; Karen newspaper Oct-2012
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Karen newspaper Oct-2012

VIEWS: 409 PAGES: 20

  • pg 1
									atmufwdkbmv ? 2012ckESpf
                                                        u&ifowif;pOf
                                                                The Karen Monthly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                          vlŒtcGifhta&;
                                                                                                                                                                                               wdkif;&if;om;tcGifhta&;


                                                                                                                                                                           Volume(16), Issue(10)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         'Drdkua&pDta&;



    acgif;aqmifwGif;                                                                   aumhu&dwf-jr0wD awmifywf
   oabmxm;uGJvGJr_                                                                  um;vrf;topfazmuf&ef xdkif; ukr`%DrS
       oifykef;acs                                                                        r=umrD pwifawmhrnf
   vdkufa=umif; KNU
    xkwfjyefajymqdk
  atmufwdkbmv 27&uf?2012ckESpf/
  apmcg;pl;nm; (autdkifpD)
          trsKd;om;pnf;vHk;nD!$wfr_udk a&S;±_I tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; jzpf
ay:aeaom udpP&yfrsm;udk &if;ESD;yGifhvif;pGm aqG;aEG;+yD; oifykef;acsvdkuf
+yD;jzpfa=umif; u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk;-KNU u ,ae@ oabmxm;
xkwfjyefvdkufonf?
          u&ifjynfe,f/ zm;tHc±dkif autJef,lxdef;csKyfe,fajr av;0g;pcef;
Y atmufwdkbmv 25&ufrS 26&ufae@txd ðyvkyfaom autJef,l.
txl;ta&;ay: tpnf;ta0;odk@ A[dkt+rJwrf;aumfrwDESifh A[dkt&H
t+rJwrf; aumfrwD0if 40OD;wdk@ wufa&mufcJh=u+yD; xkwfy,fcH&aom
acgif;aqmif 3OD;. udpPudk tacstwif aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;aemuf ,if;odk@
oifykef;acscJh=ujcif; jzpfonf?                                                                                                                                                                 Photo-KIC
          autJef,l. wGJzuftwGif;a&;rª;(1) Adkvfrª;apmvSaiGu “xkwf
                                                                              atmufwdkbmv 27&uf? 2012ckESpf/                                        vuf&Sd oGm;vmaeonhf jr0wD=aumhu&dwf awmifay:vrf;a-umwpfae&m
y,fcH&wJh acgif;aqmifudpPudk aqG;aEG;wJhtcgrSm ol@bufu olrSef/ udk,fh
bufu udk,frSefeJ@ tjyeftvSef ajymqdkvdk@ rqHk;Edkifbl;? 'ga=umifh pnf;        zdk;cGg;av; (autdkifpD)
vHk;nD!$wfa&;udk a&S@±_+yD; oifykef;acsvdkufwm taumif;qHk;yJqdk+yD;awmh               u&ifjynfe,fawmifydkif;&dS        u&ifjynfe,f vrf;yef;qufoG,f                pDrHudef;udk tm&SzGH@òzd;a&;b%f.    u,fajy;qGJolwpfOD;u “vrf;t
tJ'Dacgif;aqmifawGudk rlv wm0efjyefay;+yD; 15}udrfajrmuf uGef*&uf            aumhu&dwf-jr0wD awmifywf                  a&;0ef}uD;        apmcifarmifjrifhu        tultnDjzifh xdkif;EdkifiH vrf;      opfazmufr,fqdk&if usaemfwdk@
txd qufvuf wm0ef,loGm;zdk@ oabmwlcJh=uw,f”[k autdkifpDodk@                   vrf; topfazmufvkyfrnfh pDrH               autkdifpDodk@ ajymonf?                     azmufvkyfa&;ukr`%D (pDqefuef        wuUpDajy;qGJolawGtwGuf wpf
ajymonf?                                                                     udef;udk xdkif;EdkifiH vrf;azmufvkyf               “vrf;azmufvkyfa&;                 ,dkx)u wm0ef,l vkyfaqmifay;         ae@udk wpfacgufESpfacguf awmif
          tqdkyg txl;ta&;ay: tpnf;ta0;wGif tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;                  a&;ukr`%D (pDqefuef,dkx)u                 twGuf toHk;ðy&r,fh puf,Eœ&m;               oGm;rnf jzpfonf?                    toGm;tjyef oGm;vdk@&w,f? tck
jzpfyGm;onfh oabmxm;uGJvGJr_rsm;rSm autJef,l zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'.          ,ckESpf aESmif;ydkif;wGif vkyfief;pOf     awG jr0wDbufudk a&mufae+yD;?                        vuf&dSaumhu&dwf-jr0wD      vrf;u odyfusif;awmh tEœ&m,f
tm;enf;csufomjzpfaoma=umifh ‚if;udk acgif;aqmifrsm;tm;vHk; wm0ef             jyefvnfpwifawmhrnfjzpf                    avmavmq,frSmawmh ajrawGudk                 awmifay:vrf;onf rdkiftuGmt          t&rf;rsm;w,f? aemuf vrf;u
cHum ausat;cJh=ua=umif;ESifh jynfwGif;jynfyrS u&ifjynfolvlxkrsm;             a=umif; od&onf?                           vdkuf+yD;awmh wdkif;xGmaew,f?              a0; 40rdkifcef@&dS+yD; 3em&Dausmf   t&rf;ysufawmh rdk;&Gm&if wpfvrf;
vnf; autJef,ltwGif; tkyfpkuGJr_udk rjzpfyGm;vdkajumif; Adkvfrª;apmvSaiG               vrf ; azmuf v k y f a &;onf      +yD;&if vrf;udkazmufr,f”[k apm             vrf;c&D; =umjrifhum ,ck pDrHudef;   vHk; csKdifhcGuf/ AGuftdkifawGyJ”[k
u jznfhpGufajymqdkonf?                                                       OD;pGmtaejzifh e,fajrwdkif;xGm+yD;        cifarmifjrifhu ajymonf?                    +yD;ajrmufatmifjrifygu c&D;t        ajymonf?
          ,ae@xkwfjyefonhf autJef,l. oabmxm;a=unmcsuft&                      oCFe;f nDaemifrS aumhu&dwtxd     f                 xdkif;-jrefrm ESpfEdkifiHacgif;   uGmta0;rSm oHk;yHkwpfyHk avsmhus            ‚if;pDrHudef;wGif jrefrmtif
vuf&Sdjzpfay:aeaom tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; tm;enf;csufrsm;udk acgif;                xkdif;tpdk;&rS vrf;a=umtopf               aqmifrsm; oabmwlnDcsufjzifh                vmrnfjzpfonf?                       *sifeD,mrsm;ESifh0efxrf;rsm;u }uD;
aqmifrsm;rS OD;pD;a&S@aqmifI n‡dEd_if;tajz&Smum tajccHvrf;pOfESifhtnD        azmuf v k y f a y;rnf j zpf o nf [ k      ðyvkyfonfh vrf;aqmufvkyfa&;                         aumhu&dwf-jr0wD qdkif      =uyfwm0ef,lay;rnfjzpf+yD; puf
twlwuG qufvuf csDwufoGm;=urnf[lI azmfjyxm;onf?                                                                                                                                                        ,Eœ&m;rsm;udk ESpfzufu|rf;usifol
          autJef,l. A[dkaumfrwD0ifwpfOD;jzpfol ref;+idrf;armifu                                                                                                                                       rsm;u udkifwG,fvkyfaqmifoGm;
“autJef,ltwGif;rSm jzpfyGm;cJhwJh yÉdyuQay:rSm wrsKd;om;vHk;u pdk;&drfr_                                                                                                                              rnfjzpfa=umif; u&ifjynfe,f
awG }uD;rm;pGm jzpfay:cJhw,f? 'DudpPawGudk usaemfwdk@ jyef=unfhwJhtcgrSm                                                                                                                              vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;0ef}uD; apm
tav;teufxm;+yD; a&&Snfvkyfaqmif&r,fht&mawGudk a&S@±_vkyf                                                                                                                                              cifarmifjrifhu qufvuf ajymqdk
aqmifoGm;wm jzpfygw,f”[k ajymonf?                                                                                                                                                                     onf?
          wpfqufwnf;rSmyif tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; jzpfyGm;cJhonfh acgif;                                                                                                                                            aumhu&dwf-jr0wD vrf;
aqmifrsm;. oabmxm;uGJvGJr_rsm;udk oifykef;acscJh+yD;jzpfI vmrnfh                                                                                                                                      azmufvkyfa&;pDrHudef;udk +yD;cJhonhf
A[dkaumfrwDtpnf;ta0;udk ,ckv 31&ufae@wGif pwif vkyfaqmifoGm;                                                                                                                                          2004ckESpfu pwif aqmif&Guf&ef
rnfjzpf+yD; xdkrSwqifh 15}udrfajrmuf nDvmcHudk Edk0ifbmv pwkwÎywf                                                                                                                                     pDpOfxm;cJhaomfvnf; u&iftrsKd;
wGif usif;yoGm;rnf[k cef@rSef;xm;a=umif; od&onf? ÔÔÔ                                                                                                                                                  om;tpnf;t±Hk;-KNU v_yf&Sm;
                                                                                                                                                                                                      &me,fajrjzpfonfhtwGuf e,fajr
                                                                                                                                                                                                      at;csrf;r_ r&dS[kqdkum 2005ckESpf
tarSmifnrsm;ukd                                                                                                                                                                                       wGif vkyfief;udk &yfem;xm;cJh+yD;
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ,ckrSom jyefvnf pwif&ef vkyf
                                                                                                                                                                                                      aqmifvmjcif;jzpfonf? ÔÔÔ
 ausmckdif;vsuf                                                                 Photo-KIC

                                          pmrsufESm-6 odkY ááá                                                       autJef,l. txl;ta&;ay: tpnf;ta0; usif;yaepOf

                                                                              ကရင္သတင္းဌာနမွ လစဥ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျဖန္႔ခ်ီသည္။
 atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
                                                                                                  u&ifwdkif;&if;om;wdk@. pnf;vHk;r_udk ròzdcGJoifh[k
 yÉdyuQ[lonf &ifqdkifae&OD;rnfht&m (t,f'Dwmhtmabmf)
           ae@pOf/ vpOf/ ESpfpOf tcsdefwdkif;jzpfysuf ajymif;vJaer_rsm;Y yÉd
                                                                                                      Oa&mya&muf u&ifuGef,ufajymqdk
yuQ/ jy\emrsm;rSm 'GefwGJyg0ifaeonfcsnf;omjzpfonf? odk@aomf T                       atmufwdkbmv 5&uf? 2012ckESpf/
yÉdyuQrsm;rSm ol@tvdktavsmuf ay:aygufvmjcif;r[kwfbJ zefwD;vkyf                      apmcg;pl;nm; (autdkifpD)
aqmifolrsm;ajumifhom jzpfvm&jcif; jzpfayonf?                                                   jrefrmtpdk;&ESifh axmufyHh   ±_wfaxG;atmif jzpfay:apw,f                          jref r mjynf w G i f ; od k @ 0if   ESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;r_wGif tay:
           jrefrmjynfwGif;. jynfwGif;ppf yÉdyuQrSmvnf; EdkifiHa&;tay:               ulnDay;aeaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;             qd k w maxmuf j ycsif w myg”[k            a&mufulnDay;aeonfh tzGJ@t                     atmuf cGJjcm;zJhxkwfpnf;±Hk;r_rsm;
tajccHum jzpfwnfcJh=u&if;u rwnf+idrfr_rsm;/ r+idrf;at;r_rsm;udk                     onf u&ifwdkif;&if;om;wdk@.pnf;          autdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?                    pnf;rsm;rSm KNU tm; today;t                   ðyvkyfum aemufqHk;wGif wyfr[m
ypPuQwftcsdefxd jrifawG@cHpm;ae=u&onf? vuf&Sdtpdk;&vufxufwGif                       vHk;nD!$wfa&;udk ròzdcGJoifha=umif;               +idrf;csrf;a&;jzpfpOfESifhywf   a=umif;r_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI yGifh              (7)rª;a[mif; Adkvfrª;csKyfapmxif
pD;yGm;a&;ydwfqdk@r_(pef&Sif)rsm; avsmhusvm+yD;aemufydkif; jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;        Oa&mya&muf u &if u G e f , uf -         oufI ,ckESpf Zefe0g&Dvu                   vif;jrifomr_ r&Sda=umif;ESifh vuf             armif rdciftzGJ@tpnf;rS cGJxkwf
vkyfief;wGifEdkifiHjcm; &if;ESD;jrêyfESHr_rsm;udk vrf;zGifhay;cJhonf? ,if;cGifhðy   EKNrS ,refae@u a=unmcsuf                KNUESifh tpdk;&wdk@. oabmwlnD             &Sd tpdk;&. vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;onf              oGm;onfh om"u&SdcJh+yD; ,ckvnf;
csufrsm;. tusKd;qufoufa&mufr_rsm;tjzpf pdkufysKd; v,f,majrrsm;/                     wpfapmif xkwfjyefcJhonf?                csuf 11csufESifhtnD tpdk;&onf             'Drdkua&pDbufodk@ OD;vSnfhaeonf               tvm;wl yHkpHrsKd;awG@&a=umif; y'dk
O,smOf+cHrsm;/ bdk;bGm;ydkifajrvGwfajr±dkif;rsm;udk t"rRodrf;qnf;cH&r_ ydkrdk                  u&iftrsKd;om; tpnf;          KNU           taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;         [kqdkaomfvnf; u&ifa'owGif                     apmaZmfaemifu jznfhpGufajymqdk
rsm;jym;vmcJhovdk ajr,mtjiif;yGm;r_ wdkifcsufrsm;udk !êdEd_if;&eftwGuf              t±Hk;-KNU A[dku ‚if;. A[dkt             aemfpDzdk;&mpdef        OD;aqmifonfh      odomxif&Sm;onfh ajymif;vJr_                   onf?
