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art nouveau word

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									The extensive use of iron and glass in Art Nouveau buildings was also rooted in 19th-century practice. In France
bizarre forms appeared in iron, masonry, and concrete, such as the structures of Hector Guimard for the Paris Métro
(c. 1900), The Art Nouveau architect's preference for the curvilinear is especially evident in the Brussels buildings of
the Belgian Victor Horta.

. In the Hôtel Van Eetvelde (1895) he used floral, tendrilous ornaments, while his Maison du Peuple (1896-99)
exhibits undulating enclosures of space. Decorative exploitation of the architectural surface with flexible, S-shaped
linear ornament, commonly called whiplash or eel styles, was indulged in by the Jugendstil and Sezessionstil
architects. The Studio Elvira at Munich (1897-98) by August Endell and Otto Wagner's Majolika Haus at Vienna (c.
1898) are two of the more significant examples of this German and Austrian use of line.
. Art Nouveau {ahr noo-voh'}, a French term meaning new art, refers to a style of
architecture, of commercial and decorative art, and, to some extent, a style of painting
and sculpture that was popular about 1900. Although the style was then thought of as
modern and was given the title "new art," it was adapted from older styles and art
forms. Much was derived from the Gothic and rococo and from the arts of Java and
Japan. The movement was also inspired by Celtic manuscripts and the drawings of
William Blake. Persian pottery and ancient Roman glass also served as models for
some Art Nouveau craftsmen.



 The Belgian architects Victor Horta and Henri Van de Velde introduced the works of
the English designers in a Brussels exhibition in 1892. They were considered very
advanced and were called "Style Anglais." Also, in 1892, when Horta designed a
home in Brussels for a Professor Tassel, he amalgamated these recent influences in a
linear design, a biomorphic whiplash, and thus created the first Art Nouveau
architecture. The French architect Hector Guimard was aware of the work of Horta
and Van de Velde, and in 1900, Guimard made brilliant use of Art Nouveau in his
design for the entrances to the new Paris subway system, the Metro. For some time
thereafter the style was called "le Style Metro." A Metro gate by Guimard is now in
the sculpture garden of New York's Museum of Modern Art.

One was the American architect Louis Sullivan, the teacher of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Sullivan made use of ancient Celtic designs, incorporating them in the decoration of
his otherwise functional buildings, such as the Auditorium Building (1889) and the
Carson Pirie Scott Department Store, both in Chicago. In Barcelona the Spanish
architect Antonio Gaud was another precursor of Art Nouveau. Employing medieval
Spanish traditions, Gaudi, like Sullivan, created a uniquely personal style. He
combined typical Spanish materials such as wrought iron and colorful tile with cast
concrete to create fantastic structures in an unusual Art Nouveau idiom. Gaudi's plans
and structural models for the still uncompleted Church of the Sagrada Familia (Sacred
Family), begun in 1883, show his power of invention as an engineer.

A rational architectural approach to the style was achieved by Charles Rennie
Mackintosh, a Scotsman

								
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