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TERRAZO FLOORING

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TERRAZO FLOORING Powered By Docstoc
					TERRAZZO FLOORING
TERRAZZO
FLOORING
What Is Terrazzo?
There is nothing new about terrazzo. It has been used as a flooring material
for at least 2000 years, dating back to the Golden Age of Rome. The word
itself is of ancient Italian vintage, derived from "terrace" or "terrassa." Over
the centuries it has been defined as a "form of mosaic flooring made by
embedding small pieces of marble in mortar and polishing."

To best understand terrazzo, first consider its ingredients -- marble and
portland cement. They are mixed together in a ratio of two parts marble and
one part cement. During the installation process additional marble chips are
sprinkled on the surface so that at least 70 percent of the exposed surface is
marble.

Terrazzo's marble surface is practically non-absorbent, so most materials
which stain simply do not affect it. But the cement binder is very porous and
absorbs stains easily. This is the portion of your terrazzo floor which requires
much care and protection.

If staining is likely to be a major problem in your home, investigate some of
the new epoxy, polyester, urethane or other synthetic resins which do not
contain cement. Resinous terrazzo compares in appearance with cement
terrazzo, but does not stain as easily. It also has the advantage of greater
strength, which permits its use in thin layers to form low-weight floors.
Terrazzo




.

Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam




Terrazzo wall at the Gamla stan metro station, Stockholm.

Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material.

Contents
[hide]

        1 Production
        2 Historical
        3 Archaeological
        4 References



[edit] Production




.
Terrazzo workers create attractive walkways, floors, patios, and panels by
exposing marble chips and other fine aggregates on the surface of finished
concrete or epoxy-resin. Much of the preliminary work of terrazzo workers is
similar to that of cement masons. Attractive, marble-chip terrazzo requires
three layers of materials. First, cement masons or terrazzo workers build a
solid, level concrete foundation that is 3 to 4 inches deep. After the forms are
removed from the foundation, workers add a 1-inch layer of sandy concrete.
Before this layer sets, terrazzo workers partially embed metal divider strips in
the concrete wherever there is to be a joint or change of color in the terrazzo.
For the final layer, terrazzo workers blend and place into each of the panels a
fine marble chip mixture that may be color-pigmented. While the mixture is
still wet, workers toss additional marble chips of various colors into each
panel and roll a lightweight roller over the entire surface.

When the terrazzo is thoroughly dry, helpers grind it with a terrazzo grinder,
which is somewhat like a floor polisher, only much heavier. Slight depressions
left by the grinding are filled with a matching grout material and hand-
troweled for a smooth, uniform surface. Terrazzo workers then clean, polish,
and seal the dry surface for a lustrous finish.[1]

[edit] Historical
Originally created by Venetian construction workers as a low cost flooring
material, the workers used marble chips from upscale jobs to create Terrazzo.
The workers would usually set them in clay to surface the patios around their
living quarters. Consisting originally of marble chips, clay, goat milk (as the
sealer), production of Terrazzo became much easier after the 1920s and the
introduction of electric industrial grinders and other power equipment.

Newly-set Terrazzo will not look like marble unless it is wet. That's where the
goat's milk comes in, acting as a sealer and preserving the wet and marble-
like look.

The central, common pavillion in the cadet area at the United States Air
Force Academy is made of terrazzo tiles, among a checkerboard of marble
strips. The entire area is referred to as "The Terrazzo".
[edit] Archaeological
Archaeologists use the word terrazzo to describe the floors of early neolithic
buildings (PPN A and B, ca. 9.000-8.000 BC) in Western Asia, that are
constructed of burnt lime and clay, colored red with ochre and polished. The
embedded crushed limestone gives it a slightly mottled appearance. The use of
fire to produce burnt lime, which was also used for the hafting of implements
thus predates the use of pottery by almost a thousand years. In the early
Neolithic settlement of Cayönü in eastern Turkey ca. 90 m² of terrazzo floors
have been uncovered. The floors of the PPN B settlement of Nevali Cori
measure about 80 m². They are 15 cm thick, and contain about 10-15 % lime.