tpdk;&u ajr,myÉdyuQ ajz&Sif;a&;aumfrwDwpf&yf zGJpnf;cJh&onf?                        vkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@0if 3OD;jzpfonfh       A[dktzGJ@udk pepfwus awG@qHkaqG;          rsm; rawG@&a=umif; y'dkapmaZmf                           EKN u ‚if;wdk@. a=u
           tajymif;tvJaumif;wckudk jrifawG@vdkonfqdkygu pD;yGm;a&;o                 AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rlwl;ap;zdk;/ A[dk w&m;   aEG;ouJhodk@ wpfzufYvnf; A[dk             aemifu qdkonf?                                nmcsufed*Hk;wGif u&ifvlrsKd;rsm;
rm;rsm;taejzifh rdrdvkyfydkifcGifhtay: &&Sdrnfh tusKd;tjrwf wpfckwnf;udk            a&;Xme wm0efcH y'dka';Apfaxm/           XmecsKyfodk@ owif;ray;bJ ‚if;wdk@                   jrefrmEdkifiH +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyf    &ifqdkifóuHawG@ae&onfh jrefrm
omrjrifbJ vlom;qdkif&m ydkifqdkifr_/ tcGifhta&;rsm;udkvnf; av;pm;                   usef;rma&;ESifh u,fq,fa&;Xme            ESifh oGm;a&mufawG@qHkonfh KNU            ief ; pOf w G i f u l n D a y;aeonf h         tpdk;&. aoG;cJGoyfo#Kd acsrGzsufqD;
                                                                                    wm0efcH y'dka&m*smcifwdk@ukd tzGJ@      ppfzufacgif;aqmif AdkvfcsKyf}uD;          Myanmar Peace Support Initia-                 jcif;/ ,Ofaus;r_ESifh vlrsKd;wkH;apjcif;
vdkufem vkyfaqmifoGm;oifhonf? rdrdwpfbdk@ aumif;pm;a&; twGufom
                                                                                    tpnf;rS csrSwfxm;onfh pnf;rsOf;         apmrlwl;ap;zdk;udk awG@qHkjcif;rSm        tive . vkyfaqmifcsufonf u&if                  ponfhtjzpfrsm;udk t+rJowd&Sd=u
±_jrifI vkyfoGm;rd+yD;rS jzpfay:vmonhf yÉdyuQ/ jy\emrsm;udk enf;vrf;
                                                                                    pnf;urf;rsm;udk azmufzsufr_jzihf        cGJxkwfonfhoabmaqmifa=umif;               wdkif;&if;om;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh              &ef vdktyf+yD; KNU . ppfrSefaom
aygif;pHk &SmazG}uHq ajz&Sif;ae&jcif;onf wkdif;jynfwpfcktwGuf aumif;
                                                                                    [lI wm0ef&yfpJa=umif; owif;             olu qufajymonf?                           wkdifyift}uHay;r_rsm; &,lr_r&Sdjcif;          +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf óud;yrf;tm;
aom&v'fr[kwf? rðyrSDu jyifqifoifhonf?
                                                                                    xGufay:+yD;aemuf EKN rS ,if;odk@                  qufvufI jrefrmtpkd;&            wdk@a=umifh oHo,pdwfrsm;ykdI}uD;              xkwfr_rsm;udk qufvufaxmufcH
           aiGa=u;ydkifqdkifol vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfolvlwef;pm;rsm;
                                                                                    a=unmcsuf xkwfjyefcJhjcif;jzpf          taejzifh u&ifvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHw    xGm;ap+yD; axmufyhHoifhonfht&m                tm;ay;oGm;rnf[k xnfhoGif;xm;
onf vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh EkdifiHwumtawG@tóuHaygif;pHkudk od&Sdxm;=u
                                                                                    onf?                                    umokd@ ppfrSefaom +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh     rsm;udk rðyvkyfbJ zm;tHqufqH                  onf?
aomfvnf; omrefvlxk. a&&Snfb0 xdcdkufepfemr_udk vHk;0 rxnfhwGuf
                                                                                               EKN . ajymcGifh&yk*~dKvf     aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;udk tvkd&Sdonf[k           a&;±kH;cef;     zGifhvSpfjcif;twGuf                      Oa&mya&muf u&ifuGef
=uolrsm;jzpfonf?ArmjynfwGiftkyfpdk;olrsm;om OD;pm;ay;cH/ tav;pm;cH/
                                                                                    aemfa0;EdkifiHa&muf y'dkapmaZmf         az:jyvdkygu ,cifusifhoHk;cJhonfh          axmufyHhulnDaejcif;onf KNU                    ,uf-EKN udk 'def;rwf/ qGD'if/
t±dkaocH&olrsm; jzpfaeonhf usifh0wfqdk;rSm ESpfaygif;&Snf=umpGm acguf
                                                                                    aemifu “jrefrmtpdk;&[m KNU              aoG;cJGtkyfcsKyfaom enf;AsL[m             . ppfrSefaom +idrf;csrf;a&; az:               aemfa0;ESifh t*FvefEdkifiHa&muf
±dk;usKd;vmcJhaom pepfysuf/ pepfqdk;wpfrsKd; jzpfonf? tpdk;&om ajr,m
                                                                                    eJ@ awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJ vkyfaqmifwJh     a[mif;}uD;udk &yfwef@um zm;tHY            aqmifr_vkyfief;pOftwGuf t[ef@                 u&iftoif;tzGJ@rsm; pkaygif;I zGJ@
ydkifqkdifonf[k rSwf,lxm;olrsm;a=umifh omreftvkyform;/ v,form;
                                                                                    ae&mrSm r±dk;om;bl;? aemufwpf           zGifhvSpfcJhonfh w&m;r0if qufqH           twm;jzpfEdkifonf[kvnf; EKN                    pnf;xm;onfh            uGef,uftzGJ@
vlwef;pm;rsm;rSm aep&majrr&Sd/ cdkp&mt&dyfr&Sd jzpf=u&onf?
                                                                                    csufu EdkifiHjcm;uay;wJh tul            a&;±kH;zGifhaejcif;udk wm;jrpfoifh        a=unmcsufY azmf jyxm;onf?                     tpnf;wpfck jzpfonf?
           ukvor*~ twGif;a&;rª;csKyfu atmufwkdbm 25&ufwGif &yf
                                                                                    tnD[m yGifhvif;jrifomr_r&SdbJeJ@        onf[k EKN a=unmcsufwGif                            xdk@tjyif 2004ckESpf ppf                            ÔÔÔ
wef@&ef awmif;qdk&onftxd xyfrH jzpfyGm;cJhonhf &cdkifjynfe,frS
                                                                                    usaemfwdk@ tzGJhtpnf;(KNU)udk           yg&Sdonf?                                 tpdk;&vufxufuvnf; KNU
t=urf;zufr_tjyif vufyef;awmif;awmif a=u;eDpDrHudef;udpP/ ucsifppf
ajy;'kuQonfrsm;. 'kuQ/ e,fpyfa'o zGH@òzd;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;. vl@tcGifht
a&;csKd;azmufr_/ tcGeftwkyfjy\em/ tvkyfvufrJhjy\emESifh 'kuQonf
ta&;t&mrsm;rSmvnf; jynfwGif;ppf csKyf+idrf;aponfh uEœm& Armjynf.
                                                                                       autJef,lA[dktqifh jy\emrsm;udk awG@qHkaqG;aEG;
+idrf;csrf;a&; tdkatppftwGuf vSrf;vufp ajcvSrf;rsm;udk aESmifhaES;=uef@
=umaponf?
                                                                                              ajz&Sif;Edkifa&; vkyfaqmifoGm;rnf
           xdkaESmifhaES;r_rsm;&Sdaeonhf tcsdefumvtwGif; wdkif;jynfudk csKd@        atmufwdkbmv 12&uf? 2012ckESpf/
wJh/ qkwf,kwf/ ysufpD;/ ,dk,Gif;apcJhonfh EdkifiHa&;pepfESifh vlr_yÉdyuQ '%f        eef;ol;av (autdkifpD)
aygif;pHkudk cHpm;vmcJh&onhf wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;rSm qufvufI xkom;                             u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk;(KNU) A[dktqifhwGif vwfwavm                      ESifhtwl ‚if;pnf;urf;rsm;udk vdkufem&rnf[k a&;om;xm;onf?
ayom;uspGm &ifqdkifoGm;ae&OD;rnfjzpfonf? odk@jzpf&m tpdk;&taejzifh                  jzpfysufaeonfh jy\emrsm;ESifh ywfoufI qufoG,fr_rsm;&&Sdum                                  xdk@tjyif autJef,lESifh ywfoufI xGufay:aeaom owif;rsm;
vnf; vGwfvyfonhf jynfol@qENrsm;ESifhtwl tay:,HrqefpGm vufawG@                       tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;oGm;Ekdifa&;udk tcsdef,lI qufvuf vkyfaqmifoGm;                 rSm r[kwfrrSefa=umif;ESifh acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifhvnf; u&ifwrsKd;om;
usus/ apwemrSefrSef 'dk;wlabmifzuf ajz&Sif;vkyfaqmif oGm;=uapcsifyg                 &rnfjzpfa=umif; KNLA wyfr[m(7)rS wm0ef&Sdol wyfrª;wpfOD;u                         vHk; tusKd;a&S;±_I pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;ESifh jy\emrsm;udk awG@qHkajz&Sif;ae
onf?                                                                                ajymonf?                                                                          =ua=umif;vnf; u&ifjynfolvlxkwpf&yfvHk; odap&ef autJef,lA[dkrS
                                      ÔÔÔ                                                     ‚if;wyfrª;u “usaemfwdk@ tcsif;csif; qufoG,fvdk@vnf; &oGm;               a=unmcsufwpfapmifudk ,refae@u xkwfjyefcJh+yD; jzpfonf?
                                                                                    yg+yD? a&S@quf+yD;awmh tckjzpfaewJh jy\emawGudk tm;vkH; awG@qHk=u+yD;                      ,cifu tzGJ@tpnf;wGif; &SdcJhonhf uGJ+yJr_rsm;a=umifh wrsKd;om;
             u&ifowif;pOf                                                           taumif;qHk;jzpfatmif ajz&Sif;oGm;=uawmhrSmyg”[k ajymonf?
                                                                                              xdktajctaea=umifh KNU A[dkXmecsKyf. wm0efrS &yfpJcHxm;
                                                                                                                                                                      vHk;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udkom xdcdkufapcJh+yD; ,ckuJhodk@ autJef,lacgif;aqmif
                                                                                                                                                                      rsm; tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef em;vnfr_rsm; &&SdoGm;onhftay: 0rf;
        wm0efcHt,f'Dwm                      eef;azmha*                              &onfh KNLA ppfOD;pD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyf}uD;rlwl;ap;zdk;u OD;aqmifðyvkyfrnfh          ajrmuf&a=umif; =opa=w;vsm;EdkifiHa&muf u&ifvli,fwpfOD;u ajym
        vufaxmuft,f'Dwm                     apmcg;pl;nm;                            atmufwdkbmv 13&ufae@ jr0wDqufqHa&;±Hk;rS owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJudk                   onf?
        XmepDrHcefYcGJa&;                   eef;xl;pH                               zsufodrf;vdkufa=umif; zdwf=um;xm;olrsm;u owif;orm;rsm;tm;                                  olu “tckvdk ta&;}uD;wJhtcsdefrSm usaemfwdk@awG nDnD!$wf
        owif;axmufrsm;                      zdk;cGm;av;?pzef;a&Smif;                ,refae@naeu ta=umif;=um;cJhonf?                                                   !$wf/ uspfuspfvpfvpf&Sdzdk@ txl;ta&;}uD;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh ,ckvdk
                                            eef;ol;av? eef;,Of                                vuf&Sdtcsdefonf jrefrmtpdk;&ESifh autJef,lt=um; +idrf;csrf;a&;          acgif;aqmifawG nD!$wfr_awG &vmwmuae u&ifhwrsKd;om;vHk; tusKd;
                                            aemfqJuv,f                              azmfaqmif&ef awG@qHkaqG;aEG;aeonfh ta&;}uD;csdefjzpfI wrsKd;om;vHk;               udk qufvuf+yD; awmif;qdkwdkufyGJ0ifoGm;r,fvdk@vnf; ,Hk=unfygw,f”[k
        u&ifydkif;bmomjyef                  apmu&SD;                                vdkvm;onfh yef;wdkifa&muf&Sda&;twGuf twlwuG vufwGJvkyfaqmif                       ajymonf?
        pmapmiftjyiftqif                    apmaomMum                               oGm;v#if aumif;rGefa=umif; u&ifjynfe,f/ =umtif;qdyf}uD;òrd@e,frS                           tvm;wl autJef,l c±dkifESifh wyfr[mtqifh wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u
                                                                                    eef;azmifu ajymqdkonf?                                                            tzGJ@tpnf; pkpnf;nD!$wfa&;udk OD;wnfonhf n‡dEd_if;aqG;aEG;r_udk ,ck
                        qufoG,f&ef                                                            ‚if;tjyif u&ifhtrsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk;(KNU)taejzifh ,ckvwf                  &ufydkif;twGif; vkyfaqmifoGm;rnf[kvnf; ‚if;wdk@todkif;t0dkif;twGif;
               kicnews@yahoo.com                                                    wavmjzpfyGm;aeonfh jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;Edkif&eftwGuf enf;vrf;                    ajymqdkae=uonf?
