteritis nodosa.
D-dimer Sensitive, but not specific marker of venous thrombosis.
              Localized peripheral oligemia without infarction are
Most common radiographic findings in PEwith or without distended proximal vessels (Westermark sign). Peripheral airspace o
              Small pleural effusion and pleura-based
Radiographic features that suggest infarction in PE wedge-shaped opacity (Hampton hump).
              Air embolism. Macroscopic fat embolism. Methylmethacrlate embolization from vertebroplasty. Radioactive seed
Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism causes
              30 as a systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery exceeding
PAH is defined mm Hg.
              Enlarged main and PAH are
Typical radiographic findings ofhilar pulmonary arteries that taper rapidly toward lung periphery. RV enlargement.
              Interlobar proximal interlobar pulmonary artery (CXR) artery > 28.6 mm.
PAH measurements ofpulmonary artery > 16 mm. Main pulmonary and main pulmonary artery (CT)
              High cardiac output (anemia, thyrotoxicosis). Left-to-right shunts (ASD,
In addition to PAH, enlargement of the central pulmonary arteries may be seen in VSD, PDA, PAPVR).
              Enlargement of both central
Shunt vascularity on chest radiographs and peripheral pulmonary arteries.
              Chronic PEs. Vasculitis. Pulmonary arteriopathy resulting from long-standing increased pulmonary blood flow from
Disorders of the pulmonary arteries that produce PAH include
              Metastases. Granulomas.
Multiple pulmonary nodules of similar size and appearance are almost always
              Round is oval opacity
Pulmonary nodule or defined as 4 to 30 mm in diameter.
              Round defined as
Pulmonary mass isopacity greater than 3 cm.
               in a patient Hamartoma, Inflammatory lesion.
Differential Granuloma. under the age of 35, particularly a nonsmoker without a history of malignancy,
               patient over 35 years of age should never intralesional fat.
An SPN in a Benign pattern of calcification. Presence ofbe followed radiographically without tissue confirmation unless the les
              Between 1 month and 2 years.
Studies have shown that bronchogenic carcinoma has a doubling time of
                small disease, particularly granulomatous infection.
Presence ofBenignsatellite nodules around the periphery of a dominant pulmonary nodule is strongly suggestive of
                a halo of ground-glass opacity encircling an SPN in an immunocompromised, neutropenic patient should suggest
Presence ofInvasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
              Round atelectasis.
Comet tail of bronchi and vessels entering the hilar aspect of the mass, and associated with lobar volume loss is characteristic
              Healed granuloma from tuberculosis specific for
Complete or central calcification within an SPN isor histoplasmosis.
              Granuloma and allows confident exclusion of neoplasm.
Concentric or laminated calcification of an SPN
              Pulmonary hamartoma.
Popcorn calcification within a pulmonary nodule is diagnostic of
              Pulmonary hamartoma.
Fat within an SPN is diagnostic of a
             15 H.
Enhancement of malignant SPNs
             Thyroid masses. masses?
Most common thoracic inletLymphomatous nodes. Lymphangiomas.
             Well-defined margins. Continuity of mass with cervical thyroid. Coarse calcifications. Cystic or necrotic areas. Base
Intrathoracic thyroid goiter CT findings?
Lymphangioma? of dilated lymphatic channels. Cystic or cavernous form (cystic hygroma) is commonly discovered in infanc
             Thymic neoplasms.
Anterior mediastinal masses? Lymphoma. Germ cell neoplasms. Primary mesenchymal tumors.
             Thymomas may be encapsulated (noninvasive) or invasive. Thymic carcinomas, epithelial component shows signs
Thymoma versus thymic carcinoma
             Myasthenia gravis. Pure red cell
Thymoma-associated autoimmune diseases aplasia. Graves disease. Sjogren syndrome. Hypogammaglobulinemia.
Thymic cysts ongenital: Remnants of thymopharyngeal duct. Contain thin or gelatinous fluid. Acquired: Postinflammatory. Ass
Thymic massesThymoma. Thymic cyst. Thymolipoma. Thymic hyperplasia. Thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Thymic carcinoma. Th
Germ cell neoplasms (benign and malignant). Seminoma. Embryonal cell carcinoma. Endodermal sinus tumor. Choriocarcinom
             Lipoma. Hemangioma. tumors
Mesenchymal anterior mediastinalLeiomyoma. Liposarcoma. Angiosarcoma.
             is the most frequent site
_________ Anterior mediastinum. of a localized nodal mass in patients with Hodgkin disease.
             Retroperitoneal lymph node involvement in metastatic gonadal tumors.
A key in distinguishing primary from metastatic mediastinal germ cell neoplasm is the presence of
             malignant teratoma features on CT
Benign and Benign: round or oval and smooth in contour. Malignant: irregular, lobulated, or ill-defined margin.
             Foregut and mesothelial cysts. Tracheal and central bronchial neoplasms. Diaphragmatic hernias. Vascular lesions
Middle mediastinal masses
              for central calcification
Differential Mycobacteria. Fungus. of mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes on CT?
              for peripheral (eggshell)l calcification of mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes on CT?
Differential Silicosis. Sarcoidosis.
              for hypervascular mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes on CT?
Differential Carcinoid tumor/small cell carcinoma. Kaposi sarcoma. Metastases (RCC. Thyroid carcinoma). Castleman disease.
              for necrotic mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes on CT?
Differential Mycobacteria. Fungus. Metastases (SCC. Seminoma. Lymphoma).
              in lymph nodes of sarcoidosis and lymphoma/metastases?
Differences Sarcoidosis: Lobular lymph nodes that do not coalesce. Lymphoma/mets: May form conglomerate enlarged noda
             Angiofollicular lymph
Castleman disease also known as node hyperplasia.
             Anterior cardiophrenic angles. Right-sided lesions being twice as common as left-sided lesions.
Pericardial cysts most commonly arise in the
             Intercostal nerves: Neurofibroma. Schwannoma. Sympathetic ganglia: Ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuroblastoma. N
Three groups of neurogenic tumors of the posterior mediastinum.
             Neuroblastoma. Ganglioneuroma.
Most common posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors in children
             Neurofibroma. Schwannoma.
Most common posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors in adults
Multiple lesions in the mediastinum, particularly bilateral apicoposterior masses, are virtually diagnostic of
             Esophageal lesions.
Posterior mediastinal masses Foregut cysts. Vertebral lesion. Lateral thoracic meningocele. Pancreatic pseudocyst.
             Histoplasmosis (most common). TB. Radiation therapy. Drugs (methysergide). Idiopathic (autoimmune).
Causes of chronic sclerosing (fibrosing) mediastinitis
             Headache. Epistaxis.
SVC syndrome manifestations Cyanosis. Jugular venous distention. Edema.
             Substernal chest pain caused by intramediastinal extension of infection.
Ludwig angina describes
             Poststenotic dilation from enlargement incluce
Causes of unilateral pulmonary artery valvular or postvalvular pulmonic stenosis. Pulmonary artery aneurysms. Distension of
             Behçet disease and Hughes-Stovins syndrome
Rare vasculitides that may present with pulmonary artery aneurysms
             1-2-3 sign
Sarcoidosis 1: Right paratracheal. 2. Right hilar. 3. Left hilar lymph node enlargement
Coronary calcification is detected at angiography in ____% of patients with 50% diameter stenosis.
             50% diameter narrowing. Roughly predicts a which flow is restricted reduction.
A_____% diameter narrowing is the physiologic point at75% cross-sectional areaenough to result in ischemia under stress co
