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Air Pollution Sources and Effects

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					Air Pollution Sources and Effects


    Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun
        00:30                         Percent Complete 100%
            What is air pollution?
       iRespond Question Master
    • The presence of any substances in the
     atmosphere in quantities which are or may
    Response
A.) be harmfulAor injurious to human health,
    Response B
B.) welfare, animal or plant life, or property or
    Response C
C.) unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment
    Response D
D.) of life or property.
E.) Response E
2
Outdoor Air Pollution
         00:30                      Percent Complete 100%
         Primary vs. Secondary Pollutants

  •
         iRespond Question Master
      Primary- put directly into air
      from polluting source.

  • Secondary- when primary
A.) Response A
    combines       with     other
    substances in air and creates
B.) Response B hazardous
    something more
    (acid rain, smog)
C.) Response C
  • Sun often provides energy.
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
       00:30                          Percent Complete
         Major Sources of Primary Pollutants 100%

       iRespond Question Master
 Stationary Sources

 • Combustion of fuels for power and heat.

 • Other burning such as wood & crop burning or forest fires

 •
A.)Industrial/ commercial processes
    Response A
 • Solvents and aerosols
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
 Mobile Sources

 • Response D
D.)Highway: cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles
 • Off-highway: aircraft, boats, farm equipment, and
E.) Response E
   construction machinery.
        00:30     Natural Sources             Percent Complete 100%




  •
        iRespond Questiondioxide
      Forest fires- ash, particulates, carbon
                                              Master
  • Volcanoes- ash, acid mist, hydrogen sulfide

A.) Response A
  • Decaying vegetation- sulfur cmpds

B.) Response BOrganic Cmpds (VOC’s)
  • Trees - Volatile
C.) Response C
  • Dust- from storms in arid regions
D.) Response D
  • Gut bacteria- methane gas
E.) Response E
Anthropogenic Sources
    of Air Pollution
        00:30   Criteria Air Pollutants          Percent Complete 100%




       iRespond Question Master
EPA uses seven "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality

     1. Sulfur Dioxide: SO2

     2. Nitrogen Dioxide: NO2

    3. Carbon A
A.) Responsemonoxide: CO
B.) Response B
    4. Lead: Pb

C.) Response CMatter:
    5. Particulate             PM10 (PM 2.5)

    6. Volatile
D.) ResponseOrganic Compounds: (VOCs)
                D
     7. Ozone: ground level O3
E.) Response E
        00:30    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)            Percent Complete 100%




        iRespond Question Master
• Effects: produces acid rain (H2SO4), breathing difficulties,
  eutrophication due to sulfate formation.

• Sources: burning high sulfur coal or oil in power plants,
  smelting or metals,
A.) Response A paper manufacture.

•B.) Response B ppm (annual mean)
  EPA Standard: 0.3
C.) Response C
• 2nd largest cause of air pollution-related health damage. (1st is
D.) Response D
  smoking).
E.) Response E
• Sulfate particles reduce visibility in the U.S. as much as 80%
     00:30                         Percent Complete 100%




     iRespond Question Master


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
         Sulfur
D.) Response D Dioxide Emissions
E.) Response E
       00:30   Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Complete 100%
                                    Percent




      iRespond Question Master
 • Effects: acid rain, lung and heart problems, decreased
   visibility (yellow haze), suppresses plant growth

 • Sources: fossil fuels combustion, power plants, forest
   fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil, fertilizers
A.) Response A
 • Response B
B.)EPA Standard: 0.053 ppm

 • Response C
C.)Excess nitrogen        is   causing    fertilization   &
   eutrophication of inland waters & seas
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
     00:30                                  Percent Complete 100%
             Mobile Source Emissions: Nitrogen
                          Oxides
     iRespond Question Master


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
       00:30
               Carbon Monoxide (CO)          Percent Complete 100%




       iRespond Question Master
• Effects: binds tighter to Hemoglobin (Hb) than O2, so
  organs do not get O2 needed, makes you sleepy, impairs
  mental functions and visual acuity, even at low levels

    Response A
A.)Sources: incomplete
•                        combustion of fossil fuels 60 - 95%
  from auto exhaust
B.) Response B
• EPA Standard: C
C.) Response 9 ppm
D.) Response D atmosphere/year
• 1 billion tons enter

E.) Response E
     00:30                    Percent Complete 100%
              Mobile Source
             Emissions – CO
     iRespond Question Master


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
       00:30                                   Percent Complete 100%
                          Lead (Pb)
• Effects: accumulates in tissue; affects kidneys, liver and
       iRespond Question Master
  nervous system (children most susceptible); mental
  retardation; possible carcinogen; 20% of inner city kids have
  high levels