These floors are almost impenetrable to moisture and very durable, but their
construction involved a high input of energy. Gourdin and Kingery (1975)
estimate that about 5 times the amount of wood is needed to produce the
required amount of lime, but recent experiments by Affonso and Pernicka
have shown that only the double amount is needed. But that would still
amount to 4.5 metric tons of dry wood for the floors in Cayönü, in what is an
only sparsely wooded environment today.

Other sites with terrazzo floors include Nevali Cori, Göbekli Tepe, Jericho,
and Kastros (Cyprus).

[edit] References
^ U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational
Outlook Handbook. 'Cement Masons, Concrete Finishers, Segmental
Pavers, and

Terrazzo Workers',
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                                       Poured in place
                                  vertical terrazzo columns




                                   Terrazzo being placed
Histor
y has
prove
n
Terraz
zo to
be
almos
t
indest
ructab
le.
With
proper
care it
may                      Terrazzo stair grinding
never
need
replacement. Terrazzo is a poured process that is
made up of aggregate and epoxy resin. Aggregate can
consist of marble, seashells, glass or granite. Epoxy
resin is a man made material, so most any color is
possible. Customers can choose a competitively
priced product with the option of many colors and
designs. From natural stone hues to vibrant reds,
ocean blues to raven black, Terrazzo lets you use you
imagination. Terrazzo is available to fit all requriments
Terrazzo is timeless. It's not tile...It's Terrazzo!

FIVE FACTS ABOUT TERRAZZO
1. Terrazzo can be used indoors or outdoors.
2. George Washington requested that terrazzo be used
in his home at Mt. Vernon.
3. In the late 1700's craftsmen brought the first concep
of Terrazzo from Europe to the USA.
4. Terrazzo means mosaic flooring.
5. It's not tile it's Terrazzo!
Keep Your Terrazzo Floors Beautiful

Terrazzo was widely used as a flooring material in Florida homes from the
50's to the 70's. It was often selected by families who were especially
concerned about economy, ease of care and durability. Terrazzo was used
successfully in entranceways, bathrooms, laundries, recreation rooms and
sometimes the entire house. It was suitable for any area of the home where
underfoot comfort, noise control or the special aesthetic effects associated at
that time with carpets and resilient floor coverings was not needed.

Today, terrazzo is making a come back as older homes in Florida are
remodeled. Many terrazzo floors were covered with wall-to-wall carpeting
when carpet became the "flooring of choice" in the late 60's to the mid-90's.
Now these floors are being uncovered and people, particularly in South
Florida, are appreciating them for their beauty, ease of maintenance and the
50's look.

There are few flooring materials in use today that require less care than
terrazzo. Yet, people have problems in maintaining it. Why is this? There are
perhaps two reasons: (1) a lack of understanding of the material and its
required care; and (2) neglect -- it requires so little care that we simply forget
it!

Protect Your New Floor
When the contractor installed your terrazzo floor, his final step should have
been to apply a penetrating sealer approved for terrazzo. In fact, the Florida
Terrazzo Association specifications state: "until it has been sealed, terrazzo is
unfinished material and, as such, should be carefully protected from possible
damage."

The penetrating sealer is absorbed by the cement, thus sealing the pores and
greatly reducing its absorptive qualities.
Proper protection for terrazzo, then, is internal rather than "on the surface,"
and makes waxing unnecessary. It is true that waxes will give temporary
protection to your terrazzo floor, but wax tends to wear off readily and also to
make the floor slippery. Too, if you keep a layer of wax over marble, you are
not allowing the floor to take on the natural sheen, or patina, which is
characteristic of terrazzo.

Resealing is necessary only when regular cleaning and polishing fails to
restore the soft sheen -- or when neglect has resulted in staining or heavy
build-up of soil.