Cardiac MR Define location and size of previous myocardial infarctions. Demonstrate complications of previous infarctions. Estab
             rupture (may
Myocardial 3 to 14 days. occur ______ days after infarction.
             Onset is
Dressler syndrome typically 1 week to 3 months postinjury. Fever, chest pain, pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and pleuritis,
               myocardium versus stunned myocardium?
HibernatingHibernating: High-grade stenosis resulting in chronically ischemic myocardium. May act like postinfarction scar. Im
             Ischemic cardiomyopathy
Causes of dilated cardiomyopathies (most common cause): Chronic ischemia. Prior infarction. Anomalous coronary arteries
             Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility. Compliance to decreased compliance.
Ventricular LV thin. LV dilated. Decreased contractility. Normalfeatures of dilated cardiomyopathy?
             Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility. Compliance features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
Ventricular LV thick. LV normal to decreased. Increased contractility. Decreased compliance.
             Wall. Ventricular Cavity. LV cavity. Normal to decreased contractility. Severely decreased
Ventricular Normal LV wall. Normal Contractility. Compliance features of restrivice cardiomyopathy? compliance.
             Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility. Compliance features of Uhl anomaly?
Ventricular RV thin. RV dilated. Decreased contractility. Normal to decreased compliance.
             Concentric hypertrophy: may be diffuse, basic types:
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are divided into twomidventricular, or apical in distribution. Asymmetrical septal hypertroph
             May be familial (60%). Autosomal dominant with variable penetrance. Associated with neurofibromatosis and No
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causes?
              ASH (asymmetric septal hypertrophy)?
Features of Hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (>12 to 13 mm). Abnormal ratio of thickness of interventricular septu
             Infiltrative disorders: Amyloid. Glycogen storage disease. Mucopolysaccharidosis. Hemochromatosis. Sarcoidosis.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy causes
              disease should be ruled
What otherConstrictive pericarditis. out when considering restrictive cardiomyopathy?
             high signal in the myocardium on T2WIs.
MR finding in restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by amyloidosis or sarcoidosis?
             Cor ventricular
Defined as rightpulmonale. failure secondary to pulmonary parenchymal or pulmonary arterial disease.
             destructive pulmonary
Etiologies of cor pulmonale includedisease (pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). hypoxic pulmonar
Uhl anomaly cquired disorder in infants or adults. Also called arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Dilation of RV with m
             Left-to-right shunts. Poststenotic dilation secondary to pulmonary stenosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Mar
Enlargement of pulmonary outflow tract causes
              diagnosis for pulmonary venous hypertension (mitral
Differential Long-standingpulmonary arterial hypertension includesstenosis). Eisenmenger physiology (long-standing left-to-rig
             Left-to-right shunts. is caused by
Increased pulmonary blood flowHigh output states: Volume loading. Pregnancy. Peripheral shunt lesions (arteriovenous malfo
             Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. is caused by
Decreased pulmonary blood flow with a small heartHypovolemia. Malnourishment. Addison disease.
             Rheumatic heart usually
Mitral stenosis in the adult isdisease. caused by
             Left ventricular failure. Mitral stenosis. Mitral regurgitation. Aortic stenosis. Aortic regurgitation. Pulmonary veno
Causes of Pulmonary Venous Hypertension
             Mitral regurgitation.
Left atrial enlargement, left ventricular enlargement, and bulging of the atrial septum to the right.
             Intra-atrial thrombi are usually associated with atrial fibrillation, often secondary to rheumatic heart disease. Com
Cardiac thrombus features
              lipomas or lipomatous hypertrophy features
IntracardiacHigh T1 signal and fat suppression. Second most common benign cardiac tumor.
             50% of primary cardiac tumors. Most common primary benign cardiac tumor. Most (75% to 80%) are in LA. May m
Atrial myxoma features
             Atrial myxoma. Lipoma. Rhabdomyoma (50% to 85% of tuberous sclerosis). Fibromas (12% may calcify). Rare tera
Benign cardiac tumors
             10 to 20 times more common than primary cardiac tumors. Breast. Lung. Melanoma. Lymphoma.
Metastatic cardiac tumor features
             Angiosarcoma tumors
Primary malignant cardiac (most common). Rhabdosarcoma. Liposarcoma. Other sarcomas.
              pericardial disease features
ConstrictiveFibrous or calcific thickening of pericardium. Compromises ventricular filling through restriction of cardiac motion
              diagnosis cyst. Fat pad. Lipoma. Enlarged lymph
Differential Pericardialfor a cardiophrenic angle mass includesnodes. Diaphragmatic hernia. Ventricular aneurysm.
             Complete pericardium features
Congenital absence ofleft-sided absence (55%). Foraminal defects (35%). Total absence (10%). M > F. Complete absence: Hea
             Pneumoconioises (silicosis).
Noninfectious causes of miliary pattern Eosinophilic granuloma. Sarcoidosis. Metastases (Thyroid. Melanoma.)
             Frontal (200 volume visible mL). Decubitus (5 and
Minimal pleural effusionmL). Lateral (75on frontal, lateral, mL) decubitus chest radiographs
             Posterior junction line.
Which junction line, anterior or posterior, extends above the clavicles
             Refers cavity
Define pulmonary to a lucency located wtihin a nodule, mass, or focus of consolidation.
             Anteromedial, Lateral, segments (from
Order of the left lower lobe basilarPosterior (ALP). lateral to medial) on a frontal radiograph
             Lymph node enlargement.
DDx of subcarinal mass on radiograph Bronchogenic cyst. Left atrial enlargement.
             Parenchymal consolidation with
Classic primary TB chest radiograph findings mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement.
Ranke complexCombination of calcified lung nodule and calcified lymph nodes.
Ghon lesionLung nodule that is a residum of primary TB. Usually is calcified.
             Normal venous wedge pressures mm Hg. lines, effusions, and airspace opacities mm Hg.
At what pulmonary 12 mm Hg. Kerley lines 17do KerleyEffusion 20 mm Hg. Airspace opacity 25occur?
             Recurrent infections.
Complications of bronchiectasis Hemoptysis. Mucoid impaction. Atelectasis.
             Telangiectasias. AVMs. Aneurysms in multiple organ systems (Pulmonary. GI. Cutaneous. CNS)
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease)
             Wedge-shaped peripheral acute consolidation. Linear bands.
Parenchymal findings associated with foci ofPE
             of chronic consolidation may be seen in
Focal areas Lipoid pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. Lymphoma.
             Bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma.
Diffuse chronic consolidation can be seen in Alveolar proteinosis. Sarcoid. Lipoid pneumonia.
             Situs invertus. Bronchiectasis. Sinusitis.
Kartagener's syndrome (dyskinetic cilia syndrome) triad
             Multiple lung nodules or masses. Cavitation occurs 50%. Local or diffuse consolidation due to hemorrhage.
Wegener's granulomatosis lung findings
             LCH: Usually associated with nodules and variable appearing cysts. Spares costophrenic angles.
Help distinguish LCH from LAM
PCP findings xtensive ground glass opacities in a patchy or geographic pattern. 1/3 have upper lobe predominant cysts of vary
             Pneumonectomy space fails to fill with fluid. Abrupt decrease in air-fluid level in the pneumonectomy space. New
Bronchopleural fistula, postpneumonectomy should be considered if