A.) Response A
• Sources: particulates     from fuel combustion, smelters,
  batteries
B.) Response B
• EPA Standard: 1.5 ug/m3
C.) Response C
• Mercury- neurotoxin
D.) Response D from coal power plants
E.) Response&Elead
• Both mercury            travel on air currents and fall into
  aquatic      ecosystems causing bioaccumulation & bio-
          Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10) 100%
       00:30                           Percent Complete

• Effects: lung damage, carcinogenic.

       iRespond Question Master
• Sources: burning coal or diesel, volcanoes, factories, unpaved
 roads, plowing, lint, pollen, spores, burning fields

A.) Response A
• EPA Standard: 50 ug/m3 (annual mean)
B.) Response B
• PM2.5 is worse C
C.) Response because         small enough to be inhaled more
 deeply
D.) Response D
• Asbestos fibers &     cigarette smoke are most dangerous
E.) Response E
 respirable particles because they are carcinogenic
       Mobile Source Emissions: Fine Particulate Complete 100%
     00:30                                   Percent

                    Matter (PM2.5)

     iRespond Question Master


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
         VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) 100%
        00:30                       Percent Complete




       iRespond Question Master
• Effects: eye and respiratory irritants; carcinogenic; liver, CNS,
  or kidney damage; damages plants; lowered visibility due to
  brown haze; global warming

A.) Response A
• Sources: vehicles (largest source), evaporation of solvents or
B.) Response B
  fossil fuels, aerosols, paint thinners, dry cleaning, wetlands,
C.) Response C plants.
  rice paddies, bacteria,
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
• Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors
         00:30            Ozone (O3)            Percent Complete 100%




 •
                             Question Master
         iResponddamages plants, rubber, fabric, eyes
     Effects: lung irritant,



 • Sources: Created by sunlight acting on NOx and VOC ,
A.) Response A
     photocopiers, cars, industry, gas vapors, chemical solvents,
    Response combustion products
B.)incomplete fuelB
C.) Response C
 •
D.)Good ozone vs. bad
    Response D              ozone- good is in stratosphere and
     bad is at ground level (from cars)
E.) Response E
     00:30              Percent Complete 100%




     iRespond Question Master


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
       00:30     Other Air Pollutants       Percent Complete 100%




       iRespond Question Master
 Carbon dioxide- natural source from respiration; human
  caused from fossil fuels & deforestation

 ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFC’s)- from refrigerants, aerosols,
  Styrofoam

 Response building materials & household products
A.)Formaldehyde- A
 Response
B.)Benzene- paint B
C.) Response C building materials
 Asbestos- car brakes,

 Dioxins- pesticides
D.) Response D

E.)Cadmium- batteries.
    Response E
       00:30                                    Percent Complete 100%
  Formation & Intensity of Pollutant is influenced
                       by…
 LocaliRespond Question Master
         climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature,
  humidity)
 Topography (hills and mountains)
 Population density
A.) Response A
 Amount of industry
             B
B.) Responseby
 Fuels used           population   and   industry   for    heating,
  manufacturing, C
C.) Responsetransportation, power
 Weather: rain, snow, wind
                  D
D.) Responsewind speed)
 Buildings (slow
 Mass transit used
E.) Response E
            00:30                Thermal Inversion            Percent Complete 100%

  - occur in valleys
  -pollutant effects are intensified when air cannot
       iRespond cold upper air layer
  move upward due toQuestion Master
 cool air           Pollutants           cool air




A.) Response A
                                                    warm air (inversion layer)

B.) Response B
                      warm

C.) Response C         air




D.) Response D
• surface heated by sun                 • surface cools rapidly (night)
• warm air rises (incl. pollutants)     • a layer of warm air overlays surface
E.) Response E
• cools off, mixes with air of equal    • polluted surface air rises but cannot
  density & disperses                     disperse  remains trapped
     00:30                            Percent Complete 100%
               Smog Forms
      iRespond Question
   ...when polluted air is stagnant Master
     (weather conditions, geographic location)


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
        00:30                             Percent Complete 100%
                Urban Heat Islands

 •
         iRespond Question Master
     Cities are generally 3-5ºC warmer than rural
     areas

 • Response
A.)Caused by: A
    – Lack of vegetation to absorb heat
B.) Response B
    – Dark buildings & roads trap heat
C.) – Buildings create windbreaks
    Response C
D.) Response D
 • Dust Dome- trapping of dirt & particulates over
    Response E
E.)city
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
        What are some sources of indoor air100%
         00:30                     Percent Complete

                    pollution?
         iRespond Question Master
1. Cigarette smoke
   – Deadliest indoor air pollutant

   –   Contain      formaldehyde,
A.)   Response A
       carbon monoxide

B.)–Response B
     Causes lung cancer.