Rejuvenate Old Floors
some way? Have harmful products been used? Or, do you have a terrazzo
floor that was not sealed properly? The result in any case is probably dingy,
dull, scuffed-looking floors. Then follow these steps to restore your terrazzo
floors to their normal lovely appearance:

  1. Use a good quality wax-stripping product to clean the floor thoroughly.
     Remove all foreign Possibly you have acquired an older home with
     terrazzo floors that have been abused in matter and old wax.
  2. Rinse very thoroughly, being sure all the cleaner is removed.
  3. Apply a thin coat of penetrating type of terrazzo sealer, following
     manufacturer's directions.
  4. When the floor is dry, buff with an electric polisher.
  5. Follow the general cleaning methods given below hereafter.

Follow These Cleaning Methods
  1. Clean as often as needed to keep grime and sand removed. Remember
     that soil acts as an abrasive and damages the floor.
  2. Use only neutral liquid cleaners (meaning those which are neither acid
     nor alkaline). For best results, use a commercial cleaner made
     especially for terrazzo. All-purpose household cleaners, soaps,
     detergents and wax removers usually contain one or more alkalis, and
     so should not be used on terrazzo. For general cleaning, use one cup of
       neutral cleaner with each three gallons of water -- or follow
       manufacturer's directions.
  3.   Wet mop the solution onto the floor, and allow to remain several
       minutes. Then mop up the dirt-filled solution, changing rinse water
       often. This helps to remove all soil and also does away with unsightly
       "moplines." Keep the floor wet at all times during the cleaning
       operation. Otherwise, dissolved soil dries back onto the floor. When the
       floor is dry, buff with an electric polishing machine, if you have one.
       Buffing helps restore the natural sheen on your floor.
  4.   To remove stubborn soil, periodically use an electric scrubbing machine
       with a stronger solution of the neutral cleaner.
  5.   Daily sweeping or dusting will mean easier weekly care and more
       attractive floors. Do not use an oiled mop or oily sweeping compound.
       Oils in any form can penetrate the surface and permanently discolor
       terrazzo floors.
  6.   Wipe up spilled materials quickly so staining has no chance to occur.

Remove Those Stains
No flooring material has yet been developed which is completely stainproof.
Properly sealed terrazzo is stain-resistant; and if you wipe up spills promptly,
you should have few problems with staining. However, some staining will
eventually occur, as with any other flooring material.

Ask yourself two questions before attempting to treat any stain:

  1. What caused the stain?
  2. What is the least harmful way of removing it?

Chemicals should be used only as a last resort in removing stains. Remember
that a certain method may be effective on the stain but harmful to the floor
itself.

Stain removers act in one of three ways: they either dissolve the substance
that caused the stain or they absorb or bleach the stain. Solvents such as
carbon tetrachloride dissolve grease, chewing gum and lipstick; absorbents,
such as chalk, talcum powder, blotting paper or cotton, absorb fresh grease
and moist stains; and bleaches, such as household ammonia, hydrogen
peroxide, acetic acid or lemon juice, discolor or fade stains.

Caution: Follow directions carefully when you use chemicals to remove
stains. And, always "remove the stain remover" as soon as its job has been
done. Remember that many of these substances are on the "Not recommended
list" for general floor care, but must be used if the stain is to be removed.

Try the following methods for some of the more common types of staining. Try
the first method listed first, and go to the second only if this doesn't work. For
unknown stains or heavy staining, consult a professional.

The chemicals listed may be purchased at drug stores or at chemical or
laundry supply houses. Where poultices are recommended, apply them about
one-half inch thick, and let the mixture dry thoroughly before removing.