             Shoulder pain. Horner's
Superior sulcus tumor symptoms syndrome (ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis). Weakness and atrophy of hand muscles.
             Any involvement of unresectable
Deems a superior sulcus tumor vertebral body, brachial plexus, subclavian artery.
Satellite nodules nodules adjacent to a lung mass. Suggests an infectious etiology.
              lipomatosis causes
MediastinalCushing's syndrome. Steroid therapy. Obesity.
             Form of
Rounded atelectasisperipheral lobar atelectasis that develops with pleural disease (commonly asbestosis). Volume loss. Come
             4 cm. 6 cm aorta aneurysm
Diameter of ascending significant risk of rupture.
Bulla versusBulla, sharply demarcated area of emphysema greater than 1 cm. Bleb, gas-containing space within visceral pleur
             Diffuse discrete pulmonary calcifications.
Chest radiograph finding in healed varicella pneumonia
             N0, No metastatic lymph nodes. N1, Metastatic ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes. N2, Metastatic ipsilateral mediastina
Nodal status and stage in NSCLC
             Neoplastic: Lung cancer (especially small cell carcinoma). Lymphoma. Metastatic carcinoma. Benign: Long-term IV
Causes of SVC syndrome
             90% Malignant lung neoplasms. Nonneoplastic: Cystic fibrosis. IPF. Localized fibrous lesions of the pleura
Neoplastic and nonneoplastic causes of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
             Double lucency sign. Displacement (>4 mm) of anterior and posterior (epicardial) pericardial fat by pericardial flui
Epicardial fat pad sign
             Interlobar fissures. Pulmonary vessels. Bullae. Areas of (transthoracic needle
What obvious structures should be avoided while planning a TTNB severe emphysema. biopsy)
             Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.
Peripheral consolidation (photographic negative of pulmonary edema)
             Pulmonary cavity
Sloughed lung within a gangrene. Closely associated with Klebsiella.
             Small airways disease.
Mosaic lung attenuation causes Chronic pulmonary embolism.
             Expiratory images demonstrate air-trapping in of mosaic attenuation
Distinguishes small airways disease of chronic PE in settingsmall airways disease.
             Mounier-Kuhn syndrome.
Congenital tracheobronchomegaly
             Central bronchiectasis. Mucous plugging (finger-in-glove). Atelectasis. Patchy migratory foci of consolidation.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis radiographic findings
             Nocardia. Aspergillus. Mucormycetes.
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis susceptible infections
             Intense and of the pleura enhancement pattern
Localized fibrous tumor homogeneous contrast enhancement.
             Healed varicella. Healed histoplasmosis. Silicosis. Calcified metastases.
Calcified fine lung nodules differential
             Areas of decreased lung attenuation with associated reducting in number and size of vessels. Bronchiectasis. Air t
CT findings of Swyer-James syndrome
             Blind-ending diverticulum arising from medial wall of bronchus intermedius. Rarely presents with recurrent infect
Cardiac bronchus
             Patchy bilateral airspace consolidation with peripheral, subpleural distribution. Poorly defined lung nodules in a p
Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia CT findings
             Severe veno-occlusive disease
Triad of pulmonarypulmonary artery hypertension. Evidence of pulmonary edema. Normal wedge pressure.
             Echinococcus cysts: Endocyst ruptures its contents within the ectocyst, floating on top of debris, like a water lily.
Water lily sign
              diagnosis for wall-to-wall heart?
Differential Tricuspid regurgitation. Pericardial effusion. Dilated cardiomyopathy.
             Hypertension. Annuloaortic dissection
Common predisposing factors for aortic ectasia: Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Bicuspid aortic valve. Aortic aneurysm.
             Left subclavian artery. Distal type B. B (Stanford) aortic
Anatomic structure separating Type A from Type Proximal type A. dissections
              findings associated Scoliosis.
Chest bone Pectus excavatum. with Marfan syndrome
             Marfan syndrome.
Pectus excavatum associationsEhlers-Danlos syndrome. Mitral valve prolapse. Homocystinuria. Hunter-Hurler syndromes.
             Coronary artery dissection (myocardial infarction). Carotid artery dissection (stroke). Pericardial hemorrhage (tam
4 life threatening complications of type A aortic dissection
             Pseudoaneurysm: aneurysms from pseudoaneurysms
Helps distinguish ventricle trueInferoposterior location. Narrow neck (less than 50%). Aneurysm: Anteroapical location. Wide
             Right aortic arch with (right or left is a vascular ring
Which aberrant subclavian artery aberrant left)subclavian artery. Left-sided ligamentum arteriosum completes the ring.
             Neoplastic: Bronchogenic carcinoma. Metastases. Lymphoma. Infectious: Fungal infection (histoplasmosis, fibr
Causes of SVC syndrome
             ASD. Tetralogy of Fallot. P(T)APVR.
Persistent left superior vena cava associations
             Overriding aorta. lesions
Tetralogy of Fallot. 4 primary VSD. Pulmonar infundibular stenosis. Right ventricular hypertrophy.
             Aorta. Right common carotid.Subclavian arteries. Pulmonary arteries.
Thoracic vessels. Takayasu arteritis involvement
             Cardiac surgery. Radiation therapy. Uremic pericarditis. Viral pericarditis (coxsackie). Tuberculous pericarditis.
Causes of constritive pericarditis
             Similar to aorta dissections: type
Treatment of intramural hematoma of aorta A (surgically) type B (medically).
             Sinus of valsalva aneurysm is focal dilation
Sinus of valsalva aneurysm versus aortic root dilation of one sinus of Valsalva, not entire root.
TAPVR types ype I: Supracardiac drainage. Snowman heart. Type II: Cardiac. Coronary sinus or right atrium drainage. Type III
             Atherosclerosis (penetrating ulcer). Infection. Trauma. Iatrogenic.
Aortic pseudoaneurysm causes
             Tetralogy of Fallot. Truncus arteriosus.
Mirror-image right aortic arch congential heart disease associations
             Right scimitar syndrome
4 components of lung hypoplasia. Hypoplastic right pulmonary artery. Right lower lobe systemic arterial supply. PAPVR from r
             Leftward deviation of the heart without deviation of mediastinum. Prominent left atrial appendage. Lung located
Partial congenital absence of the pericardium findings:
             syndrome associated with interruption of IVC
Heterotaxy Bilateral left-sidedness/polysplenia syndrome.with Azygous continuation
             Invasiveness. Extension outside of heart. Involvement of more than one chamber. Central necrosis or cavitation
Features that suggest a primary malignant cardiac tumor
             Left aberrant course
Pulmonary slingpulmonary artery arises from right pulmonary artery and courses between esophagus and trachea.
eased lung volumes. Upper lobe fibrobullous disease. Simulates postprimary fibrocavitary Tb or mycetoma formation.
d interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). DIP. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP).
c. 30% of cases associated with collagen vascular or immunologic disorder. Findings: Irregular septal or subpleural thickening. Intralobular
pacities, honeycombing, and traction bronchiectasis are uncommon.
 xide, chlorine). Collagen vascular disease (rheumatoid arthritis and SLE). Organ transplantation (bone marrow, lung, and heart-lung). Drug
 dation or ground-glass opacity with subpleural or peribronchial distribution. Scattered nodular opacities may be present.
 bular nodules with upper lobe predominance.
 asilar reticular opacities. Normal or midly decreased lung volumes. May have ground-glass opacities. Honeycombing is rare.
 itial fibrosis.
 cities. Scattered lung cysts. Normal to increased lung volumes. Pneumothorax is common
uscle. May obstruct lymphatics causing chylothorax. Poor prognosis.

