Conceptualization of Groundwater Information System - Geospatial

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					Groundwater Data Management for Sustainable Agriculture
 and Groundwater Resources in Punjab State, India
                         Grant in aid project by
                        NRDMS, DST, New Delhi




                            L. Surinaidu
                      V.V.S. Gurunadharao
                          P.S. Acharya*
                         M. Venktrayudu
                        Ch. Appalachari
                  Ecology & Environment Group
             National Geophysical Research Institute
                (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
                        Hyderabad – 500 007

 * NRDMS, Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi -110016
                         January 2011
            INDIA




                                                                                  Legend
                                                                              District Boundary
                                                                              River
                                                                              Main canal
                                                                              Branch Canal
                                                                              District Headquarters
                      0 25 50   100   150   200                               Observation Well
              Scale                           Kilometers
                                                                              ERT

Location of Observation wells and ERT in Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Muktsar districts of Punjab
                                        Unsaturated/Dry sand


                                                 Slightly Contaminated zone




Electrical Resistivity Tomography image in Nagar village, in the Jalandhar district




                                                    Unsaturated/Dry sand


                                                          Saturated zone




  Electrical Resistivity Tomography image in Kalma village, in the Jalandhar district
                                           Unsaturated/Dry sand zone


                                             Saturated zone with fresh groundwater




Electrical Resistivity Tomography image in –village, in the Ludhiana district




                                               Saline sandy soil


                                                 Contaminated groundwater




 Electrical Resistivity Tomography image in –village, in the Muktsar district
32.1

                                                                                                                     N
 32
                                    R
                         R   IV E
                      VI
                 RA
31.9
                                        Ajnala


31.8
                                                                   Majitha
             Lapoke


31.7

                                                 Amritsar

31.6
                                                                                                     Bababakala



31.5
                                                            Tarantaran                      Jalalabad
                                                                              Khadursahib
             Khalra
                      Sursingh
31.4




                                                                                              R
                                                                                            VE
                                                                                            RI
                                                                                      AS
31.3                                                Patti




                                                                                    BE
31.2


                                                                                                 Observation wells
31.1                                                                                             July 08
                                                                                              Ground water level in m (amsl)

   74.5   74.6         74.7               74.8              74.9         75        75.1           75.2        75.3        75.4


                 Ground Water Level in m (amsl) Amritsar District, Punjab – July 2008
                        Concentration µg/l                                                                  Concentration µg/l




      0.000
              0.020
                      0.040
                              0.060
                                      0.080
                                              0.100
                                                      0.120
                                                              0.140
                                                                             0.160
                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                   0.020
                                                                                                           0.040
                                                                                                                   0.060
                                                                                                                           0.080
                                                                                                                                   0.100
                                                                                                                                           0.120
                                                                                                                                                   0.140
                                                                                                                                                              0.160
                                                                                                                                                                        0.180




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                                                                β-BHCNov08
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Introduction

Groundwater Information System has been developed with the purpose of
drafting information on groundwater levels and groundwater quality
that includes major Ions, Heavy Metals, Pesticide Residues.

Groundwater data model has a standard for Web based interoperable
Groundwater databases by State, District, and Villages

Model is a technology-neutral conceptual model, can form basis for a
web-based interchange format using evolving information technology
(e.g., UML, XML, GML) & Guides implementation of Ground water
databases in a common Conceptual Framework

XML/GML is used for exchanging information in decentralized, distributed
environment for storing, retrieving and updating
Purpose of Groundwater information system
Data sharing between Groundwater Data providers to Users to get
independent of local information system implementation

To give access to stake holders / users to update day to day field data
information

The Groundwater data model presents a conceptual data-model for the
Description, Classification & Interpretation

The model Emphasizes Groundwater concepts and Relationships
related to information presented on Groundwater Information System
Snapshot from Groundwater Information System of Amritsar and Jalandhar Districts Website
Snapshot from Groundwater Information System of Amritsar and Jalandhar Districts Website
Snapshot from Groundwater Information System of Amritsar and Jalandhar Districts Website
Switching over to OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Standards
                     (Open Source)


•   UML Models




•   XSD Schema




•   WFS/WMS Services through Geoserver
              WFS will generate data in GML
              WMS will generate Maps
            Rational Rose




       PostgresSQL/PostGIS


Geoserver


              Open layers
Conceptualization of Groundwater Information System
Step 1- Review of Groundwater Datasets:

    The task initiated & organized data sets of groundwater quality of
    Major Ions, Heavy metals, Pesticide Residues and groundwater level data
    collected in the field & analytes determined for 4 times at NGRI during
    last two hydrological cycles

Step 2 - Data Presentation:

   Available map Hydro Features have been digitized as .shp (ESRI shape files)
                         using Openjump (java unified mapping platform)

  Attribute data i.e., groundwater levels and water quality data etc., incorporated


   Groundwater related data sets as Point Features
       Ex: Groundwater observation wells, Groundwater levels & Water quality data

   Line Feature deployed for Groundwater Contours, Streams and Canals
   whereas Polygon Feature used for Rivers, Districts & State boundaries.
Conceptualization of Groundwater Information System




Step 3 - Data base incorporation:

          All feature classes have been stored into PostgresSQL

Step 4 - Data Model Design:

          UML Groundwater relational data model prepared using
          Rational Rose and converted into .XSD
Data Model Design

UML is an acronym for Unified Modeling Language; Unified Combines the
best from existing object oriented Software modeling methodologies & it is
primarily a graphical language that allows a Precise Syntax

In UML “class” is any “thing” in the enterprise that is to be represented in the
database

Each class is uniquely defined by its set of attributes, also called properties in
Object Oriented languages

Classes are depicted as Boxes with 3 Sections
         • Top one indicates the name of the class
         • Middle lists the attributes of the class
         • Third one lists the methods

UML class diagrams show classes of the system, interrelationships
viz., Inheritance, Aggregation & Association, Operations & Attributes of
Classes

Class diagrams used for a wide variety of purposes, include both Conceptual
/Domain Modeling & Detailed Design Modeling
 Associations

      Objects are often associated with or related to other objects Associations are
      modeled as Lines connecting the two Classes whose instances (objects) are
      involved in the relationship




Aggregation: Is a class type represents a collection of individual components
Generalization

     Generalization association between two classes puts them in a hierarchy
     representing the concept of inheritance of a derived class from a base class. In
     UML, Generalizations are represented by a line connecting the two classes, with
     an arrow on the side of the base class




Visibility

     In object-oriented design, there is a notation of visibility for attributes & operations

     UML identifies 3 types of visibility: Public, Protected & Private
Groundwater Data Model
                        Advantages

• The framework developed in the research could be used to
  empower local people and local governments in sustainably
  managing soil and groundwater resources for Sustainable Agriculture

• Avoids duplication of data and increase transparency of the data

• Sharable by GIS vendor packages

• Browsers capable of displaying GML/ SVG files

• User free to choose styling / cartography

• Usable on XML-enabled devices including PDAs or cell phones

• Improved quality of graphic displays

				
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