Caution: Always wear rubber gloves when using the methods marked with an
asterisk (*).
Alcoholic Beverages

  1. Use liquid detergent and warm water.
  2. *Follow with denatured alcohol if stain remains.
  3. *Lay an absorbent cloth soaked in hydrogen peroxide directly over
     stain; put an ammonia-saturated cloth on top of this.
Blood

  1. Try cold clear water first, then add a few drops of ammonia.
  2. Wet spot with lukewarm water and sprinkle with powered malt. Let
     stand an hour and rinse.
Coffee

  1. Saturate an absorbent cloth with solution of one part glycerin and three
     parts water and lay over spot.
  2. *Apply a poultice of hydrogen peroxide and calcium carbonate.
   3. Apply a poultice of abrasive powder and hot water.
Fruit

   1. Use a powdered detergent and warm water.
   2. If rough spot results, rub with powdered pumice stone under a block of
      wood.
Grease or Oil

   1. Use a liquid detergent and warm water.
   2. Pour solvent on spot. Rub with clean, soft cloth.

Ink

   1. Use a liquid detergent and warm water.
   2. *Apply a poultice of two tablespoons sodium perborate in pint of water
      mixed with whiting into a paste. Repeat if necessary.
   3. Some blue inks respond to a treatment of strong ammonia water solution
      applied on a layer of cotton.
Lipstick

   1. Use a liquid detergent and warm water.
   2. *Lay an absorbent cloth soaked in hydrogen peroxide directly over
      stain; put an ammonia-saturated cloth on top of this.
Paint

   1. Use a liquid detergent and warm water.
   2. Pour solvent on spot. Rub with clean, soft cloth.

Rust

   1.   Apply a poultice made by mixing one part sodium citrate crystals to six
        parts water, mixed thoroughly with an equal amount of glycerin. Mix
        with whiting to form a paste stiff enough to stick to the surface in a thick
        coat. Allow to stand several days. Repeat process if stain remains.
Soft Drinks

   1. *Lay an absorbent cloth soaked in hydrogen peroxide directly over
      stain; put an ammonia-saturated cloth on top of this.
Tobacco

   1. Try lemon juice in water.
   2. *Lay an absorbent cloth soaked in hydrogen peroxide directly over
      stain; put an ammonia-saturated cloth on top of this.
   3. Apply a poultice of abrasive powder and hot water.
   4. Treat with equal parts of alcohol and glycerine.

Urine

   1. Apply a poultice of abrasive powder and hot water.
   2. *Lay an absorbent cloth soaked in hydrogen peroxide directly over
      stain; put an ammonia-saturated cloth on top of this.

Terrazzo Tile Installations

Wausau Tile will be happy to supply you with installation manuals for the installing
contractor's use. Technical consultants are also available to answer your questions and
assist installers.




Installation Methods - 09300 Specification Tile-Set Method
Terrazzo tiles are manufactured with a high-polished
surface and chamfered edges. Terrazzo tile is installed
following the Tile Council of America (TCA) specification for
installation - F111, F112 and F113. Expansion control -
EJ171 and crack isolation guidelines should also be
followed. The substrate must have a 1/8'' in ten foot
tolerance to maintain a quality installation.

Our Single Layer Thin Terrazzo Tile is not factory sealed, a
grout release needs to be applied to the tile prior to
grouting. After grout has dried follow manufacturers
instructions for removal of the grout release. Clean the floor
thoroughly with a neutral ph cleaner and apply the final
floor seal with a product compatible with cement terrazzo
following the sealer manufacturers instructions. Refer to the
architects specification for the specified maintenance
program.




Installation Methods - 09400 Specification Precast
Terrazzo Flooring Ground and Polished Method


Wausau terrazzo tiles have a honed finish with
square edges for use in the ground-and-polished
method. Terrazzo tile is installed following the Tile
Council of America (TCA) specification for installation
- F111, F112, and F113. Expansion control - EJ171
and crack isolation guidelines should also be
followed. The substrate must have a 1/8'' in ten foot
tolerance to maintain a quality installation.

Square edge tiles are set with a 1/16'' minus grout
joint. Grouting procedures allow grout excess on the
joint and tile. Tiles are then ground to remove all
lippage, resulting in a smooth, monolithic finish with
grout joints perfectly flush with the tile surface.