is. Diffuse pleural fibrosis. Mesothelioma. Lung parenchyma: Interlobular septal thickening. Interstitial fibrosis (asbestosis). Rounded atele
ule calcification may occur. Egg shell calcification of hilar lymph nodes. Silicoproteinosis like alveolar proteinosis has increased susceptibi

rmophilic bacteria). Bird-fancier's lung (avian proteins). Acute and chronic forms. Chronic disease findings: Interlobular and intralobular in
   hilar lymph node enlargement and parenchymal disease 3. Parenchymal disease only. 4 Pulmonary fibrosis.
  cy and TB. Symmetric mid and upper lung reticulonodular opacities. Perilymphatic interstitial nodules, 3 to 10 mm.
 small nodules. In late stages may develop cysts or bullae. Risk of pneumothorax. Nodule-cyst evolution: Nodule to Cavitated nodule to Th
  s and kidneys. Discrete nodules or masses with central necrosis and cavitation. May mimic Goodpasture syndrome and idiopathic pulmon
n for women. Responds to corticosteroid therapy, improving within 4 to 7 days. Peripheral, homogeneous, ill-defined areas of consolidatio
 ral effusions. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltration with eosinophils may produce interstitial or airspace opacities.
  dosa. Allergic angiitis and granulomatosis.
 ides stercoralis).
 ir 20s to 40s. Bilateral symmetric perihilar airspace opacification. Crazy paving CT finding: Geographic ground-glass opacities with thickene
  cronodular opacities. So-called black pleura sign. Apical bullous disease is common.
  of cervical trachea.
 from right lateral tracheal wall within 2 cm of tracheal carina. Associated with congenital tracheal stenosis and aberrant left pulmonary ar
enign: Chondroma. Fibroma. Squamous cell papilloma. Hemangioma.
a. Relapsing polychondritis. Wegener granulomatosis. Tracheal scleroma.
 pulmonary fibrosis.
with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
tral bronchi of elderly men. Spares membranous posterior wall of trachea.
heobronchial tree, joints, and large elastic arteries. Diffuse smooth wall thickening of the wall of trachea and central bronchi with luminal
 a and central bronchi measure greater than 3.0 cm and 2.5 cm.
hronic bronchitis, Cystic fibrosis, Relapsing polychondritis).
  hial injury. Responds poorly to chest tube evacuation.
 Histoplasmosis or TB).
ping: Hyperinflation, Flattening or inversion of diaphragm, Attenuation of peripheral vascular markings. Prominence of the retrosternal ai
 e years. 50% have normal chest radiographs. Some patients show peribronchial cuffing or tram tracks.
  ricose bronchiectasis: cystic dilation interrupted by focal areas of narrowing. Cystic bronchiectasis: localized saccular dilation. Caused by c
 y with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Severe bronchiectasis. Hyperinflation with predominantly upper lobe bronchi
 lity. Situs inversus. Dextrocardia.