                                                                                    rsm; &SmazG+yD; tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef n‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG;oGm;=urnfjzpf                      AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rlwl;ap;zdk;ESifh autJef,l c&dkif/ wyfr[m acgif;aqmif
                    P.O Box 22
                                                                                    a=umif; KNU rS taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; aemfpDzdk;&mpdefu u&ifjynfol                   tcsKd@ yg0ifonhf 31OD;ygtzGJ@onf zm;tHòrd@odk@ pufwifbm 27&ufae@u
                  Mae-Sot, 63110                                                    vlxkxH today;pmwpfapmif atmufwdkbm 10&ufae@u ay;ydk@cJh                           KNLA wyfr[mrsm; qufqHa&;zGifh&ef xGufcGmcJhonhf c&D;pOfESifhywf
                   Tak, Province                                                    onf?                                                                              oufI KNU A[dkXmecsKyfrS ‚if;wdk@. tpDtpOfr[kwfa=umif; xdkae@
                                                                                              xdkpmxJwGif u&ifhawmfvSefa&;udk OD;aqmifqifEGJaeonfh KNU                wGifyif a=unmcsuf xkwfjyefcJhovdk KNU A[dktvkyftr_aqmif tzGJ@
                     Thailand
                                                                                    onf u&ifwrsKd;om;vHk;twGuf 'Drdkua&pDESifh zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk&&Sd                 0if 11OD;teuf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rlwl;ap;zdk;/ y'dkapma&m*smcifESifh y'dkapma';Apf
                 +66(0)55534744                                                     a&; twGufvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm; csrSwfxm;+yD;             axmwdk@udk wm0efrS xkwfy,fvdkufa=umif; autJef,l A[dktvkyftr_
               <www.kicnews.org>                                                    jzpfI u&ifhwyfrawmf(KNLA)taejzifhvnf; rdrdwdk@. t&nftcsif;rsm;                    aqmif tpnf;ta0;u qHk;jzwfcJhonf?ÔÔÔ

 pmrsufESm- 2                                                                                                                                                           Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                                     atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
 EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;u'f vkyfaqmifolrsm;xHrS yk*~dKvfa&;xdcdkufr_rsKd;
         &Gmvl}uD;tcsKdΠaiGaumufcHcJh     rD'D,mrsm; a&Smif=uOf
 atmufwdkbmv 12&uf? 2012ckESpf/
 apmcg;pl;nm; (autdkifpD)
                                           =u&ef jynfwGif; NGO
          u&ifjynfe,f/ jr0wDòrd@                                                                                              tjcm;uk e f u sp&d w f t m;vH k ; ud k
e,f xD;0gyavmESifh yaemuvJcD;
(oHyk&m)aus;&Gmwdk@Y EdkifiHom;pdppf
                                           usef ; rma&;tzG J @ rsm;                                                           uGif;qif;c&D;pOfESifh wpfygwnf;
                                                                                                                              pDpOfxm;+yD;jzpfa=umif; rSwfyHkwif
a&;u'fjym;udk tcrJh vkyfaqmifay;
aeaomfvnf; &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;ESifh
                                                    ajymqdk                                                                   vd k u f v H v k y f a y;onf h t zG J @ wd k @ ES i f h
                                                                                                                              eD;pyfolwpfOD;u ajymqdkonf?
ausmif;om;rsm;rSm aus;&Gmvl}uD;                                                                                                          “ NRC0 e f x r f ; a w G u                     atmufwdkbmv 25&uf? 2012ckESpf/
rsm;tm; aiGay;aqmifcJh&a=umif;                                                                                                tppt&m&m p&dwftm;vHk;udk Xm                               aemfqJuv,f (autdkifpD)
pdppfa&;u'f vkyfaqmifcJholrsm;u                                                                                               eu pDpOfvmcJh+yD;om;? 'Dvdk &Gmol                                   jrefrmrD'D,mrsm;taejzifh owif;a&;om;onfhtcg yk*~dKvfa&;xd
ajymonf?                                                                                                                      }uD;awG vkyfwm=um;vdk@ pdwfr                              cdkufaprnfhowif;rsKd; a&Smif=uOf=u&ef jrefrmEdkifiHtajcpdkuf usef;rma&;
          jr0wDòrd@e,f vl0ifr_}uD;                                                                                            aumif;bl;? bmjzpfvJqdkawmh tJ                             ESifh qufpyfonfh tpkd;&r[kwfaomtzGJ@-NGO rsm;u ,cktywftwGif;
=uyfa&;Xme(v0u)ESifh Norwe-                                                                                                   vdk aiGaumufcHwJhtcg wcsKd@vl                             ajym=um;vdkufonf?
gian Refugee Council -NRC wdk@                                                                                                awG rSwfyHkwif(pdppfa&;u'f) vdk                                     atmufwdkbmv 'kwd,ywfu xGuf&Sdaom jynfwGif;xkwf rZdPsr
onf ,if;aus;&Gmrsm;Y w&Gmv#if                                                                                                 csifv#ufom;eJ@ r±dkufjzpfawmhbl;                          *sme,fyg owif;wpfyk'ft& jynfhwefqmvkyfief; vkyfudkifonf[k ,lq
ESpf&ufE_ef;jzifh pufwifbmvukef                                                                                               av”[k qdkonf?                                             &onfh trsKd;orD;wOD;. "gwfyHkudk azhpfbGwfcf(Facebook) wpfckrS xkwf
ydkif;rSpI atmufwdkbmv 5&uf                                                                                                              tvm;wl jr0wDòrd@e,f/                           ,loHk;pGJazmfjy+yD;aemufydkif; ,if;tzGJ@rsm;u xdkodk@ ajym=um;cJhjcif;jzpf
ae@txd pdppfa&;u'f±dkufay;&m axmifyJ ay;&w,f”[kajymonf?                                rsm;twGuf vdktyfaom taxG               yaemuvJcD;&GmwGif &Gmvl}uD;rS                             onf?
wGif &Gmvl}uD; tcsKd@rS vlwpfOD;v#if      xdk@twGuf aiGa=u;rwwf                        axGukefusp&dwftjzpf 3˜000usyf          rSwfyHkwifwcgr# r±dkuf&ao;ol                                        jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd HIV ydk;ul;pufcH&olrsm;udk ulnDay;aeonfh
usyfaiG 1˜000rS 5˜000axmiftxd Ekdifonhf tcsKd@&Gmom;rsm;rSm EdkifiH                    om aumufcHjcif;omjzpfonf[k             tm; 4˜500usyf/ rSwfyHkwif t                               UNAIDS rS Social Mobilization Officer a'gufwmpdk;Edkifu owif;rD'D
aumufcHcJhonf[k xD;0gyavm&Gm om;pdppfa&;u'fudk vma&mufvkyf                             'DAGDbDowif;Xme u&ifydkif; a&'D,dk     a[mif;rS topfodk@ jyefvJvS,fol                            ,mrsm;taejzifh yk*~dKvfa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh owif;rsKd;udk ra&;rD
om;wpfOD;u autdkifpDodk@ ajym aqmifjcif; r&Sdawmhojzifh ‚if;wdk@                       tpDtpOfwGif ajymqdkxm;onf?             tm; 3˜500usyf aumufcHv#uf                                 aemufqufwGJ jzpfay:vmEdkifonfh tajctaersm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;
onf?                                 twGuf epfem&a=umif; tqdkyg&Gm                             odk@aomf NRC 0efxrf;rsm;       &Sdonf[k a'ocHrsm;u ajymqdkae                             oifha=umif; autdkifpDodk@ ,ckvdk ajymonf?
          ‚if;u “tcrJhvdk@awmhajym om;u qufvuf ajymqdkonf?                             taejzifh u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;             =uonf?                                                              “udk,fa&;wifvdkufwJh owif;[m wEdkifiHvHk;udk a&mufwmjzpfyg
xm;w,f? 'gayr,fh r±dkufrD &Gmol           xdkodk@ aiGaumufcHjcif;rSm                   One Stop Service (ae@csif;wGif;t                  ,ck atmufwdkbmv t                              w,f? a&;om;ol wifjyolrsm;[m wm0efod&ygr,f? igom ol@ae&mqdk
}uD;qD emrnft&ifoGm;xdk;&+yD; xD ; 0gyavm&G m vl } uD ; a[mif ;                        +yD;) pepfjzifh pdppfa&;u'fudk tcrJh   wGif; jr0wDòrd@e,frSm EdkifiHom; pd                       b,fvdkjzpfrvJqdkwm xnfhpOf;pm;apcsifygw,f? &nf&G,fcsuf aumif;ay
jrefrmusyfaiG ig;axmifay;&w,f? wpfOD;u pdppfa&;u'f vma&muf                             ±dkufay;aejcif;jzpf+yD;    ‚if;wdk@.   ppfa&;u'f ðyvkyf+yD;olOD;a& 700                           r,fh tusKd;r&Sd&if bmvdk@ajymae/ a&;aerSmvJ? rSefvdk@a&;wmqdkayr,fh
ausmif;om;ausmif;olawGu wpf ±dkufay;ol v0uESifh NRC 0efxrf;                            oGm;vma&;/ tpm;taomufESifh             eD;yg; &Sd+yDjzpfa=umif; od&onf?                          pOf;pm;=uapcsifygw,f”[k ajymqdkonf?
                                                                                                                                         ÔÔÔ                                                      xdkodk@ "mwfyHk azmfjycH&cJhr_tay: olrtm; emrnf}uD;atmif vkyf
                                                                                                                                                                                        ovdk jzpfaerSma=umufonf[k *sme,fwGif azmfjycH&ol trsKd;orD;ESifh eD;
        a&eufqdyfurf;pDrHudef;a=umifh oD;ESHrsm; rpdkufysKd;EdkifI                                                                                                                      pyfonfh todrdwfaqGwpfOD;u autdkifpDodk@ jyefvnf ajymjycJhonf?
                 ebkv,fa'ocHtcsKd@ tcufóuH                                                                                                                                                        jrefrmayghpfwpfuGef,uf.t}uHay; OD;oD[óudifuvnf; owif;
                                                                                                                                                                                        a&;om;azmfjyr_rsm;wGif vlom;qefapcsifa=umif; ajymonf? olu
atmufwdkbmv 24&uf? 2012ckESpf/
                                                                                                                                                                                        “jynfhwefqmwdk@ HIV wdk@udk oHk;pGJwmrSm;wmxuf vlom;wpfa,muf&J@
eef;ol;av (autdkifpD)
                                                       ebkv,fa'o&Sd aus;&Gm            &GmrS a'ocH OD;atmifjrifhu ajym                                                                  *k%foduQmudk av;pm;zdk@ vdkygw,f? em;rvnf&ifvnf; avhvmygvdk@
           weoFm&Dwdkif; a&jzLòrd@e,f                                                                                         om tuskd;tjrwf&&Sd rnfjzpfjyD;
                                             rsm;wGif uGrf;oD;/ oD[dkXfoD;/ ydEMJ      qdkxm;onfudk xm;0,fvlxktoH                                                                       ajymcsifygw,f”[k qdkonf?
twGif;&Sd tDwmv#Hxdkif;ukr`%DrS                                                                                               a'ocHrsm;taejzifh ae@pOf ylyif
                                             oD; ponfhoD;ESHrsm;udk pdkufysKd;=u+yD;   owif;pmrsufESmay:wGif azmfjy                                                                               qufvufI Facebook pmrsufESmrsm;ay:rS cGifhrawmif;bJ
a&eufqdyfurf; wnfaqmufrnfh                                                                                                    aomua&mufae=u&um ‚if;wdk@
                                             t"dutm;jzifh z&JoD;udk pdkufysKd;=u       xm;onf?                                                                                          "mwfyHkrsm;ul;,ljcif;onf rD'D,mpnf;urf;tm; rxdef;jcif;jzpfonf[k
{&d,mxJwGif yg0ifaeonfh ebk                                                                                                   . aexdkifr_b0udk paw;cH&awmh
                                             um rdom;pkwpfpkv#if ESpfpOfysrf;r#                 “wu,fqdk usaemfwdk@                                                                     ,lqa=umif; HIV tygt0if a&m*goHk;rsKd;twGuf jrefrmEdkifiH jynfwGif;!‡d
v,fa'ocHtcsKd@onf pDrHudef;rsm;                                                                                               rnfh tvm;tvmjrifawG@ae&
                                             0ifaiG tenf;qHk; usyfodef;(30)eD;         bmom usaemfwdk@ at;at;vlvl                                                                       Ed_if;a&;,Eœ,m;tzGJ@-CCM. udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD; jzpfol OD;pdk;rdk;ausmfu
a=umifh ,ckESpf rdk;&moDumvrS                                                                                                 a=umif; xm;0,fvlxktoHxJwGif
                                             yg; &&Sd=ua=umif; od&onf?                 udk,fhb0 udk,fa=umif;aewJhtcsdef                                                                 vnf; ajymqdkonf?
pwif+yD; &moDpm;oD;ESHrsm; rpdkuf                                                                                             a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf?