C.) Response C
   –    Second hand smoke may be
D.)     worse due
       Responseto particulates that
                   D
        come from tip.
E.) Response E
     00:30                     Percent Complete 100%

 2. Mold

     iRespond Question Master
   – Moisture in carpets



A.) Response A
     – Allergy    symptoms,
      breathing    problems,
B.) Response B
      headache, fatigue
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
       00:30                    Percent Complete 100%

3. Carbon monoxide

  –
       iRespond Question Master
      Malfunctioning furnace,
      gas appliances, cars

  – Blood cannot        carry
A.) Response A
     oxygen

B.) Response B
  – Feel sleepy, nausea,
     dizzy, cause death.
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
        00:30                      Percent Complete 100%

5. Asbestos

  –
       iRespond Question Master
      Roofing, flooring,
      insulation, brakes

  – OK… unless disturbed
A.) Response A
     or deteriorates

B.) Response B
 – Can cause asbestosis
    (scarring of lungs) and   Plaque build up (scarring)
C.) Response C                in lung w/asbestosis
    meso-thelioma (type of
    lung cancer)
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
      00:30                     Percent Complete 100%



6. Lead
     iRespond Question Master
  – Old homes, toys, lead
     crystal dishes
A.) Response A
B.)–Response behavior
     Causes  B             &
     learning problems, slow
C.) Response C
     growth,          hearing
     problems, D
D.) Responseheadaches
E.) Response E
         00:30                        Percent Complete 100%




7.
        iRespond Question Master
      Formaldehyde

      – Pressed wood, paneling,
        particle board, glue.
A.) Response A
B.) – Respiratory
    Response B          irritation,
       fatigue, skin rash, known
C.)   Response C
       to cause cancer

D.) Response D
E.) Response E
        00:30                   Percent Complete 100%

8. VOC’s
  – Paradichlorobenzene-
        iRespond Question Master
    mothballs, insecticides

  – (perchloroethylene))- dry
    cleaned clothes

A.) Response A
  – Benzene-          paints,
       cigarettes
B.) Response B
  – Causes     respiratory
C.) Response C headaches,
     problems,
       loss of coordination,
D.)   Response D damage,
       nausea, organ
       cancer
E.) Response E
Effects of Air Pollution
         on…

   1. Human Health
   2. Plant Health
   3. Acid Deposition
        00:30                            Percent Complete 100%
                  1. Human Health

 •
       iRespond Question Master
     Depends on intensity & duration of exposure,
     age & prior health status.

  • At-risk groups:
A.) Response A young, old, or already suffering
     from respiratory/cardiovascular disease.
B.) Response B
 • Also, more C
C.) Response active & outside vs. sedentary inside
     lifestyle.
D.) Response D
  • Most susceptible- less-developed countries use
E.) Response E
     smoky fires for cooking & heating
      00:30
                 Exposure         Percent Complete 100%




• Time iRespond Question Master less-
        spent in various environments in US and
  developed countries


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
      00:30   How is it introduced to body?
                                        Percent Complete 100%




•
        iRespond Question Master
    Inhalation

• Absorption thru skin
A.) Response A
• Contamination of food &
B.) Response B
  water
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
    How does air pollution affect people?
        00:30                           Percent Complete 100%




                Question Master
       iRespond coughing,
• Chronic bronchitis-
  trouble breathing

• Asthma- not caused by air
  pollution, but aggravated by it.
A.) Response A
• Response
B.)Emphysema- B lungs            lose
   elasticity, hard to breathe
C.) Response C
• Lung Cancer- caused by
   cigarettes,
D.) Response car   D       exhaust,
   particulates, asbestos, arsenic,
E.)radon
     Response E
        00:30                        Percent Complete 100%
  Sick building syndrome-
    – Buildings closed up to
      save energy- no circulation
       iRespond Question Master
    – Effects of fumes intensified

   – Symptoms: headache, eye
     or throat irritation, cough,
A.) Response A dizziness,
     itchy    skin,
     nausea, fatigue
B.) Response B
   – Feel better when you get
     fresh air outside.
C.) Response C
     ≥20% of workers
D.)–Response D must be
     afflicted to be classified as
      SBS
E.) Response E
       00:30        2. Plant Health       Percent Complete 100%




• Two Methods of Damage
       iRespond Question Master
   – Directly toxic
      • Irritate cell membranes