asis with mucus plugging, and circulating antibodies to Aspergillus antigen. Proximal upper lobe bronchiectasis with mucoid impaction. Fin
 of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis.
 ule. Upper lobe predominance. Associated with cigarette smoking.
  nchioles and peripheral alveolar sacs and alveoli. Predilection of lower lobes. Associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
obular region. Generally involves subpleural regions of upper lobes.
 portion of the lobule. Commonly associated with old granulomatous inflammation.
ms. Increased retrosternal airspace (panlobular > centrilobular). Bulla. Enlarged central pulmonary arteries. Right heart enlargement (centr
 with peripheral vascular attenuation and bullae. Pink Puffers. Increased markings: Increased linear parenchymal markings. Small airways

ociated with: Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Intravenous drug use. HIV infection. Vanishing lung syndrome.

ganic antigen.

e). Transplant patients. Drug reactions. Inhalation injury.
 Pleural LDH less than 200 IU/L.

Myocardial infarction. Pulmonary embolism.
ms (mesothelioma).
er granulomatosis.

 phritis. Ascites (from any cause). Splenic vein thrombosis.

mmon as isolated left effusion.
along parietal pleura outlined by pleural fluid.
 rome). Gastric carcinoma. Lymphoma.
e chest wall angle. Compresses lung. Requires drainage. Abscess: Round. Thick and irregular wall. Acute chest wall angle. Consumes lung.

 lt in empyema. If peripheral airspace (bronchiole) involved, may result in intractable pneumothorax.
 ults from bleb or bulla rupture, usually within upper lungs.
  histiocytosis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Necrotizing pneumonia. Abscess. Mechanically ventilated patients.
ants. Treated with OCPs.

 s exposure (bilateral).
 e). Mesothelioma (usually diffuse pleural thickening). Other: Loculated pleural effusion/empyema. Hematoma.