                                                       rdk;&moD oD;ESHtjzpf pdkuf      rSm bmrSylp&mrvkdbl;? 'Dra&&mwJh                                                                           ‚if;a&;om;azmfjycJhr_ESifh ywfoufI rZdPsr*sme,fu atmufwdk
ysKd;Edkifawmhojzifhpm;0wfaea&; t                                                                                                      ,ckESpf pufwifbmvu
                                             ysKd;onfh z&JoD;udk xm;0,fòrd@ay:         a&eufqdyfurf;a=umifhyJ usaemf                                                                    bmv wwd,ywf xkwfpmapmifwGif ,cifu vdiftvkyform; vkyfcJhzl;
cufóuHae=uv#uf&Sdonf?                                                                                                         a&jzLòrd@e,f&Sd aus;&GmtcsKd@wGif
                                             odk@a&mif;cs=uum toufarG;0rf;             wkd@ &Gmol&Gmom;awGrSm pD;yGm;                                                                   ol[k azmfjyjcif;/ "mwfyHktm; cGifhrawmif;bJ ,loHk;jcif;tay: awmif;yef
           ebkv,fa'orS rl;'l;ESifh                                                                                            tDwmv#Hxdkfif;ukr`%D. a&euf
                                             a=umif;ðyae=ujcif;jzpfonf? ,ck            a&;t& tcuftcJjzpfapw,f”[k                                                                        pmwpfapmifudk jyefvnfazmfjycJhonf?
r,if;}uD;aus;&Gmrsm;odk@ a&euf                                                                                                qdyfurf;pDrHudef;twGuf ukefwif
                                             ESpfwGif a&eufqdyfurf; pDrHudef;          OD;atmifjrifhu ajymqdkxm;onf?                                                                              odk@aomf vdiftvkyforrsm;tm; ESpfodrfhaqG;aEG;ynmay;ol
qdyfurf;pDrHudef;rS wm0ef&Sdolrsm;                                                                                            ypPnf;o,faqmif&onfh um;}uD;
                                                                                                                                                                                        AZG rS trsKd;orD; 0efxrf;wpfOD;u “*sme,frSm twdtvif; awmif;
u           v,f,mpdkufysKd;ajrrsm;udk        aqmufvkyfa&;ajrxJwGif ‚if;wdk@.                    xdkhtjyif a&eufqdyfurf;       rsm;oGm;vmr_a=umifh ysufpD;ae
                                             pdkufcif;ajrrsm; ygoGm;rnfpdk;ojzifh      pDrHudef;a=umifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;                                                              yefwmxuf udk,fwdkifoGm;+yD; awmif;yefoifhwJh udpPyg? um,uH&Sif[m
ajymif;a&$@ay;&ef vma&mufajym                                                                                                 aomvrf;rsm;udk rjyifay;ojzifh
                                             z&JoD;rpdkufysKd;awmha=umif; rl;'l;       &Sifrsm;eSifh tpdk;&acgif;aqmifrsm;                                                              trsKd;orD;wpfOD;/ rdcifwpfOD;qdkwmvnf; xnfhpOf;pm;apcsifygw,f”[k
=um;oGm;ojzifh a'ocHrsm;u &m                                                                                                  a'ocHrsm;oGm;vma&; tcufóuH
                                                                                                                                                                                        axmufjyajymqdkonf?
oDoD;ESHrsm;          rpdkufysKd;Edkifawmh
                                                                                                                                                                                                  +yD;cJhonfh 2010ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif owif;orm;rsm;tm;
a=umif; xm;0,fa&eufqdyfurf;
                                                                                                                                                                                        tdyfcsftdkifAGD§attdkif'DtufpfESifh ywfoufaom tcsuftvufrsm; a&;
ta&; avhvmapmifh=unfhaeonfh
                                                                                                                                                                                        om;ygu vdkufemapmifhxdef;oifhonfh tvkyf±HkaqG;aEG;yGJwpfckudk Pyo
xm;0,ftrsKd;orD;or*~rS rvGif
                                                                                                                                                                                        Pin ESifh DFID wdk@rS yHhydk;r_jzifh rD'D,mq&mtjzpf q&m&JEdkifrdk;rS OD;aqmif
vGifu ajymonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                        um ðyvkyfay;cJh+yD; vdkufem&rnfh tcsufrsm;yg0ifaom pmtkyfrsm;vnf;
           rvGifvGifu“'DESpfrSmawmh
                                                                                                                                                                                        xkwfa0jzefcsdcJhonf? ÔÔÔ
olwdk@tdrfawGvnf; ajymif;&awmh
r,f? wcsKd@tdrfawGqdk&ifvnf;
a&mif;+yD;oGm;+yD? wcsKd@uvnf; r                                                                                                                                                        awG@cJh&ouJhodkh Zlvdkifv vv,f          a&muf&SdoGm;onfh jrefrmEdkifiHawmf
aocsm/ ra&&mjzpfaeawmh olwdk@                                                                                                                                                           ydkif;uvnf; ‚if;a'o&Sd ae&yftdk;        orRw OD;odef;pdefESifh xdkif;0ef}uD;
t&if;tESD;vkyf&wJh[mawGu ±H_;                                                                                                                                                           tdrfajymif;a&$@ay;&rnfh uvHk;x          csKyf rpP,ifvyf&Sifem0yfwdk@ awG@
oGm;rSmpdk;vdk@qdk+yD; z&JoD;awGeJ@                                                                                                                                                     aus;&GmrS         a'ocHrsm;uvnf;                  G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                qH=k ur_wif xm;0,fa&eufprue;fD H d
[if;&GufawG bmrSrpdkufawmhwJh                                                                                                                                                           rausreyf jzpfcJh=uao;onf?               tjref+yD;pD; atmifjrifEdkifa&;t
twGuf a&mif;p&mr&Sdawmhtcuf                                                                                                                                                                     Zlvdkifv 23&ufae@rSpwif         wGuf ESpfzufoabmwlnDcJh=u
óuHae=uw,f”[k ajymonf?                          xm;0,fa&eufqdyfurf; vkyfief;cGif wpfae&m                                                                                                +yD; xdkif;EdkifiHudk tvnftywf          onf?ÔÔÔ
Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?                                                                                                                                                                                              pmrsufESm- 3
atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
aumhu&dwfòrdŒe,fwGif yÉdyuQajz&Sif;a&;   rHk&Gmòrd@e,f jynfol@ qdk;&Gm;onfh &moDOwk'%f
          tvkyf±HkaqG;aEG;yGJ ðyvkyf   nDvmcHwGif jynfaxmifpk tkef;zsefpcef; 'kuQonfrsm;
atmufwdkbmv 4&uf? 2012ckESpf/
apmcg;pl;nm;/ zdk;cGm;av; (autdkifpD)                                                               u&iftrsKd;om;uGef,ufrS                                                                                      cHpm;ae&
           u&ifjynfe,f/ aumhu                                    ‚if;oifwef; wufa&muf
&dwfòrd@e,f&Sd avmif;udkifaus;&Gm                    onfh &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rSm aumhu                     o0%fv$may;ydk@                                                             atmufwdkbmv 10&uf?2012ckESpf/
wGif yÉdyuQajz&Sif;a&; tvkyf±HkaqG;                  &dwfòrd@e,ftwGif;&Sd aumhu&dwfòrd@             atmufwdkbmv 22&uf? 2012ckESpf/
                                                                                                                                                                                  pzef;a&Smif; (autdkifpD)
aEG;yGJwpfckudk +idrf;azmifa';&Sif;rS                tygt0if avmif;udkif&GmrS &yf                   aemfqJuv,f (autdkifpD)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 awGvnf;&Sdawmh pcef;aumfrwDu
                                                                                                                                                                                          xkdif;EkdifiH/ wmhcfc±dkif zkwfz
,refae@rSpI 5&uf=um ðyvkyf                           uGuf (5)ck/ zm;us/ ordef'Gwf/ 0if;                      ppfudkif;wdkif;/ rHk&Gmòrd@e,f qnfwnf;&GmwGif atmufwdkbmv 18                                                        wm0ef&SdolawGeJ@ ausmif;q&m/
                                                                                                                                                                                  &òrd@e,f&Sd tkef;zsef;'kuQonf pcef;
oGm;rnfjzpfonf?                                      u/ xD;zdk;omESifh tjcm;&Gm 3&Gmwdk@            &ufrS 19&ufae@txd yxrOD;qHk;t}udrf jynfol@nDvmcHðyvkyf&m jynf                                                                q&mrawG wdkifyif+yD; ausmif;udk
                                                                                                                                                                                  wGif atmufwdkbmv 8&ufae@rS
           +id r f ; azmif a ';&S i f ; tzG J @ rS   rS jzpfonf?                                    axmifpk u&iftrsKd;om;uGef,ufrS nDvmcHtm; axmufcHa=umif;                                                                      ESpf&uf ydwfxm;&w,f? 'Dae@
                                                                                                                                                                                  pwifum rdk;rsm; tqufrjywf &Gm
oif=um;ay;onfh ,if;oifwef;                                       oif w ef ; wuf a &muf o l          o0%fv$may;ydk@cJhonf?                                                                                                        awmh ausmif;jyefwuf+yD”[k ajym
                                                                                                                                                                                  oGef;I avjyif;rsm; wdkufcwfonfh
wGif aumhu&dwfòrd@e,ftwGif;&Sd                       ordef'Gwfausmif;rS q&mawmf                              ,if;nDvmcHudk wufa&mufonfh 'Drdkua&pDta&; v_yf&Sm;ol                                                                onf?
                                                                                                                                                                                  tjyif jrLcdk;rsm; xlxyfpGm us&muf
aus;&GmtkyfcsKyfa&;rª;ESifh bmom                     OD;eaENmbmou “tzGJ@tpnf;xJ                     u&iftrsKd;orD; a':aemftkef;vSrS udk,fpm;ðyzwf=um;cJhjcif; jzpfonf?                                                                     rdk;tqufrjywf &GmoGef;
                                                                                                                                                                                  aoma=umifh pcef;wGif;ae 'kuQ
a&; acgif;aqmifrsm; pkpkaygif; 30                    rSm yÉdyuQqdkwm jzpfwwfw,fqdk                           aemftkef;vSu “o0%fv$mxJrSm ppfrSefaom wdkif;&if;om;pnf;                                                             jcif;a=umifh ajròydr_rsm; jzpfay:+yD;
                                                                                                                                                                                  onfrsm;rSm vuf&SdtcsdefwGif qdk;
ausmfwufa&mufcJh+yD; u&ifjynf                        ovdk jzpfvmvdk@ ajz&Sif;vdk@ r&/               vHk;nD!$wfa&;[m rjzpfraeta&;yga=umif;eJ@ jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;                                                            pcef;&Sd aetdrf 3vHk; ysufpD;oGm;cJh+yD;
                                                                                                                                                                                  &Gm;onfh &moDOwk'%f cHpm;ae=u
e,ftwGif;&Sd wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;                    rwwfbl;qdk&if òyduGJoGm;&wJhtxd                awG twlwuG vufwGJoGm;zdk@ wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? 'g[m wu,fvdk                                                                   trSwf (3) tv,fwef;ausmif;wpf
                                                                                                                                                                                  &onf?
+idrf;csrf;a&;&&Sdapa&ef &nf&G,fðy                   qdk;usKd;awG trsm;}uD;jzpfvmr,f?               tyfwJh t&mvdk@ ,Hk=unfygw,f“[k ajym=um;onf?                                                                                  ausmif;vnf; tenf;i,f xdcdkuf
                                                                                                                                                                                          tkef;zsefpcef; OuUXapmxD;
vkyfcJhjcif;jzpfonf[k oifwef;jzpf                    ajymcsifwmu 'Doifwef;u wpHk                             xdk@twl &cdkifwdkif;&if;om;wdk;wufa&;ygwD/ u,ef;jynfopfygwD                                                         ysufpD;cJhaomfvnf; ajròydr_rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                  0g;u “rdk;uvnf; tqufrjywfudk
ajrmufa&;wGif yg0ifol ref;odef;                      w&m tusKd;&Sdr,fvdk@ ar#mfvifh                 ESifh nD!$wfaomwdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; r[mrdwftzGJ@ ponfh ygwDwdk@rS                                                        a=umifh xdcdkuf '%f&m&r_ wpHkw
                                                                                                                                                                                  &Gmwm ae@a&m na&myJ? reufydkif;
aZmfu ajymonf?                                       w,f”[k ajymonf?                                vnf; o0%fv$mrsm;ay;ydk@cJhonf?                                                                                               &m r&Sday?