   – Disruption of plant hormones
A.) Response A
• Synergistic effects (when combined
B.) Response B
  two are worse than each individually)
  unpredictable
C.) Response C
• Air pollutant D
D.) Responseeffects on plants are
  sometimes confused with insect
E.) Response Ediseases.
  damage or other
3. Acid Deposition
      00:30                    Percent Complete 100%
              Measuring Acid Rain
      iRespond Question Master
 Normal rain is slightly
   acidic and has a pH
    Response A
A.)of about 5.0-5.6
B.) Response B
  Any rainfall with a pH
C.) Response C
   value less than 5.0 is
    Response rain
D.)defined as acid D
E.) Response E
          Two Forms…

• Wet                 • Dry
  Refers to acid        Refers to acidic
  rain, fog, sleet,     gases       and
  cloud vapor and       particles.
  snow.
     00:30                        Percent Complete 100%



     Increased Acidity
     iRespond Question Master
 • Dry deposited gases and particles can also
    be washed from trees and other surfaces
    by rainstorms.
A.) Response A
 • Response water adds those acids to the
B.) The runoff B
    acid rain, making the combination more
C.) Response C
    acidic than the falling rain alone.
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
        00:30
                      Compounds                 Percent Complete 100%




     iRespond Question Master
 Two main contributors to acid deposition:
 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
    – NO- nitric oxide (or nitrogen monoxide)
A.) –Response Adioxide
      NO2- nitrogen
    – N2O- nitrous oxide
B.) Response B
 66% of all sulfur dioxides and 25% of all
C.)nitrogen oxides comes from coal or oil electric
    Response
   power plants.C
D.) Response D
 Most nitrogen oxides come from cars
E.) Response E
     00:30              Percent Complete 100%




     iRespond Question Master


A.) Response A
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
         00:30   Effects of Acid Rain          Percent Complete 100%




      iRespond Question Master
 • The strength of the effects depend on many
   factors
    – How acidic the water is

A.) Response A of fish, trees, and other living
    – The types
        things that rely on the water
B.) Response B
    – The chemistry
C.) Response C and buffering capacity of the
        soils involved
D.) Response D
        • limestone & basalt have high buffering capacity
E.)   Response EANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity)
        • have high
      00:30
              Effects of Acid Rain                                                 Percent Complete 100%




      iRespond effects, includingliving things,
 Has a variety of Question Master to
                                    damage
  forests and soils, fish and other
  materials, and human health.
 Also reduces how far and how clearly we can see
A.)through theA air, an effect called visibility
    Response
   reduction.
B.) Response B rain are most clearly seen in the
 Effects of acid
   aquatic environments
C.) Response C
 Most lakes and streams have a pH between 6
    Response D
D.)and 8
E.) Response E              http://cica.indiana.edu/projects/Biology/movies.html
      00:30   Buffering Capacity        Percent Complete 100%




      iRespond affects sensitive bodies
 • Acid rain primarilyQuestion Master of
   water, which are located in watersheds whose
   soils have a limited “buffering capacity” (places
   that have granite bedrock or soil for example)
A.) Response A
 • Response B
B.) Lakes and streams become acidic when the
    water itself and its surrounding soil cannot
    Response C
C.) buffer the acid rain enough to neutralize it.
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
• In areas where buffering capacity is low, Percent Complete also
       00:30
                                              acid rain 100%
  releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams

•
                       Question Master
        iRespond toxic to many species of aquatic
    aluminum is highly
    organisms.

    – Can attach to fish gills causing suffocation
    Response from
A.) – Can release A soil particles & enter solutions taken
      up by plants causing death
B.) Response B
C.) Response C
D.) Response D
E.) Response E
        00:30                          Percent Complete 100%


                Acid Rain and Forests
•
       iRespond Question Master
    Acid rain does not usually kill trees
    directly.

• Response more likely to
A.)Instead, it isA
B.) Response B
    – weaken trees by damaging their leaves
C.) – limit the nutrients available to them
    Response C
D.) Response D
   – expose them to toxic substances slowly
     released from
E.) Response E the soil.
            Effects on Plant Nutrients
        00:30                      Percent Complete 100%




•
          iRespondthe
    Acidic water dissolves
                           Question Master
 nutrients  and    helpful
 minerals in the soil and
 then washes them away
 before trees and
A.) Response A other
 plants can use them to
 grow.
B.) Response B
•C.) Response C
  Acid rain also causes the
  release of substances
  that are toxic to D
 D.) Response trees and
  plants,       such     as
 E.) Response E soil.
  aluminum, into the
           Effects on Property
       00:30                       Percent Complete 100%




       iRespond Question Master
• Many statues, monuments,
  etc. made from limestone
  (CaCO3), marble or metal

• Acid rain can dissolve
A.) Response A rock or
  tarnish metal
B.) Response B
• Expensive      to     restore,
  refurbish, maintain
C.) Response C
• Car manufacturers
D.) Response D         now use
  acid-resistant paint at a cost
  of $5.00 per new vehicle
E.) Response E

				
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