face. Commonly results from resolution of an exudative pleural effusion (including asbestos-related effusions), Empyema, or Hemothorax
 oma or thymic carcinoma. Mesothelioma. Rarely non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
 alis major. Ipsilateral syndactyly. Rib anomalies.

 a poor prognosis.


osarcoma. Osteogenic sarcoma. Fibrosarcoma.

 ervical vertebrae. Hemivertebrae. Kyphoscoliosis. Rib anomalies.
  Irregular and wide distal clavicle.

zed elevation of anteromedial hemidiaphragm in older individuals.

 rge hernias with lung hypoplasia and respiratory distress. Adults present with small hernias, mostly on the left side (liver thought to be pr
nic angle mass.
ococcal cysts and extralobar sequestrations may be found within the diaphragm. Metastatic invasion more common than primary maligna
 um with scattered mucous glands, smooth muscle, and elastic tissue. Round, air-filled masses that compress adjacent lung and mediastin
 atic patient.
monary vein drainage. Extralobar sequestration: Small branches systemic arteries and occasionally pulmonary arteries. Systemic venous d
e or below right hemidiaphragm. Small right hemithorax with diaphragmatic elevation or eventration. Dextroposition of heart. Herniation
opacities. Irregular parenchymal opacities that are not obviously airspace.
al oil as a laxative or inhale oily nose drops. Fat density opacity.
 mycin. Methotrexate. Amiodarone.
  fat. May have popcorn calcification.

alveolar epithelium. Irregular or spiculated appearance. ccur in the lung periphery.
tary nodule. Focal ground-glass opacity. May mimic pneumonia or bilateral nodular airpsace processes.
on may be seen. Generally presents as hilar mass and atelectasis.
lchitsky) cells. Hematogenous dissemination. Hilar/mediastinal mass.

n. Diffuse interstitial or localized lung fibrosis.

drome (ptosis, anhydrosis, miosis) from involvement of sympathetic chain. Shoulder pain from chest wall invasion.
w-density airspace opacification surrounding enhanced pulmonary arteries.
 pleural effusion.
 an extrapulmonary site.
 horacic spread (extensive disease).

mall cell carcinoma. Leiomyosarcoma. Fibrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma.
 d tumors (adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma).
  or masses. Iceberg tumor: small intrabronchial and large extraluminal soft tissue component.

se ground-glass opacity. Poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Thin-walled cysts. Associations: Sjogren syndrome. Hypogammaglobulinem
aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
etal lung at 10 to 16 weeks’ gestation. Tend to be extremely large at presentation.
a pores of Kohn and canals of Lambert to produce nonsegmental consolidation. Air bronchograms are common.
 ammation centered around lobular bronchi. Multifocal opacities produce patchwork quilt of scattered normal and diseased lobules. No a
chiolar walls and pulmonary interstitium. Peribronchial cuffing and reticulonodular opacities.

 r segments of lower lobes. Ill-defined patchy and nodular opacities. Cavitation usually indicates active and transmissible disease.

 Diffuse bilateral 2- to 3-mm pulmonary nodules.

 crotizing) aspergillosis in mildly impaired immunity. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenia. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergil
ve membrane. Pericyst, surrounding compressed, fibrotic lung.
 c for invasive aspergillosis in a neutropenic patient.

monary fibrosis (IPF) (other forms of usual interstitial pneumonia UIP).

 sis (smooth or nodular).
 ia (BOOP)/cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD).

Neurofibromatosis (pneumatocele). (emphysema).
al worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP). EG.

 rsensitivity pneumonitis. BOOP/COP. RB-ILD. Hemorrhage. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Alveolar pr

 arallel the chest wall. Most often seen in patients with asbestosis and, less commonly, IPF.
 eural surface. Asbestosis. IPF. Sarcoidosis.
  d walls . Usually in posterior subpleural regions. End-stage pulmonary fibrosis: IPF (UIP). Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Occasiona
 ner walls. Do not share walls with adjacent cysts. Cysts of LCH and LAM are usually evenly distributed from central to peripheral portions o
  lomerates of granulomas or tumor cells within the interstitium.
 f air bronchograms. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P carinii) pneumonia. Acute hypersensitiv
 omycosis). Sarcoidosis. Eosinophilic granuloma. Silicosis. Ankylosing spondylitis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (chronic). Radiation fibr
urofibromatosis. Dermatomyositis/polymyositis. Chronic aspiration.
 erosis. Interstitial disease superimposed on emphysema.
d lung. Scleroderma. Pneumoconiosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Chronic aspiration. Radiation fibrosis.
 sis. Metastases (Thyroid carcinoma, Renal cell carcinoma, Bronchogenic carcinoma, Melanoma, Choriocarcinoma). Sarcoidosis. Eosinoph
ases. Tuberculosis. Fungal infection. Silicosis.
  disease (effusion/thickening). Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (chylous effusion).
 y fibrosis (basilar predominance). Necrobiotic nodules (peripheral cavitating nodules, Caplan syndrome). Bronchiolitis obliterans (Hyperin
ensitivity to inhaled dust particles (coal, silica, asbestos).
ng predominance. Patulous esophagus.

 ning of peripheral interlobular septa.

a. Cor triatriatum. Obstruction of central pulmonary veins (fibrosing mediastinitis, pulmonary vein stenosis, pulmonary venous thrombosis
ulmonary veins). Redistribution of pulmonary blood flow to upper lungs.
 th increased lung stiffness (noncompliance).

acities with air bronchograms (days). Coarse reticulonodular pattern (week) that may resolve.

