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FRBR_ RDA and the Semantic Web

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					FRBR, RDA and the Semantic Web


                Gordon Dunsire
 Presented at Libraries in the Digital Age (LIDA) 2009
           Dubrovnik and Zadar, Croatia
                   25-30 May 2009
Overview

   Semantic Web and Resource Description
    Framework
   RDA
   FRBR
   Future developments
   Impact on the catalogue record
Semantic Web

   Library “cataloguers” need assistance to keep
    up with the eruption of the Web
     Caused by computer and communication
      technologies
     Same technologies can provide solutions: the
      Semantic Web
     “… an evolving extension of the [WWW] in which
      the semantics of information and services on the
      web is defined.”
        Wikipedia, English, 12.46 21 May 2009
   The basic building block is Resource
    Description Framework (RDF)
Resource Description Framework (RDF)

  Simple metadata statements in the form
   of subject-predicate-object expressions,
   called triples
     E.g. “This presentation” – “has creator” – “Gordon
      Dunsire”
  “presentation” and “creator” are
   metadata structure terms
     Classes and properties
   “this ...” and “Gordon Dunsire” are metadata
    content terms
     Instances or values
Machine-processing

   RDF is about making machine-processable
    statements, requiring
     A machine-processable language for
      representing RDF statements
        Extensible Markup Language (XML) 
     A system of machine-processable identifiers for
      resources (subjects, predicates, objects)
        Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 
     For full machine-processing, an RDF statement is
      a set of three URIs
Identifiers

    Things requiring identification (a URI):
      Subject “This presentation”
         e.g. its electronic location (URL):
              http://cdlr.strath.ac.uk/pubs/dunsireg/LIDA2009.pps
      Predicate “has creator”
         e.g. http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator
      Object “Gordon Dunsire”
         e.g. URI of entry in Library of Congress Name Authority
          File: http://errol.oclc.org/laf/nb2001-72552.html
    Declaring vocabularies/values as
     “namespaces” in Semantic Web applications
     provides URIs
Semantic Web applications

   RDF Schema (RDFS)
     Expresses the structure of metadata classes and
      properties
   Simple Knowledge Organization System
    (SKOS)
     Expresses the basic structure and content of
      concept schemes such as thesauri and other
      types of controlled vocabularies
   Web Ontology Language (OWL)
     Explicitly represents the meaning of terms in
      vocabularies and the relationships between them
      (scope, etc.)
Library namespaces: RDA

   Resource Description and Access
     Successor to Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
   DCMI RDA Task Group is declaring RDA
    vocabularies in Semantic Web formats
     Using NSDL Metadata Registry tools
   Two types of vocabularies
     Metadata entities (elements, attributes)
        E.g. “Title”, “Content type”
        Represented as RDF Schema
     Metadata content (controlled terms)
        E.g. “spoken word” (instance of Content type)
        Represented in SKOS
RDA value in SKOS (part 1)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding = "UTF-8"?>                        XML namespaces
<rdf:RDF xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"             SKOS
xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"                NSDL Registry
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
xmlns:reg="http://metadataregistry.org/uri/schema/registry/">

:<!-- NOTICE: This is a single-concept fragment -->
:<!-- Scheme: RDA Content Type -->                                Vocabulary URI
:<skos:ConceptScheme
rdf:about="http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType">
::<dc:title>RDA Content Type</dc:title>
:</skos:ConceptScheme>
RDA value in SKOS (part 2)
                                                                           Term URI
:<!-- Concept: spoken word -->
:<skos:Concept rdf:about="http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType/1013"
xml:lang="en">
::<skos:inScheme rdf:resource="http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType"/>
::<reg:status rdf:resource="http://metadataregistry.org/uri/RegStatus/1002"/> Term
::<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">spoken word</skos:prefLabel>
::<skos:definition xml:lang="en">Content expressed through language in an
audible form.</skos:definition>
::<skos:scopeNote xml:lang="en">Includes recorded readings, recitations,
speeches, interviews, oral histories, etc., computer-generated speech,     Definition
etc.</skos:scopeNote>
::<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">gesprochene Worte</skos:prefLabel>
 <skos:scopeNote xml:lang="de">Umfasst aufgezeichnete Lesungen,
Rezitationen, Reden, Interviews, mündliche Überlieferungen usw. und maschinell
erzeugte Sprache.</skos:scopeNote>
::<skos:definition xml:lang="de">Inhalt, der durch Sprache in einer hörbaren Form
ausgedrückt wird.</skos:definition>
:</skos:Concept>                                               Term (German)
                                                    Registry status term URI
RDA value in SKOS (part 3)
:<!-- Status properties used in this document -->
:<skos:Concept rdf:about="http://metadataregistry.org/uri/RegStatus/1002">
::<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">New-Proposed</skos:prefLabel>
:</skos:Concept>                                          Registry status term URI
</rdf:RDF