                                                                                                                                                                                  qdk&ifvnf; jrLawG xlxyfpGm us
           ref;odef;aZmfu “usaemf                                xdk@tjyif oifwef;wuf                        nDvmcHudk wdkif;&if;om;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;/ v,f                                                                ‚if ; &moD O wk t ajctae
                                                                                                                                                                                  qif;w,f? avjyif;uvnf; wdkuf
wdk@e,fajra'orSm&SdwJh wdkif;&if;                    a&mufolrsm;udk +idrf;azmifa';&Sif;rS           orm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ tvkyform; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ ausmif;om;tzGJ@                                                                qdk;&Gm;r_a=umifh usef;rma&;jy\
                                                                                                                                                                                  ao;w,f? nbufqdk&if at;vGef;
om;awGtm;vHk;/ aus;&GmtkyfcsKyf                      pDrHudef;refae*sm aZmfvGefrf(Zau               rsm;/ uGef,ufrsm;/ trsKd;orD;tzGJ@rsm;/ obm0ywf0ef;usiftzGJ@rsm;                                                             emrsm; wpHkw&m jzpfay:jcif;r&Sd
                                                                                                                                                                                  vdk@ aumif;aumif;tdyfvdk@ r&bl;”
a&;ydkif;rSm yg0ifaewJh yk*~dKvfawG                  Lum) OD;aqmifaom tzGJ@0if 3OD;                 ponfh tpktzGJ@ (38)zGJ@rS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& 400 tygt0if aus;&Gm 26                                                           ao;aomfvnf; ,ae@txd rdk;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                  [k autdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?
tm;vHk; wnDw!$wfeJ@ +idrf;csrf;r_                    tjyif aumhu&dwfòrd@e,f&Sd u&if                 &GmrS jynfolrsm; pkpkaygif; wpfaomif;ausmf wufa&mufcJhonf[k od&                                                              tqufrjywf &GmoGef;v#uf&Sd&m
                                                                                                                                                                                          rdk;&GmoGef;+yD; avjyif;rsm;
udk,l+yD;awmh 'Doifwef;udk ðyvkyf                    trsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk;-KNU/ wdk;                  onf?                                                                                                                         &uf=umvmygu usef;rma&;jy\
                                                                                                                                                                                  tqufrjywf wdkufcdkufcJhonfht
&wm jzpfygw,f? aemuf jy\em                           wufaom Ak'<bmom u&iftrsKd;                              nDvmcHtm; tdrf&Siftjzpf vufcHusif;yay;aom qnfwnf;&GmrS                                                              emrsm; jzpfay:vmrnfudk 'kuQonf
                                                                                                                                                                                  ay: tkef;zsefpcef;wGif atmufwdk
awGudk ajz&Sif;wwfzdk@ jzpfw,f”[k                    om;wyfrawmf-DKBA, KNU/                         rr}uD;u “usrwdk@ &SdwJhqDudk ta0;}uD;uae wdkif;&if;om;awG jzpfwJh                                                            rsm;u pdk;&drfae=uonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                  bm 8&ufae@ESifh 9&ufae@txd
autdkifpDodk@ ajymqdkonf?                            KNLA +id r f ; csrf ; a&;aumif p D E S i f h   u&if/ u,m;/ o#rf;/ &cdkif/ u,ef; / udk;uef@awGu vm+yD; ulnD=uvdk@                                                                      1999ckESpfrSpI pwifwnf
                                                                                                                                                                                  pmoif ausmif;rsm; tm;vHk;ydwf
           oifwef;rS aqG;aEG;oif                     e,fjcm;apmifhwyf-BGFwdk@rS wm                  trsm;}uD;0rf;omw,f”[k qdkonf?                                                                                                axmifcJhonfh tkef;zsef'kuQonf
                                                                                                                                                                                  xm;&ouJhodk@ ajròydr_tcsKd@vnf;&Sd
=um;cJhr_rsm;udk trSDðyum aumhu                      0ef&Sdyk*~dKvftcsKd@vnf; yg0ifaqG;aEG;                  xdk@tjyif nDvmcHodk@ o0%fv$maygif; (21)apmif/ tD;ar;vf (30)                                                         pcef;onf csrf;at;vGef;onhf &m
                                                                                                                                                                                  onf[k pcef; OuUXu qufajym
&dwfa'o&Sd &yfuGuf odk@r[kwf &Gm                     cJh=uonf[k od&onf?                             apmif/ vl@tcGihfta&;aumifpDpmwrf; (11)apmif/ uAsm (7) yk'f/ oDcsif;                                                          oDOwk qdk;&Gm;r_'%fudk ESpfpOf óuH
                                                                                                                                                                                  onf?
rsm;twGif; jzpfyGm;onfh EdkifiHa&;/                              +yD;cJhonfh =o*kwfvu               (1) yk'f ay;ydk@cH&+yD; nDvmcHY aºuG;a=umfoH (11)ydk'fESifhtwl qHk;jzwfcsuf                                                  awG@aeus jzpfaomfvnf; ,ckESpf
                                                                                                                                                                                          tkef;zsefpcef; 'kuQonf
vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh bmoma&;                     vnf; +idrf;azmifa';&Sif; taejzifh              (26)csuf aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwfEdkifcJh=uonf[k od&onf?                                                                             twGif; rdk;&GmoGef;r_rSm tqdk;&Gm;
                                                                                                                                                                                  wpfOD;u “rdk;u 'DrSm onf;onf;
pojzifh yÉdyuQ[lor#udk ajz&Sif;Edkif                 zm;us&Gm               bkef;}uD;ausmif;                 ‚if;qHk;jzwfcsuf 26 csufwGif txl;qHk;jzwfcsuftjzpf wdkif;&if;                                                       qHk;jzpfa=umif; pcef;wGif; aexdkifol
                                                                                                                                                                                  xefxef &Gmwm oHk;&uf&Sd+yD? wpf
&ef wwfpGrf;or# taumiftxnf                           wGifacgif; aqmifr_ESifh ywfouf                 om;vlxkrsm;yg0ifaom yifvHkuJhodk@ nDvmcH wpf&yfudk usif;y&ef qHk;                                                            rsm;u ajymqdkae=uonf? Ô
                                                                                                                                                                                  aeukef &Gmw,f? aemuf ajròydwm
azmfoGm;rnf[k ar#mfvifha=umif;                       onfh&ufwdkoifwef;wpfck                         jzwf=ua=umif; wufa&mufolrsm;u ajymonf? ÔÔÔ
olu qufajymonf?                                      vkyfcJhao;onf? ÔÔÔ

                           KNU                       twGif; pnf;vHk;nD!$wfa&; vlxktajcðytzGJ@rsm;
atmufwkdbmv 15 &uf? 2012 ckESpf /                            yg0ifvkyfaqmifoGm;rnf
autdkifpD
        u&iftrsKd;om; tpnf;                          bmawG0dkif;0ef;ulnDay;oGm;Ekdifr               om;vHk;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk a&S@±_       abmxm;rsm;udk autJef,lodk@             u,ftm;&auseyf&w,f? autJef                      w,f? 'DaqG;aEG;csuftay:rSm vl
t±Hk;(KNU)twGif; pnf;vHk;nD                          vJqdkwmudk tajz&SmwJh taeeJ@                   ar#mfudk;I pnf;vHk;nD!$wfr_ tay:       wifjyoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; pnf;a0;        ,l&J@ jzpfay:vmwJh tuGJt+yJawGt                wdkif;u nD!$wfapcsifawmh buf
!$wfr_ qufvufwnf&SdoGm;&ef                           aqG;aEG;=uwmyg” [k autdkifpDodk@               tajccHum yGifhvif;jrifompGm vkyf       yGJwGif yg0ifol apmtJ'dk@0g;u ,ck      ay:rSm usaemfwdk@ KCBO uae                     ESpfzufpvHk;udk b,fvdkyHkpH csOf;uyf
twGuf u&ifvlxktajcðytzGJ@                            ajymonf?                                       aqmifoGm;Ekdif&ef KCBO taejzifh        vdk ajymonf?                           b,f v d k 0 ef ; &H o G m ;rvJ q d k w mud k   rvJqdkwmeJ@ trsKd;om;&if=um;aph
rsm; (KCBO)taejzifh xda&muf                                    vuf&Sd autJef,l A[dk                 oabmxm;&Sda=umif;ESifh xdko                     “'Dtpnf;ta0;[m w              t"duxm;+yD; tao;pdwf aqG;aEG;                  a&;udk 0ef;&HoGm;zdk@ &Sdw,f” [k
pGm yg0ifvkyfaqmif oGm;rnf[k                         acgif;aqmifrsm;twGif; yÉdyuQrsm;                                                                                                                                            ajymqdkonf?
,ckv (13) &ufae@u xdkif;-jref                        jzpfyGm;aer_tay: aqG;aEG;yGJ wuf                                                                                                                                                      u&if v l x k t ajcðytzG J @
rme,fpyf wpfae&mwGif ðyvkyf                          a&mufvmol udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u                                                                                                                                                 rsm;u vlxkESifh t+rJxdawG@aeo
onhf tpnf;ta0;Y qHk;jzwfcJh=u                        ‚if;wdk@.tjrifrsm;/ oHk;oyfcsuf                                                                                                                                             vdk autJef,lESifh umvtwef=um
onf?                                                 rsm;ESifh t}uHðycsufrsm;udk wpfOD;                                                                                                                                          qufpyf vkyfaqmifaejcif;jzpfI
        ‚if;pnf;a0;yGJudk u&ifpnf;                   wpfzGJ@csif;rS tkyfpkvdkuf aqG;aEG;r_                                                                                                                                       0dkif;0ef;t}uHðy vkyfaqmif&mwGif
vHk;nD!$wfa&; ESD;aeSmzvS,fyGJjzpf                   rsm; ðyvkyfcJh=uonf?                                                                                                                                                        wpHkw&m tcuftcJ r&SdEkdif[k ol
ajrmufa&;aumfrwD(KUSC)rS OD;                                   “autJef,lwGif; pnf;vHk;                                                                                                                                           uqufajymonf?
pD;ðyvkyfcJhjcif;jzpf+yD; vlxk tajcðy                nD!$wfapcsifwJh usrwdk@&J@oabm                                                                                                                                                        Ttpnf;ta0;wGifu&if
tzGJ@ 16 zGJ@rS udk,fpm;vS,f 40 eD;                  xm;awGudk wifjyoGm;r,f? +yD;                                                                                                                                                trsKd;om;pnf;vHk;nD!$wfa&;vkyf
yg; wufa&mufaqG;aEG;cJh=uonf?                        awmh tJvdknD!$wfzdk@twGuf b,f                                                                                                                                               ief;aumfrwDwpf&yfudk zGJ@pnf;cJh+yD;
        aqG;aEG;yGJ. &nf&G,fcsuf                     vdkvkyfaqmifoGm;rvJ qdkwJhtcsuf                                                                                                                                             ‚if;aumfrwD0if tcsif;csif; a&S@
ESifhywfoufI KUSC tzGJ@0if                           ESpfcsufudk 'Dtpnf;ta0;rSm qHk;                                                                                                                                             qufvkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief;pOf
aemfv,fvm;cl@xl;u “autJef,l                          jzwfcsuf csEkdifcJhw,f?”[k aemf                                                                                                                                             rsm;udk oD;oef@ aqG;aEG;wdkifyif
tzGJ@tpnf;xJrSm òyduGJr_r&SdbJpnf;                   v,fvm;clxl;u qufajymonf?                                                                                                                                                    aqmif&GufoGm;&ef&Sdonf[k od&
vHk;nD!$wf=uzdk@twGufudk vlr_t                                 autJ e f , l t zG J @ wpf c k                                                                                                                                     onf? ÔÔÔ
zG@J tpnf;taeeJ@ OD;wnfaqG;aEG;+yD;                  wnf;twGuf omru u&ifwrsKd;
 pmrsufESm- 4                                                                                                                                                                       Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                               atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
      xm;0,fa'owGif xdkif;EdkifiHrS w&m;r0if                                                                                                                                          u&ife Djynfe,f
       qdkifu,frsm;udk tpdk;&wyf zrf;qD;ae                                                                                                                                         &Gmopfqnf wnf
atmufwdkbmv 8&uf? 2012ckESpf/
pzef;a&Smif; (autdkifpD)                                                                                                                                                          aqmufa&; yGifhvif;r_
          weoFm&Dwdkif;/ xm;0,f              tckaemufydkif; r&awmhbl;? vrf;             enf;AsL[mrª; Adkvfrª;}uD;aZmfvGif             v$wfay;wmrsm;awmh jy\emu
c±dkif/ arwœmòrd@e,fcGJ oðyacsmif;&Gm
rSpI tm&Svrf;r}uD;wpfav#muf
                                             awGydwf+yD;awmh zrf;wm? ydkufqH
                                             ay;vnf; r&awmhbl;? qdkifu,f
                                                                                        aX;rS q if j zLwd k i f & G m wG i f v nf ;
                                                                                        aumif;/ a&S@wef; cr&(595) wyf
                                                                                                                                      wjznf;jznf; }uD;vmwJhtcgus
                                                                                                                                      awmh jyef+yD; wif;=uyfwJhoabm
                                                                                                                                                                                  &Sd&ef KCSN awmif;qdk
wGif atmufwdkbmv 5 &ufae@rS                  vnf; t0ifrcHawmhbl;”[k ajym                &if;rª; Adkvfrª;atmifausmfESifh Adkvf         jzpfr,f”[k ajymonf?