 udomonas, influenza). Drugs (penicillamine). Pulmonary embolism. Fat embolism. ARDS. Autoimmune diseases (Goodpasture syndrome

 mia in patient with normal renal function and urinalysis. No antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies.
 Polyarteritis nodosa.

ermark sign). Peripheral airspace opacification. Linear atelectasis.

m vertebroplasty. Radioactive seed embolization from prostate brachytherapy.

 hery. RV enlargement.

 reased pulmonary blood flow from left-to-right shunt.
ons. Cystic or necrotic areas. Baseline high CT attenuation (intrinsic iodine content). Intense enhancement (>25 H).
is commonly discovered in infancy and is often associated with : Turner syndrome and trisomies 13, 18, and 21.

epithelial component shows signs of frank malignancy.
. Acquired: Postinflammatory. Associations: AIDS, Prior radiation or surgery, Autoimmune conditions (Sjögren syndrome, Myasthenia gra
 ine tumors. Thymic carcinoma. Thymic lymphoma.
ermal sinus tumor. Choriocarcinoma.

 ill-defined margin.
ragmatic hernias. Vascular lesions.

d carcinoma). Castleman disease.

form conglomerate enlarged nodal masses.

t-sided lesions.
euroma. Ganglioneuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma. Paraganglionic cells: Chemodectoma. Pheochromocytoma.

e. Pancreatic pseudocyst.
 iopathic (autoimmune).

y artery aneurysms. Distension of pulmonary artery by thrombus or tumor.

ations of previous infarctions. Establish presence of viable myocardium for possible revascularization. Differentiate acute versus chronic myo

pericardial effusion, and pleuritis, with pleural effusion usually more prominent on the left. Dressler syndrome responds well to anti-inflam
May act like postinfarction scar. Improved function with revascularization. At risk for acute infarction. Stunned myocardium: Postischemi
ion. Anomalous coronary arteries. Long-term sequelae of myocarditis: Coxsackie virus. Toxins: Ethanol, Adriamycin, Doxorubicin. Metabo

ecreased compliance.

. Asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH), also known as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS).
 d with neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome. Secondary to pressure overload.
hickness of interventricular septum to left ventricular posterior wall (>1.3:1). Narrowing of left ventricular outflow tract during systole.
 s. Hemochromatosis. Sarcoidosis. Myocardial tumor infiltration.

monary disease). hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction resulting from chronic bronchitis, asthma, CNS hypoxia, upper airway obstruction. Ac
  ar dysplasia. Dilation of RV with marked thinning of anterior right ventricular wall. MR may show fatty infiltration of anterior RV free wal
monary arterial hypertension. Marfan syndrome. Takayasu arteritis. Idiopathic dilation of pulmonary artery.
 hysiology (long-standing left-to-right shunts). Pulmonary emboli. Vasculitides (rheumatoid arthritis or polyarteritis nodosa). Primary pulm
 shunt lesions (arteriovenous malformations). Hyperthyroidism. Anemia. Leukemia.

 tic regurgitation. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Congenital heart disease.

 y to rheumatic heart disease. Commonly occurs along posterior wall of LA. Left ventricular thrombi are usually secondary to recent infarct

 ost (75% to 80%) are in LA. May mimic rheumatic valvular disease clinically.
 omas (12% may calcify). Rare teratoma.
 oma. Lymphoma.

ough restriction of cardiac motion. Most common cause is postpericardiotomy. Other causes: Coxsackie B. Tuberculosis. Chronic renal fai
Ventricular aneurysm.
%). M > F. Complete absence: Heart is shifted toward the left, with prominent bulge of right ventricular outflow tract, main pulmonary art
hyroid. Melanoma.)

 taneous. CNS)

dation due to hemorrhage.
 phrenic angles.
per lobe predominant cysts of varying sizes and wall thicknesses
 the pneumonectomy space. New collection of air in previously opacified pneumectomy space. Contralateral mediastinal shift.
 ophy of hand muscles.

nly asbestosis). Volume loss. Comet tail (whorled bronchovascular structures).
taining space within visceral pleura.

 , Metastatic ipsilateral mediastinal and subcarinal lymph nodes. N3, Metastatic contralateral mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes.
c carcinoma. Benign: Long-term IV devices (catheters. pacemakers). Fibrosing mediastinitis (Histoplasmosis).
 ous lesions of the pleura
 ) pericardial fat by pericardial fluid.

 gratory foci of consolidation.

ze of vessels. Bronchiectasis. Air trapping on expiratory images.
rely presents with recurrent infections, hemoptysis, cough, and or dyspnea.
Poorly defined lung nodules in a peribronchiolar distribution.
wedge pressure.
 on top of debris, like a water lily.

 id aortic valve. Aortic aneurysm. Arteritis.

 ria. Hunter-Hurler syndromes.
oke). Pericardial hemorrhage (tamponade). Aortic valve rupture (aortic regurgitation).
rysm: Anteroapical location. Wide neck.
eriosum completes the ring.
 gal infection (histoplasmosis, fibrosing mediastinitis).

ackie). Tuberculous pericarditis.

 or right atrium drainage. Type III: Infracardiac. Portal vein, hepatic vein, or ductus venosus drainage (pulmonary edema due to obstructio

emic arterial supply. PAPVR from right lung.
eft atrial appendage. Lung located between aorta and pulmonary artery confirms diagnosis.

ber. Central necrosis or cavitation. Large pericardial effusion.
esophagus and trachea.
ma formation.

subpleural thickening. Intralobular lines. Honeycombing. Traction bronchiectasis. Typically most severe in peripheral and basal lungs.

 arrow, lung, and heart-lung). Drug reactions. Chronic aspiration.
s may be present.

neycombing is rare.

ibrosis (asbestosis). Rounded atelectasis. Bronchogenic carcinoma. Lower lung predominance.
oteinosis has increased susceptibility to TB.

s: Interlobular and intralobular interstitial thickening. Honeycombing, Traction bronchiectasis. May spare costophrenic angles.