Final honing and polishing are based on the floor care
maintenance method you choose. Follow the floor
maintenance product manufacturers instructions for
the care of terrazzo tile. Terrazzo tile installation guidelines are available for
your use. Wausau Tile technical consultants are also available to answer any
questions.




Single Layer Terrazzo Tile Installation Guidelines
Maintenance Methods

Two basic types of terrazzo floor maintenance are recommended. Each has a varied
degree of maintenance time and cost. How you choose which method will be determined
by traffic, choice of terrazzo, and budget.




Terrazzo Tile Floor Finish - Water emulsion floor/sealer/finish


Standard terrazzo industry water emulsion floor sealer/finish can be applied to terrazzo
tile floors that have been installed in either the ground-and-polished 120 grit or factory
high-polished using the tile set method. Prior to applying the sealer, examine the area for
compliance with requirements for installation Do not proceed with final cleaning and
sealing until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected. Application and maintenance
must follow seal/finish manufacturer's recommendations.

Wausau Tile, Inc. recommends Johnson Wax Professional "Plaza Plus" for use on its
Precast Terrazzo Tile Flooring.
Terrazzo Tile Floor Finish - High polish with VIC Stone Medic System


Terrazzo tile floors that are field ground and polished for a monolithic installation or
factory polished for a tile set installation can be finished using a VIC Stone Medic System.
Finishing and maintenance must follow the VIC Program. Multiple impregnation methods
are available to help prevent deep staining.

Annual maintenance cost is one of the lowest in the terrazzo industry. The wear surface is
the terrazzo floor and not a topical seal applied to the terrazzo surface.

For additional assistance for this type of floor finish, you may call VIC directly at 800-423-
1634.

Select a thumbnail image to view the product detail.




    TG2220             TG2221            TG2222             TG2223




    TG2224             TG2225            TG2226             TG2227




    TG2228             TG2229            TG2230             TG2231
TG2232   TG2233   TG2234   TG2235




                  WA700    WA701


TG2236   TG2237




WA702    WA704    WA705    WA706




         WM720    WM722    WM724
WA707




WM725    WM726    WM727    WM728




WM729    WM730    WM731    WM732




WM733    WM734    WM735
                           WT2750




WT2751   WT2752   WT2753   WT2754
  WT2755             WT2756              WT2757             WT2758




  WT2759             WT2760              WT2761             WT2762




  WT2763             WT2764              WT2765




MUD-SET SYSTEMS
   3" Sand Cushion – Historically the most crack-resistant system. A dusting of
   sand is spread on slab to act as ball bearings; tar paper or polyethylene is put
   down as a slip sheet: a reinforced underbed is installed to within ½" of the finish
   floor elevation; 1 ¼" divider strips are anchored into the setting bed with the top
   edge at the finished floor elevation to form panels no larger than 6’-0" per side
   and the ½" Terrazzo Finish (Portland Cement and marble Chips) is poured the
   next day to a level slightly above the finished floor elevation set by the strips.

   The floor is allowed to cure four or five days and is then ground with a Terrazzo
   grinding machine using carborundum or diamond impregnated stones. A #24
   grit is used first to cut down to the level of the divider strips, then a #80 grit is
   used to remove deep scratches; the floor is then grouted to fill air and/or water
   voids (same as voids along the sides of a core sample from concrete slab). The
   cement grout leaves a skim coat on the surface and the Terrazzo is often left in
   this condition while other messy work is completed. The skim coat protects
   against casual scratching.

   The final polishing is done using either #110 or #220 stones, the Terrazzo is
   then washed and sealed with three coats of water based acrylic floor finish and
   sealer.

   Every divider strip in this system acts as a control joint to take care of
   anticipated shrinkage and/or movement at control joints in the slab. This means
   that spaces develop between the Terrazzo Finish and the Divider Strips rather
   than a random crack.