                                                                                                                                                                             atmufwdkbmv 2&uf? 2012ckESpf/
pI xdkif;EdkifiHbufjcrf;rS w&m;r0if          qdkonf?                                                             k f kd
                                                                                        }uD;oef@ZifO;D wd@k rS tdi0i;f pcef;wGif                  ,ckrwdkifrDumvY xkdif;
cdk;0ifvmaomqdkifu,frsm;udke,f                         vuf&Sd qdkifu,fzrf;qD;           *dwfrsm;zGifhI aumufcHcJhonf?                 bufjcrf;rS qdkifu,frsm;udk 0,f,l apmcg;pl;nm; (autdkifpD)
ajrcH tpdk;&ppfwyfrsm;u zrf;qD;              onfh xdka'orSm u&iftrsKd;om;                        tqdkyg*dwfrsm;rSm w&m;               &ef jynfwGif;&Sd 0,f,lolrsm;u vl
ta&;,lvsuf&Sdonf?                            tpnf;t±Hk;-KNU wyfr[m(4)                   0if*dwfrsm; xm;&Sdjcif;rsKd; r[kwfbJ          u,f&Drsm;udk bwfaiG 4000rS
          xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyf xdkif;         v_yf&Sm;&m e,fajrjzpf+yD; vGefcJh          tvsOf;oifhovdk qdkifu,fwpfpD;                 5000cef@ iSm;&rf;I w&m;r0if
EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd uefcseyl&Dc±dkifwGif        onfh oDwif;wpfywfcef@u xdkif;rS            udk trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf bwfaiG                   o,faqmifapcJhonf[kod&onf?
qdkifu,faysmufqHk;r_ rsm;jym;vm              jrefrmbufodk@ 0ifa&mufvmaom                500rS 1000txd awmif;cH+yD; jyef                           w&m;r0if qdkifu,f ta&
ojzifh xdkif;tm%mydkifrsm;. tul              qdkifu,fcdk;*dk%f;om; 3OD;udk qdkif        v$wfay;avh&Sd&mrS w&m;r0ifqdkif               twGuf rsm;jym;vmonfh ,if;a'
tnDawmif;cHr_a=umifh xdkodk@ zrf;            u,f 5pD;ESifhtwl KNU wyfzGJ@0if            u,f rsm;jym;vmjcif;jzpfonf[k                  owGif ,cifu ta&;,laqmif&uf          G
qD ; ppf a q;r_ r sm;ðyvk y f j cif ; jzpf   rsm;u zrf;qD;&&Sd+yD; xdkif;tm%m           a'ocHrsm;u ajymonf?                           jcif; r&Sdonfhtjyif e,fajrwnf+idrf
onf[k xdkif;ppfwyfESifh eD;pyfol             ydkifrsm;xHodk@ v$Jajymif;ay;cJhonf?                a'ocHwpfOD;u “tck 'D                 r_ r&SdcJhjcif;wdk@a=umifh ,cktcsdefxd
wpfOD;u autdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?                         ,cifu w&m;r0if qdkif             e,frSm&SdwJh qdkifu,ftm;vHk;vdkvdk            w&m;0ifqdkifu,frsm;udk vdkifpif
          ‚if;u “t&ifu w&m;0if               u,frsm;ESifh cdk;&myg qdkifu,frsm;         u w&m;r0ifwJhenf;eJ@ 0ifa&muf                 rsm; xkwfay;Edkifjcif; r&Sdao;
a&m/ w&m;r0ifa&m tukef&w,f?                  udk vrf;wpfav#muf tpdk;&ppfwyf             vmcsnf;ygyJ? t&ifu ydkufqHay;                 a=umif; a'ocHrsm;u ajymqdkae
                                             rsm; jzpf=uaom a&S@wef; trSwf-2            +yD;awmh o,fvdk@&w,f? tJ'Dvdk                 =uonf? ÔÔÔ

                                                                                                                                                                                              u&ifeD(u,m;)jynfe,f/                      ,if;odk@ ‚if;wdk@ESpfbuf
                                                                                                                                                                                  &Sm;awmòrd@e,f&Sd &GmopfwGif oH              oabmwlnDcJh+yD;aemuf pDrHudef;udk
                                                                                                                                                                                  vGifjrpfa&udk trSDðyI wnfaqmuf               pwif taumiftxnfazmfcJh&m
                                                                                                                                                                                  onfh &GmopfqnfudpP yGifhvif;                 ,cktcsdefwGif pwif wnfaqmufr_
                                                                                                                                                                                  jrifomr_&Sd&ef vdktyfa=umif; u&if            tydkif; ra&mufao;aomfvnf;
                                                                                                                                                                                  eD v l r _ t zG J @ tpnf ; rsm;uG e f , uf   qnfvHkòcHa&;tjzpf tpdk;&wyfrsm;
                                                                                                                                                                                  (KCSN)u &efukefòrd@ pD;wD;pwm;               vma&mufwyfpGJxm;r_rsm; &Sdonf
                                                                                                                                                                                  [dkw,fwGif ,ae@ owif;pm&Sif;                 [k KCSN u qdkonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                  vif;yGJðyvkyfum ajym=um;cJhonf?                       ,ae@rGef;vGJ 2em&DrS nae
                                                                                                                                                                                              KCSN wm0efcHjzpfol cGef;         4em&Dtxd ðyvkyfum jynfwGif;o
                                                                                                                                                                                  rD&,fu “'DqnfpDrHudef;udk t                  wif;axmuf 30ausmf wufa&muf
                                                                                                                                                                                  u,fI r&yfbl;qdk&if (u&ifeD                   cJhonhf ‚if;owif;pm &Sif;vif;yGJwGif
                                                                                                                                                                                  trsKd;om;wdk;wufa&;ygwD-KNPP                 qnfwnfaqmufaecsdef obm0
                                                                                                                                                                                  eJ@ tpdk;&t=um;) +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;          ywf0ef;usifysufpD;r_ESifh vl@tcGifh
                                                                                                                                                                                  aEG;yGJtwGuf taESmuft,Sufjzpf                ta&; csKd;azmufr_rsm; &Sd r&Sdudk
                                                                                                                                                                                  oGm;rSmudk usaemfwdk@ pdk;&drfw,f?           KCSN bufrS uGif;qif;avhvmvdk
                                                                                                                                                                                  'ga=umifh 'DqnfpDrHudef;udk yGifhvif;        a=umif; tpdk;&xH awmif;qdkjcif;
                                                                                                                                                                                  jrifomr_&Sdatmif vkyfoGm;zdk@ tpdk;          jzpfonf[k cGef;bDxl;u ,ckvdk
                                                                                                                                                                                  &udk awmif;qdkwmjzpfw,f”[k                   ajymonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                            ]'DqnfpDrHudef;udk tu,fí r&yfbl;qdk&if (u&ifeDtrsKd;om; wdk;
                                                                                                                                                                                                 D
                                                                                                                                                                                  wufa&;ygw-KNPP eJY tpdk;&tMum;) Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG; aEG;yGJtwGuf t
  qdkifu,fvdkifpif vkyfolrsm; tydk tcGefaiG                                                                                                                                                                                     f                   D H d
                                                                                                                                                                                  aESmuft,Sujf zpfoGm;rSmudkusaemfwYkdpd;k &drw,f?'gaMumifh'Dqnfprue;f udk
                                                                                                                                                                                  yGifhvif; jrifomrI&Sdatmif vkyfoGm;zdkY tpdk;&udk awmif;qdkwmjzpfw,f}
atmufwdkbmv 12&uf? 2012ckESpf/
                ay;aqmif&
apmcg;pl;nm; (autdkifpD)
                                                                                                                                                                                  autdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?                                “'D q nf u d k a qmuf w m
           u&ifjynfe,f/ bk&m;oH;k ql         eD;pyfolwOD;u autdkifpDodk@ ajym           onfh tqdkyg tcGefaiGaumufcHr_                 e,f tcGefXmewdk@u yl;aygif;I ðy                        vuf&Sd jrefrmtpdk;&onf            bmawGjzpfrvJqdkwm rod&ayr,fh
òrd@wGif =umtif;qdyf}uD;òrd@e,f.             onf?                                       udk rar;jref;&Jovdk rnfonfht                  vkyfay;jcif;jzpfjyD; vuf&Sd vdkifpifrJh     KNPP ESifh aqG;aEG;oabmwlnD                  tpdk;&bufuae yGifhyGifhvif;vif;
tcGefXmerS qdkifu,fvdkifpift                            “qdkifu,fvdkifpif vmvkyf        a=umif;a=umifh aumufcHcJhonfudk               qdkifu,fpD;a& oHk;axmifcef@ ðyvkyf          csuft& a&umwm tygt0if t                      csjy+yD;awmhrS vkyfaqmifwJh pDrH
wGuf w&m;0if owfrSwfxm;onfh                  wJholu ray;Edkifvdk@ r[kwfbl;? ±Hk;        vnf; tcGefXmeòrd@e,fOD;pD;rª;buf              ay;cJh+yD; aemufxyf rnfonfhtcsdef           }uD;pm;pDrHudef;vkyfief; ðyvkyfygu           udef; r[kwfbl;? tJ'Dtay:rSm
±Hk;oHk;ESifh taxGaxGtoHk; p&dwfwdk@         oHk;p&dwfeJ@ taxGaxGoHk;p&dwfqdk           rS xkwfazmfajymqdkjcif; r&Sday?               wGif xyfrHðyvkyfay;rnfudk twdt              jynfolvlxkESifh vlr_toif;tzGJ@               tpdk;&taeeJ@ usaemfwdk@udk avh
tjyif acgif;pOfr&Sdonfh tcGefaiG             +yD; xdkif;bwfaiG 140 (jrefrmaiGusyf               trnfrazmfvdkol òrd@cHwpf              us rajymedkifao;ay?                         tay: yGifhvif;jrifomr_&Sd&ef yg0if           vmcGifhay;+yD; yGifhyGifhvif;vif; csjy
tydkaumufcHr_udk qdkifu,fvdkifpif            7axmif) oD;oef@ay;&wmu &Sd+yD;             OD;u “usaemfwdk@u qdkifu,fvdkif                          ‚if;tcGefOD;pD;rª; a':pef;pef;   onf[k olu qufvuf axmufjy                     rSyJ vkyfoifhwmudk qufvkyfygvdk@
vkyfolrsm;u ay;aqmifcJh&onf?                 om;yJ? 'gayr,fh bmacgif;pOfrS              pifvkyfwm ay;aqmif&wJh 0ef                    at;onf ,refae@reufu =um                     ajymqdkcJhonf?                               awmif;qdkwmyg”[k cGef;bDxl;u
           ,if;odk@ tydktcGefaumuf           r[kwfyJ (aiG)170bwfxyfaumuf                aqmifcu oD;oef@yJ? tJ'Dxyf                    tif;qdyf}uD;ðrd@odk@ jyefqif;oGm;jyD;                  &Gmopfqnf wnfaqmuf                ajymqdkonf?
cHr_udk =umtif;qdyf}uD;òrd@e,f.              wmawmh rjzpfoifhbl;”[k ajym                aumufwJhOpPmu bmtwGufvJ                       acgif;pOfr&SdbJ aumufcH&&Sdxm;              a&;pDrHudef;udk taumiftxnf                           Karenni Civil Society
tcGefXme òrd@e,fOD;pD;rª; a':pef;pef;        onf?                                       awmh rodbl;? a=umufvdk@ ar;                   onhf tcGefaiGjzifh bwfajcmuf                azmf aqmif&Guf&ef jrefrmppftpdk;&            Network-KCSN     udk xdkif;-jrefrm
at;uaumuf c H j cif ; jzpf + yD ;                       vuf&SdtcsdefwGif vdkifpifðy     vnf; rar;&Jbl;”[k ajymonf?                    aomif;cef@wef Wave trsKd;tpm;               ESifh w±kwf'gwef ukr`%Dwdk@ 2010             e,fpyftajcpdkuf u&ifeDvli,f
atmufwdkbmv 1&ufrS 10&uf                     vkyf+yD;pD;oGm;onhf bk&m;oHk;qlòrd@                bk&m;oHk;qlòrd@wGif vdkifpif          (0rf;wl;zufzf) qdkifu,fwpfpD;udk            ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvu awG@qHk+yD; ESpfOD;       tzGJ@/ trsKd;orD;tzGJ@ tygt0if
ae@txd bwfaiG ig;odef;eD;yg; &&SdcJh         rS òrd@cH qdkifu,fydkif&Sifrsm;rSm tcGef   rJh qdkifu,frsm;udk ukef;vrf;ydk@             0,f,loGm;cJhonf[k ,if;tpdk;&                ESpfbuf em;vnfr_pmc|efv$m csKyf              vlr_toif;tzGJ@ 9zGJ@jzifh 2009ckESpf
onf[k bk&m;oHk;qlòrd@&Sd tpdk;&ESifh         Xme òrd@e,fOD;pD;rª;. acgif;pOfryg         aqmif a &;n$ e f = um;r_ O D ; pD ; Ïme       ESifh eD;pyfolrsm;. ajymjycsuft&            qdkcJhjcif; jzpfonf?                         wGif pwif zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifcJh
                                                                                        (une)ESifh =umtif;qdyf}uD;òrd@                od&onf? ÔÔÔ                                                                              onf? ÔÔÔ
Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?                                                                                                                                                                                             pmrsufESm- 5
 atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
                               tar if rsm;uk ausmck vsuf
                               tarSSmifnrsm;ukd ausmckdif;vsuf                                                                                                   M²        xufacgif
                                         (1)
           ,ckvxJ awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;twGif; pdwftaESmuft                     pm;wwfcJhol trsm;tjym;rSm 1962vGefumvrsm;wGif awG@vm&aom                 xuf ykdI rsm;vmcJh onf?