                                                             Registry status term
Library namespaces: FRBR

   Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
    Records
     Metadata format model using entity-relationship
      structure
         Equivalent to class-property structure
   FRBR Review Group is declaring FRBR e-r
    vocabularies in RDFS
     E.g. “Work”, “has Expression” / ”is Expression of”
         Again, using NSDL Metadata Registry tools
   RDFS representation required to link RDA
    classes to FRBR classes
      E.g. “Content type” – “is Attribute of” – “Expression”
Future developments (1)

   FRBR and DC Scholarly Works Application
    Profile (SWAP)
     SWAP based on FRBR, but with some different
      terms and definitions
        E.g. SWAP:”copy” – OWL:sameAs – FRBR:“item”
        E.g. SWAP:”scholarlyWork” – SKOS:broader –
         FRBR:”work”
   FRAD, FRSAR, ISBD and other IFLA
    standards also considering RDFS and SKOS
   LCSH, LCNAF, DDC as well
Future developments (2)

   RDA/ONIX framework for resource
    categorization
     Ontology (faceted) for creating content and
      carrier categories
        E.g. Basis of the RDA content type vocabulary
   Announcement: Extension of the framework
    to develop an ontology of relationships
     Funded by UK’s Joint Information Systems
      Committee
     Covers relationships in RDA, FRBR, FRAD,
      CIDOC CRM and many others
   Plans to declare ontologies in RDF ...
     A short history
     of the evolution
of the library catalogue
          record
In the beginning ...



            Lee, T. B.

            Cataloguing has a future. - Audio disc
            (Spoken word). - Donated by the author.

                1. Metadata




                                ... the catalogue card
From flat-file record ...
 Bibliographic description                                Name authority
  Author:          Lee, T. B.                               Name:
  Title:           Cataloguing has a future                 Biography:
                                                            ...
  Content type:    Spoken word
  Carrier type:    Audio disc
                                                          Subject authority
  Subject:         Metadata
                                                            Term:
  Provenance:      Donated by the author                    Definition:
                                                            ...




                                       ... to relational record
From flat-file description ...
 Bibliographic description                            Name authority
   Author:                                             Name:           Lee, T. B.
   Title:          Cataloguing has a future            Biography:
 Work                                                  ...
  Content type:    Spoken word
   Author:
   Carrier type:   Audio disc
                                                      Subject authority
   Subject:
   Subject:
                                                       Term:         Metadata
 Expression
  Provenance:      Donated by the author               Definition:
  Content type:    Spoken word
                                                       ...
 Manifestation




 Item
                                              ... to FRBR record
From FRBR record ...

Work                                                Name authority
  Author:                                             Name:          Lee, T. B.
  Subject:
                                                     Subject authority
Expression
 Content type:      Spoken word                       Term:         Metadata

Manifestation                                       RDA content type
  Title:            Cataloguing has a future          Term:
  Carrier type:     Audio disc
                                                    RDA carrier type
Item
  Provenance:
  Donor:            Donated by the author             Term:

       Amazon/Publisher
           Title:
                                               ... to extinction!
Conclusion
   FRBR (a metadata structure model) and RDA (a
    metadata content standard) are closely connected
      RDA attributes are mapped to FRBR entities
   Declaration of structural components as RDFS
    classes and properties, and content values as SKOS
    vocabularies, will make FRBR and RDA compatible
    with the Semantic Web
   FRBR may thus act as a high-level virtual glue for
    linking metadata in the Semantic Web
   The Semantic Web may eventually lead to the
    extinction of stored catalogue records
      Replaced by a completely distributed “one record fits all”
      Equivalent to a single, but complex, RDF graph linking all
       metadata on the Web.
   Thank you

				
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