   2" Bonded Terrazzo- Similar to the typical mud-set ceramic or quarry tile. An
   underbed is installed 1 ½" thick over the slab with the 1 ¼" divider strips
   installed to within ½" of the finish floor elevation as in the Sand Cushion System
   and panels are no larger than 8’-0" per side. The rest of the installation and
   finishing is the same as the Sand Cushion.

   The divider strips acts like the score mark in a concrete sidewalk to control
   shrinkage and casual movement in the vicinity of the divide strip. However,
   concrete movement in the center of a panel will result in a crack.

   System requires 2" slab depression and weighs 20 lbs. per Square Foot.

THIN-SET SYSTEMS
   ½" Monolithic Terrazzo – The least expensive Terrazzo system. The slab is
   acid washed (no dustproofer-sealer-hardener compounds should be used) and
   control joints in concrete slab are acknowledged with back "L" strips ½" high.
   Additional divider strips are only decorative and/or to provide method of change
   Terrazzo color. We always use an epoxy-bonding agent to promote adhesion
   between the ½" Terrazzo Finish (same as Portland Cement and Marble Chips
   in the mud-set systems). The floor is then cured and finished as above.

   The best floor for the dollar. Although the Terrazzo will crack if the slab cracks,
   cracks are not a disaster or a failure. Cracks can be easily grouted to match the
   matrix and typically develop in the first year of building occupancy.

   Does not usually require a slab depression and weighs about 6 lbs. per square
   foot.

   3/8" Polyacrylate Modified Cement Terrazzo – Similar to ½" Monolithic
   Terrazzo in price, installation and lack of crack-resistance. The water is
     replaced with an acrylic (polyacrylate) emulsion and the same emulsion is used
     as a latex-bonding agent.

     System is vulnerable to bastardization. Thirty-two percent solids emulsion (the
     recommended strength) looks exactly the same as sixteen percent solids
     emulsions (one that has been cut fifty percent with water).

     ¼" Epoxy Terrazzo – a true resinous Terrazzo. The Epoxy Resin has about
     three times the chemical and stain resistance of the cementitious matrices
     above. Installed and finished as ½" Monolithic with Epoxy Bonding Agent as
     recommended by the manufacturer.

     The one-fourth inch system has about twice the tensile strength (crack
     resistance) of the cementitious types above. However the limited thickness
     severely limits the type of divider strip to the #16 gauge (1/16") white metal or
     brass and the maximum size of the marble chips is reduced from the usual #2
     (3/8") to the smaller #1 (1/4") with resultant change in texture.

     The concrete slab must have an effective vapor barrier placed directly below the
     slab for all on or below grade installations.

     The Epoxy Terrazzo is available in any color of the rainbow just like epoxy
     paint. Exotic aggregates such as glass or mother of pearl can be used to create
     unique visual effects. In addition, the Epoxy Terrazzo takes a great polish and
     the hard surface is easier to maintain.

     3/8" Epoxy Terrazzo – Allows the use of larger #2 Marble Chips to achieve the
     normal texture and full range of heavy top 1/8" to ¼" divider strip of White metal,
     Brass or Plastic. Price is comparable to the price for 3" Sand Cushion Terrazzo,
     but 3/8" Epoxy will have three times the tensile strength (crack resistance) of
     the cementitious thin-set Terrazzo. This system will actually fulfill the Architects
     dream and try to hold the building together as swell as retaining the three-fold
     increase in chemical and stain resistance.