,SufjzpfzG,f/ pdwfylpkd;&drfzG,f jzpf&yftcsKd@ESifh ywfoufI tcsKd@yk*~dKvfrsm;     ynma&;0efxrf; (txl;ojzifh ausmif;q&mr)rsm;tay: av;pm;vkdpdwf                           xkdq&m/ q&mrawGrSm aiGay;Ekdifaom ausmif;olausmif;om;
a&;om;t}uHðycJh=u+yD;jzpfaoma=umifh usaemfhtaejzifh txl;wvnf                       rsm; ukefcrf;vm=uonf? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDacwfESifh rqvacwf                ukd twef;omatmifap+yD; wu,fwrf; ynmwwfajrmufatmifrl oif
a&;&efvkdrnf r[kwfacs? avmavmq,f autJef,ltwGif; jzpf&SdcJhonfh                     q&mr trsm;pkrSm ppfAkdvf/ t&mcHAkdvf/ wyf=uyf polwkd@. r,m;awG           ray;Ekdif=u?
tajctaeukd tusOf;r#azmfjy+yD; ArmjynfESifh ywfoufonfh ynma&;/                      jzpf.? ppftkyfpk. tpDtpOft& t&yfom;q&m q&mrtcsKd@ukd ðzwf                              pma&;rukd yg;±kdufonfh ygarmuQr/ ausmif;olukd t"rRausmif;
usef;rma&;u¾ nHHhzsif;r_rsm;ESifh vlrsKd;a&;/ ppfa&;/ EkdifiHa&; u¾tcsKd@          xkwf/ tcsKd@ukd we,fwaus;ykd@um ‚if;wkd@vlrsm;ukd cef@xm;=ujcif;         xkwfrnfðyonfh ausmif;tkyfq&mr/ ausmif;olausmif;om;awGxHrS
ukdom tenf;i,fr# wifjyvkdonf?                                                      jzpfonf?                                                                 ausmif;0ifa=u;tjyif vmbfaiGodef;csDI ,lae=uonfh ausmif;tkyfq&mr
           ppftkyfpkESifh +idrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;aeqJrSmyif ESpfbufqufqHa&;±kH;               ppftkyfpku cef@vkdufaom q&mrtrsm;tjym;rSm wynfhawG t          ESifh tjcm;q&mrrsm;/ rdrdusL±Sifukd rwuf&aumif;vm;qkd+yD; ausmif;ol
zGifhonfhudpPESifh ywfouf+yD; autJef,lA[kdESifh autJeft,fvfatwyf                   ay: oabmxm; apwemrrSef=u/ tcsKd@qkdv#if wynfhtay: apwemvkH;0             ausmif;om;ukd EdSyfpufonfh ausmif;q&mr/ oli,fwef;ausmif;om;
rª;tcsKd@t=um; jy\emtenf;i,f&SdcJhonfhtay: tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;                        r&Sd=uolawGjzpfonf? q&mtwwfoifausmif;ukd wufcJhonfqkdaomf                uav;tm; rqifrjcif tarSmifcef;ydwf+yD; '%fay;cJh&m tarSmifcef;
jyefvnfoifhjrwfajyvnfapa&; tcsif;csif; n‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf? ppf              vnf; oif=um;r_ t&nftcsif; nHhzsif;±kHru/ oif=um;onfh bmom&yfukd          a=umufoGm;cJhonfh uav;ukd aemufw}udrfwGifvnf; xkdokd@ '%fay;&ef
OD;pD;csKyf tygt0if wm0ef&SdoltcsKd@ukd &mxl;rSvnf;aumif;/ autJef,l                ykdifEkdifatmif óud;pm;tm;xkwf avhvmr_r&Sd/ ukd,fhukd,fukd,f [kwfvS+yD   twif;qGJac:&mwGif uav;u cJwHESifhwifyg;ukd xkd;aoma=umifh uav;
tzGJ@tpnf;0iftjzpfrSvnf;aumif; xkwfy,fcJhaomudpPonf w&m;                           odvS+yD[k xifae=uolawGom jzpf.?                                          ukd vufvGefajcvGef yg;cs+yD; uav;±l;aeI ausmif;okd@vmykd@p&m rvkd
Oya'txuf ppfOD;pD;csKyf &Sdaeonfh Armjynf ppftkyfpkukd tawmfuav;                              ocFsmoifoluvnf; ocFsmukd aumif;pGmrykdif/ wynfhawGESifhtwl    a=umif;/ aq;q&m0efqD oGm;jyzkd@vkda=umif; uav;rdcifukd arSmufrmpGm
rsufckH;yifh ausmcsrf;oGm;apcJhonf? autJef,lESifh autJeft,fvfat                    0kdif;wGuf&if;rSmyif ‚if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif csmvnf vnfaeaom q&mrawG          ajymqkdcJhonfh q&mrwkd@rSm ppftkyfpkvufxufwGif tòydif;t±kdif; ay:
wyf uGJrnfhudpPtwGuf ‚if;wkd@ pdwfwGif;rSmawmh tawmfyif auseyftm;&                 &Sdonf? t*Fvdyfpm oif=um;&mwGifvnf; jyXmef;pmtkyfrSm tbd"mefxJrS         aygufvmaom ynma&;Xme tr_dufo±kdufrsm; jzpfavonf? ‚if;wkd@ xkd
wufºuGae=urnf jzpfonf?                                                             t"dy`g,fawG a&; xm;+yD; wae@enf;enf; zwfjy bmomjyefjyonfuvGJI            okd@ ðyusifh&Jjcif;rSm ‚if;wkd@ ausmaxmufaemufcHðyaeaom ppftkyfpku
           wu,fawmh autJeft,fvfatqkdonfrSm autJef,lu arG;                          t*Fvdyfpmukd wu,fwrf;wwfajrmufatmif roifwwfol awGvnf;                    oif=um;ay;vkdufaom a=umifhyif jzpf.?
zGm;vmaomwyfjzpfI autJef,l tpnf;t±kH;0ifyif jzpfonf? autJef                        &Sdonf? ocFsmESifh t*Fvdyfpmukd rqkdxm;ESifh jrefrmpm jrefrmuAsmukdyif              ynma&;qkdonfrSm avmuD avmukwœ&m aumif;usKd;aqmif
,lESifh autJeft,fvfatukd cGJjcm;r&? tzGJ@tpnf;ESifh wyfukd woD;w                   tvGJvGJtacsmfacsmf oif=um;wwfaom ppfom;r,m;rsm;vnf; trsm;                onfh rGefjrwfaomudpP&yf jzpfonf? q&mxHarSmuf ynm&yfrsm;ukd
jcm;pD cGJxkwfqufqHvkdIvnf; r&? autJef,ltzGJ@tpnf; òyduGJEkdifrnfh                 tjym; &Sdavonf?                                                          oif=um;&mwGif ±kdusKd; wkyfuG ysyf0yf emcHvsuf/ q&mukd cspfa=umuf±kdao
udpPukd pkd;&drfpdwfjzifh =um;0if n‡dE_dif;                                                                                                                                                        cJ=h uaom a&S;vl}uD; olrrsm;taejzifh
t}uHðyaom u&iftzGJ@tpnf;tcsKd@                                                                                                                                                                     ,ae@acwf ynma&;avmuwGif;rS
vnf;&Sdonf? rdrdwkd@tcsif;csif; pnf;                                                                                                                                                               q&mhusifh0wfESifh rukdufnD/ wynfh
a0;aqG;aEG;+yD;aemufwGif u&ifvlxk                                                                                                                                                                  rsm;tm; wu,fhynmwwfajrmuf
. tm;ukd;tm;xm;ðy&m tzGJ@t                                                                                                                                                                         atmif oif=um;ay;Ekdifonfh t&nf
pnf;tjzpf tESpf 60ausmf rm;rm;                                                                                                                                                                     tcsif;r&Sdaom q&m q&mrrsm;ukd
rwfrwf &yfwnfcJhaom autJef,l                                                                                                                                                                       jrifv#if rdrdwkd@ om;ajr;rsm;twGuf
onf u&ifwrsKd;om;vkH;. tusKd;                                                                                                                                                                      pdwfvufrat; jzpf=u&ayvdrfhrnf?
ukd a&S@±_+yD; tzGJ@tpnf;. *k%foduQm                                                                                                                                                                        txl;ojzifh xkdq&mrawGukd
ESifh pnf;vkH;nD!$wfr_twGuf ppfOD;                                                                                                                                                                 rdrdwkd@ wm0ef,loif=um;rnfh bm
pD;csKyfESifh wm0ef&Sdyk*~dKvfrsm;tm;                                                                                                                                                              om&yfESifhywfoufI tqifhjrifhjrifh
rl v &mxl ; rsm;jyef v nf t yf E S i f ;                                                                                                                                                           wwfu|rf; em;vnfatmifomru/
a=umif;/ tzGJ@tpnf;wGif;rS jy\                                                                                                                                                                     vl@todpdwf"mwfESifh vl@,Ofaus;r_
emrsm;ukd oifykef;acs jynfzkH;um;cs                                                                                                                                                                ukdyg oabmayguf em;vnfEkdifa&;
vkdufa=umif; qkH;jzwfa=unmEkdifcJh                                                                                                                                                                          hf                  d
                                                                                                                                                                                                   avhusioif=um;ay;zk@d &ef vktyfrnf
onf? &efol0rf;omauseyfaprnfh                                                                                                                                                                       jzpfavonf?
tjzpfrsKd; a&S@quf rjzpfapa&; t                                                                                                                                                                                       (5)
csif;csif; &if=um;aphcJh=uonf?                                                                                                                                                                              a&m*g&SmazGukoa&;ESifh ywf
           rnfr#yif aoGznfvrf;vGJ                                                                                                                                                                  oufI acwfrSD pufu&d,mrsm; wyf
ajcacsmfvufacsmf,kdifeJ@r_rsm; &SdcJhap                                                                                                                                                            qifxm;aom yk*~vdu aq;±kH}uD;
umrl autJef,lonf jynfwGif;jynf                                                                                                                                                                     awG trsm;tjym; ay:vmonf?
y te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS tm;ay; axmufulr_rsm;jzifh rdrdvrf;a=umif;t                                omoemðyausmif;rsm;wGif rlvwef;upI t*FvdyfpmoifcJh&mrS          aq;±kHwufc odef;ESifhcsDIukefusrnf jzpfaoma=umifh omrefvufvkyf
wkdif; wnfhrwfckdifusnfpGm qufvufav#mufvSrf;Ekdifa&; rqkwfrepf                     jynfolykdifodrf;vkduf+yD;onfhaemuf tjcm;t pkd;&txufwef;ausmif;rsm;       vufpm; vlxktaejzifh tem;yif ruyfEkdif? ppftkyfpk. c±kdeDawGESifh ppf
vkyfaqmifoGm;vdrfhrnf jzpf.?                                                       enf;wl (5)wef;a&mufrS t*Fvdyfpm poifonfhpepfukd óuHvkduf&olrsm;rSm       tkyfpk tpG,ftyGm;rsm; zGifhxm;onfh aq;±kH}uD;rsm; jzpfonf? rqvacwf
                                         (2)                                       tawmfyif uoduatmuf jzpf=u&onf? wkdif;jynfESifht0Srf; t*Fvdyf             u ckdif;E_dif; ajymqkdcJhaom apwemq&m0efESifh tojymq&m0efrSm ,ck
               A[ef;tJeft,fvf'D±kH;Y tar&dum;jyef tawG@tóuHrsm; &Sif;              pmawGnHhukef+yD; ‚if;wkd@om;orD;rsm;yg t*Fvdyfpm nHhzsif;aomtcgrS        acwfwGif tojymq&m0efom &Sdawmha=umif; o±kyfazmfaejcif; jzpf
vif;jyae&if; ArmEkdifiH ynma&;pepfrSm tESpf 50 ausmf nHhzsif;cJha=umif;            rlvwef;u poifonfhpepfukd jyefIajymif;cJhonf? ausmif;om;ausmif;ol         onf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf ajymvkdufonfhowif;ukd zwf&onf? 1962ckESpf/                      wkd@. pdwfyg0ifpm;r_ESifh yifukd,f t&nftaoG;ukd tav;*±krðy/ bmom                    ,cifu tcrJhukocGifh &cJhaom jynfol@aq;±kHrsm;rSm rqvacwf
rwfv AkdvfcsKyfae0if; awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu wkdif;jynftm%mukd odrf;                  &yfwpfckY owfrSwfxm;aom atmifrSwfxuf rqkdpavmuf avsmhenf;±kH             uwnf;uyif xkdufoifhoavmuf tukeftuscHcJh=u&+yD jzpf+yD; ,ckacwf
ykdufvkduf+yD;uwnf;u t&m&mukd csKyfukdifEkdifzkd@&ef óud;pm;cJhjcif; jzpf          jzifh usefbmomtm;vkH;vkdvkd xl;c|efonfhwkdif us±_H;tjzpf owfrSwfwwf      p&dwfr#ay; usef;rma&; tpDtpOfrSmvnf; aq;±kHawGrSm aq;r&SdI q&m
onf? tm%modrf;+yD; r=umrDrSmyif EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh wkdif;&if;om;              onfh ynma&;pepfESifh/ ody`HbmomwGJ 0dZ…mbm omwGJrsm; cGJjcm;vkduf        0efa&;ay;aom aq;zkd;0g;cukd jyifyrS0,f,l&+yD; q&m0ef q&mrwkd@t
acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd axmifxJzrf;xnfh/ aiGpuULrsm; w&m;r0if odrf;qnf;                 jcif;wkd@rSm ausmif;om;ausmif;olwkd@tm; ‚if;wkd@ tm;oef&m bmom&yf        wGufyg ylaZmfay;urf;&aoma=umifh p&dwfr#ay;r[kwfawmhyJ p&dwft
onfhtay: ausmif;om;awGu qlyluef@uGufcJhonfwGif ausmif;om;                          ukd ‚if;wkd@oabmESifh‚if;wkd@ avhvmvkdufpm;r_ rðyEkdifatmif wm;qD;ydwf   ukefuscH&onfh tpDtpOfyif jzpfaeavonf?