3 to 10 mm.
 Nodule to Cavitated nodule to Thick-walled cyst to Thin-walled cyst.
e syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage. Tracheal or bronchial lesions may be present. c-ANCA positive.
us, ill-defined areas of consolidation that may parallel the chest wall

ound-glass opacities with thickened interlobular and intralobular septa. Prone to superinfection with Nocardia, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus,

sis and aberrant left pulmonary artery.

 and central bronchi with luminal narrowing.

Prominence of the retrosternal airspace. Complications: Pneumomediastinum. Pneumothorax, Subpleural blebs from expiratory air dissec

ized saccular dilation. Caused by chronic inflammation with cartilage damage and dilation. Localized bronchiectasis is most commonly a r
redominantly upper lobe bronchiectasis and mucus plugging.
ectasis with mucoid impaction. Finger in glove appearance.

 ntitrypsin deficiency.

es. Right heart enlargement (centrilobular). Loss of pulmonary capillary bed.
enchymal markings. Small airways thickening of chronic bronchitis. Bullae uncommon. Blue Bloaters.

 chest wall angle. Consumes lung. Antibiotics and postural drainage to treat.

usions), Empyema, or Hemothorax. Pleurectomy (decortication) may be necessary to restore function.
he left side (liver thought to be protective).

ore common than primary malignancy (Fibrosarcoma): Lower lobe bronchogenic carcinoma. Mesothelioma.
 press adjacent lung and mediastinum.

onary arteries. Systemic venous drainage (inferior vena cava, azygos, or hemiazygos veins).
extroposition of heart. Herniation of left lung anteriorly into right hemithorax.
ndrome. Hypogammaglobulinemia. Multicentric Castleman disease. AIDS.

normal and diseased lobules. No air bronchograms due to exudate within bronchi.

nd transmissible disease.

ergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in hyperimmunity.

g disease (RB-ILD).

galovirus pneumonia. Alveolar proteinosis.

sensitivity pneumonitis. Occasionally sarcoidosis.
om central to peripheral portions of upper lobes

i) pneumonia. Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Interstitial pulmonary edema.
umonitis (chronic). Radiation fibrosis from treatment of head and neck malignancy.

carcinoma). Sarcoidosis. Eosinophilic granuloma.

. Bronchiolitis obliterans (Hyperinflation) Pulmonary arteritis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right heart enlargement. Pulmonary hem

sis, pulmonary venous thrombosis). Obstruction of intrapulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease).

diseases (Goodpasture syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage, Wegener granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumato
jögren syndrome, Myasthenia gravis, Aplastic anemia).

erentiate acute versus chronic myocardial infarction. Evaluate regional myocardial wall motion and systolic wall thickening. Demonstrate glob

drome responds well to anti-inflammatory medications.
unned myocardium: Postischemic, dysfunctional myocardium without complete necrosis. Potentially salvageable.
Adriamycin, Doxorubicin. Metabolic conditions: Mucolipidosis. Mucopolysaccharidosis. Glycogen storage disease. Nutritional deficiencies:

ar outflow tract during systole.
oxia, upper airway obstruction. Acute and chronic pulmonary embolism. Idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Extrapulmonary diseases aff
nfiltration of anterior RV free wall. Premature death from early congestive failure or arrhythmias.

olyarteritis nodosa). Primary pulmonary hypertension.

usually secondary to recent infarction or ventricular aneurysm. Clots typically have low MR GRE signal, whereas tumors have intermediate

e B. Tuberculosis. Chronic renal failure. Rheumatoid arthritis. Neoplastic involvement. Radiation pericarditis.

outflow tract, main pulmonary artery, and left atrial appendage. Partial absence of the pericardium risks strangulation of cardiac structure

 teral mediastinal shift.
al or hilar lymph nodes.

ulmonary edema due to obstruction).
 n peripheral and basal lungs.

 e costophrenic angles.

ocardia, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and atypical mycobacteria.

ral blebs from expiratory air dissection.

onchiectasis is most commonly a result of prior TB. Generalized bronchiectasis is seen in cystic fibrosis. Central bronchiectasis: Allergic bro
pulmonary edema.
art enlargement. Pulmonary hemorrhage

c lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and polyarteritis nodosa).
wall thickening. Demonstrate global myocardial function with right ventricular and left ventricular ejection fractions. Demonstrate regional my

e disease. Nutritional deficiencies: Thiamin. Selenium). Infants of diabetic mothers. Muscular dystrophies.
 sion. Extrapulmonary diseases affecting pulmonary mechanics such as chest deformities, morbid obesity (pickwickian syndrome), neurom

whereas tumors have intermediate signal. Clots will not enhance.

 strangulation of cardiac structures. Surgical closure of partial defects is usually recommended.
entral bronchiectasis: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Cystic fibrosis. Bronchial atresia. Acquired central bronchial obstruction.
ractions. Demonstrate regional myocardial perfusion. Evaluate papillary muscle and valvular abnormalities.
y (pickwickian syndrome), neuromuscular diseases.
ed central bronchial obstruction.

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