Some of the factors increasing the price of Terrazzo are:
     Brass dividers in lieu of White Metal
     Wider ¼" strips in lieu of 1/8"
     Smaller panel size 2’x 2’ in lieu of 4’x 4’
     Color Changes in Terrazzo Topping – Checkerboard pattern being more
     expensive because of the increased number of linear feet of change
     Narrow (3") feature strips are expensive
     Narrow corridors cost more than wide corridors
     Diagonal divider strips are more expensive than orthogonal and curved are
     the most expensive
     Marble chip sizes larger than #2 (3/8")
     Exotic aggregates invariably cost more
Terrazzo Floor Tile                       Terrazzo Wall Tile                     Specs & Resources

Fritz Industries has over 40 years of     A time honored product has a new       Specifications .pdf format
experience producing the highest          application. Two new patterns,         Specifications .doc format
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Resilient Terrazzo Floor Tile.            marbles and granites. Wall Tile
FRITZTILE Installation Gallery                                                   Basic Installation Instruction
                                          WT 6100 Fluted Series                  Procedures for Sealing and
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used at high traffic areas for            Poz-Patch 1 Fast setting
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Advantages of Thin-Set Epoxies vs. Other Types of Terrazzo

The National Terrazzo & Mosaic Association says that epoxy terrazzo
is the best thin-set system available, offering the lowest maintenance
costs and the quickest pour-to-grind installation time.

There are a few other types of thin-set systems, such as polyacrylate
(a latex-fortified cement) and monolithic (a cement-based system with
a thin cross-section), but epoxy terrazzo is generally stronger and
more durable. Its also less prone to cracking, says Hardy.

The epoxy resin cures overnight and can be polished the next day,
permitting faster project turnaround. Traditional terrazzo may require
up to seven days of curing before polishing can begin. In addition to
the quick curing and finishing time, epoxy terrazzo is also lighter in
weight (only about 3 pounds per square foot installed) than thicker
cement-based terrazzos. This makes the material more suitable for
multistory use.

Other attributes of epoxy terrazzo include:

     Abrasion resistance
     Excellent stain and chemical resistance
     High impact resistance
     Thermal-shock resistance
     Does not shrink, permitting installation of larger monolithic
      sections
     The colors are permanent and will last the life of the floor without
      fading
     No need for depressed or recessed concrete slabs to
      accommodate the topping thickness
     Nonporous finish does not support bacterial growth, mold, or
      mildew
     Low maintenance (surfaces are seamless)
     Extremely durable, which translates into lower life-cycle costs
Terrazzo Floors-Care and Cleaning

Care
Traditional terrazzo is made of cement and marble with
extra marble chips on the surface. The cement portion is
porous and quickly absorbs stains. A more modern form,
made with synthetic resins such as urethane or epoxy as
the "binder", in place of cement do not stain as readily.
A penetrating sealer should be applied to new terrazzo
floors to seal the pores in the cement and thus retard
stains absorption. Resealing may be needed occasionally.

Cleaning
1. Clean as often as needed keep grime and sand
removed. Soil acts as an abrasive and damages the floor.

2. Use only neutral liquid cleaners (meaning those
which are neither acid not alkaline).

For best results, use a commercial cleaner made
especially for terrazzo. All-purpose household cleaners,
soaps, detergents and wax removers usually contain one
or more alkalis, and so should not be used on terrazzo.
For general cleaning, use once cup of neutral cleaner
with each three gallons of water-or follow manufacturers
directions.

3. Wet mop the solution onto the floor, and allow the
solution to remain several minutes. Then mop up the
dirt-filled solution, changing rinse water often. This
helps to remove all soil and also does away with
unsightly "moplines".
Keep the floor wet at all times during the cleaning
operation. Otherwise, dissolved soil dries back onto the
floor. When the floor is dry, buff with an electric
polishing machine, if you have one. Buffing helps restore
the natural sheen on the floor.

4. To remove stubborn soil, periodically use an
electric scrubbing machine with a stronger solution of
the neutral cleaner.

5. Daily sweeping or dusting will mean easier weekly
care and more attractive floors. Do not use an oiled mop
or oily sweeping compound. Oils in any form can penetrate
the surface and permanently discolor terrazzo floors.

6. Wipe up spilled materials quickly so staining has no
chance to occur.

This article was written by Anne Field, Extension
Specialist, Emeritus with references from Georgia
Extension bulletin Buying and Caring for Smooth Surface
Flooring: Masonry.

				
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