or*~ukd AkH;cGJum ausmif;om;awGukd zrf;qD; ESdyfpuf owfjzwfjcif;jzifh              yifvsuf/ ‚if;wkd@ pdwfyg0ifpm;r_r&Sdaom bmom&yfukd trSDðyI toufarG;                 yk*~vduaq;±kH}uD;rsm;rS txl;ukqkdaom q&m0ef}uD;rsm;.
jy\emukd ajz&Sif;&ef óud;pm;cJhonf? ,cifuwnf;u AkdvfcsKyf atmif                    &ef uef@owfvkdufovkd jzpfae+yD; wkdif;jynfwkd;wufatmif vkyfaqmifEkdif    t&nftcsif;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; tm;xm;,kH =unfavmufp&mr&Sd? xkd
qef;tygt0if Armjynf vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ0if ynmwwfausmif;om;                         rnfh vli,fxk. tem*wfukd arSmifcsvkdufjcif;om jzpfavonf? awmf             aq;±kH}uD;rsm;wGif aiGaomufaomufvJ tukefcH+yD; vl@b0ukd ausmckdif;
rsm;ukd ,SOfòydkifI r&yJ trkef;}uD; rkef;cJh aom AkdvfcsKyfae0if;rSm ArmEkdifiH.   vSefa&;aumifpDESifh rqvu prf;oyfcJhonfh ynmoif=um;r_pepfrSm              pGef@cGmoGm;=u&olawGrSm renf;raem jzpf.? vufwnfhprf; ukowwf=u
ynma&;pepfukd wrifyif tcsdef,l zsufqD;cJhjcif; jzpf.?                              Armjynfom; ausmif;om;vli,frsm;. awG;q qifjcifEkdifr_ yrm%ESifh           aom ‚if;wkd@tay: ,kH=unfr_ r&Sdaoma=umifh aiGwwfEkdifoltcsKd@rSm
               jynfolykdifodrf;onf[kqkdum jynfwGif; t&if;&Sif vkyfief;&Sifwkd@     b0vrf;a=umif;ukd abmifcwfcsKyfcs,f csKd;ESdrfapmfum;aom ynma&;           xkdif;ESifh puFmylwkd@txd oGm;a&muf uko=u&onf?
. puf±kHtvkyf±kHrsm;ukd odrf;&mwGif omoem ðyausmif;rsm;ESifh yk*~vdu               pepf jzpf.?                                                                         ppftkyfpkvufatmuf ArmjynfvlxkrSm a&m*gukor_ tawG@
ausmif;rsm;ukdyg tpkd;&ykdiftjzpf odrf;,lvsuf ArmEkdifiH. ynma&;pepfukd                                               (4)                                   tóuHenf;yg;+yD; vlemtay: aoG;om;&if;jcmvkd pdwfapwem rxm;Ekdif
xifovkdcs,fvS,f csKyfukdifEkdif&ef óud;pm;cJhonf?                                               rSwfOm%ft&nftcsif; nHhzsif;onfhtjyif awG;qqifjcifEkdifr_    aom/ trSm;ukd wm0efr,lEkdifaom q&m0efrsm;ESifh ,Ofyg;tom;usaecJh
                                         (3)                                       todw&m;r&Sd/ avhvmtm;xkwfr_ enf;yg;+yD; ausmif;om;awGtay:rSmyg           =u+yD jzpfonf? &efukef teD;0ef;usif òrd@aevlxktaejzifhrl ausmfol. em
           1962ckESpf rwkdifrDu ausmif;q&m q&mrrsm;tay: ±kdaoav;                   apwem csKd@wJhacgif;yg;onfh q&mrrsm;rSm ,ckacwfwGif rqvacwfu             a&;ulnDr_toif;ESifh jrwfokcaq;cef;wkd@ukdom tm;ukd;tm;xm;ðy ae&
 pmrsufESm- 6                                                                                                                                                Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?
                                                                                                                                                                        atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
avonf?                                                                          tay: tav;teuf rxm;a=umif;ESifh/ rSefrSefuefuef raqG;aEG;ygu
                                    (6)                                         wkdufyGJrsm;ukd qufvuf&ifqkdif&ef tqifoifh &Sdaea=umif; autkdifatu
                                                                                                                                                                       rmvdefrSL; tvdk&Sdonf
          ArmEkdifiH. ynma&;pepfukd jr‡ifhwif&eftwGuf ppftkyfpktaejzifh         xkwfazmfjyovkdufjcif;yif jzpfonf? wkdif;&if;om;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tae
tawG;tac:awGukd jyifzkd@vkda=umif; ukdrif;ukdEkdif ajym.? ynma&;ESifh           jzifhvnf; zkwfylrD;wkduf awG@qkHum 'a&maomyg;ESifh pum;awG pGwfu|H+yD;
                                                                                                                                                                                         vuFm'Dy
usef;rma&;udpPukd umuG,fa&;tokH;p&dwfavmufyif wefzkd;rxm;aom                    &efoltzkd@ tm;&auseyfaprnfh aqG;aEG;yGJrsKd;rjzpf&ef *±kpkduf=u&rnf jzpf                                =urf;=urf;wvSnfh zGzGwcg
ppftkyfpk. nHhzsif;r_rsm;ukd qkdvkdjcif; jzpfonf? rnfonfhjynfy&efr# r&SdyJ      onf?                                                                                                       eif;0ifvmwJh ajcoHawG
jynfwGif;ppfukd tawmrowf awmufavmifap+yD; ppfa&;tokH;p&dwf                                                            (7)                                                            uacsonfrav;&Jh rm,mnOf
rsm;ukd tqifhqifh ckd;0Sufpm;&if;jy=uum/ wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh vlxkxHrS                         +yD;cJhonfhtacguf EkdifiHjcm;ukd rdrdwkd@ukd,fpD tusKd;tjrwftwGuf                                  yÌvuf pufuGif;
om ay:wmzrf;/ t"rR vkyftm;ay;ac:/ vrf;jyifa=u;/ bma=u;nma=u;/                   toD;oD; xGufcGm=upOf a':atmif qef;pk=unfu pef&SifawG ±kwfodrf;r,f                                          csnf;eif; raysmf0ifrdap
trsKd;rsKd;aumufcH+yD; aumuf&or# tcGeftwkyfrsm;ukd a0pkcGJvsuf rdrd             qkd&if axmufcHa=umif; ajymcJhvkdufonfESifh ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif ta&òcH                           arcvma& ighvrf;igoGm;r,f z,ftHk;?
wkd@tm%mwnf +rJEkdifa&; txufukd tqifhqifh yHhykd;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf?             orRwodef;pdefuvnf; a':pkukd vlxkvufcH&if orRw jzpfEkdifa=umif;                                              w&m;wJh 'Dc&D;&SnfxJ
ArmEkdifiH. umuG,fa&;tokH;p&dwfqkdonfrSm ‚if;wkd@ ppftkyfpktwGuf                ajymvkdufonf? tajccHOya't& rjzpfEkdifrSef;odvsuf/ pef&Sif±kwfodrf;a&;                              vrf;cGJoGm; nDtpfudkawmfwawGudk
oydwf0iftdwf0if ajAmifusus ckd;,lzkd@omjzpf.? umuG,fa&;tokH;                    udpP a':atmifqef;pk=unf. axmufcHr_tay: wkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh                                            idk,dkrsuf&nfprf;eJ@ wrf;w
p&dwfawG trsm;tjym; &,lxm;aom ppftkyfpk.wyfonf ArmjynfxJ                        avmuGwfacsmf ajymqkdvkdufaom tESpfrJhpum;om jzpfonf?                                                 ESarsmvSvnf; rwwfEdkifaybl;
rSm bmawGukdrsm; umuG,faeygoenf;?                                                          xkdpum;ukd =um;onfESifh ppftkyfpkvufatmuf v$wfawmfrSaeI                                             c&D;OD; rcsKd;rusKd;
            &ckdifrSm t"du±k%f;awG xyfrHjyif;xefvmonfhudpP? ausmuf              tajccHOya'ukdf jyifzkd@&ef rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# rjzpfEkdifawmha=umif; r=um                           wdk;vdk@om quful;vdkufr,f 'Dc&D;
jzL awmifukwf/ ppfawGwkd@u pcJhonfh &ckdifb*FgvD yÉdyuQrSm ajrmufOD;/           ao;rDurS tenf;i,f &dyfrdvmcJhaom a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf;                                          eD;wvSnfh a0;wvSnfh &Sdprf;ygapaygh?
oHwGJ/ wkd@rSaeI &rf;+AJ/ rif;jym;/ ajrykH/ ausmufawmf/ &aohawmifwkd@           rdrdfom orRwtm %mukd&v#if vlxktusKd;twGuf jyifqifp&m&SdwmawG                                  a&S@aemufawmifajrmuf xufatmuf0J,m
txd ysH@ESH@vmcJh+yDjzpf+yD; tdrfrsm; rD;±_d@cH&/ ESpfbufvlrsm; tjyeftvSef      jyifqifEkdifaumif;&J@[laomt}uHjzifh tJeft,fvf'D OuUÏtjzpfaum                                      vmr,fh tEœ&m,fawGu trsm;om;
owfjzwf aoa=uae=u&onf? wpfckxl;xl;qef;qef; =um;&onfrSm                          orRwtjzpfyg vkyfaqmif&Ja=umif; ajymvkdufjyefavonf? okd@&mwGif                                   yg;yg;eyfeyf udkifwG,fumuG,fay;Edkifol
jrefrmppfwyfu &ckdifrsm;ukd wrifyif aoaocsmcsm csdef&G,f ypfcwfcJh=u            ajymqkdykH enf;vrf;rusaoma=umifh ol@ukd trSDðyvsuf tjrwfxkwf&ef                                      rleJ@vrf;pOfudk tmrcHr,fhvlpm;
onfukd rsufjrifoufaorsm;u jyefvnfazmfxkwfvmjcif; jzpfonf?                       uyf&yfcsD;yifh ae=uoltcsKd@xHrSty vlxkxHurl pdwf0ifwpm; v_dufvSJ                                       'Gd[ ryGm;wwfwJh a&S@aqmif
wkdif;&if;om; jynfolvlxk. touftkd;tdrfukd umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&                   axmufcHr_r&Sdaom rvkdvm;zG,ftoHrsm;ukd jyefI =um;odcJh&avonf?                                  a=umifawmif ra,mifcsmwwfwJhvrf;jy
rnfhwyfonf trsKd;om;a&;wm0efukd opPmazmufum &ckdifwkdif;&if;om;                            ppftkyfpkESifh rnfr#yif tvGrf;oifhonfjzpfap ppfwyfukd rcsKyf                                 pGrf;pjynfh rmvdefrª;aumif;
awGukd ypfcwfae+yD jzpf.? wbufrS aiGa=u;jzifh ckdif;apaoma=umifh vkyf           ukdifEkdifyJ orRwvkyfrnfqkdv#if óud;qGJcH orRwomjzpfEkdifayvdrfhrnf?                               tif; igawmif;wrdwmawmhtrSef?
ay;=ujcif;jzpfa=umif; a'ocHtcsKd@u qkdonf?                                      xkdtwGif; ,cifjynfyc&D;pOfwkef;u orRwoufwrf; wpf}udrfomvkyf                                                 0D&D, ZGJ vHk@v ynm
            &ckdifjynfe,fxJ usL;ausmfapmfum;onfh b*FgvD±kd[if*smrsm;            rnf[k qkdcJhaom ta&òcHorRwodef;pdefuvnf; vlxkvufcHv#ifaemuf                                             &wemudk tcsdefeJ@ toHk;cs
udpP wyfrawmfESifhvufwGJ+yD; wwyfwtm; yg0ifwkdufzsufoGm;rnf[k                   wpf}udrf orRw oufwrf;twGuf pOf;pm;rnfjzpfa=umif; qkdvkdufjyef                                        tqHk;tprjrif 'Dyifv,fc&D;rSm
88acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfol ukdukd}uD;u ajymcJhonf? a&$n0gq&mawmfu                  onf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. pum;aum/ ta&òcHorRw.pum;yg ±_H@                                                  rmvdefr_;aumif;&SdaeoI
vnf; ppftkyfpk&J@ axmifacsmufxJ t0ifrcH&ef rdef@=um;+yD; wu,fwrf;               csnfESyfcsnf uav;uvm;pum;rsm;yif jzpf.?                                                                 tauGht0dkuf t±_duftiif
jzpfvmygu rdrdwkd@oHCmrsm;uyg wyfrawmfeJ@vufwGJ+yD; umuG,fwkduf                            Armjynf.vuf&Sdtaetxm;rSm oef;acgifxufeufaomnOfh                                           b,fvdkyif 0J=oCxlajymygap
zsufoGm;rnfhta=umif; ajymcJhonf? vlxktaejzifhrl ,ckvkdykHpHrsKd;jzifh           rsm;ukd ausmfjzwf+yD; a&mifeDysKd@vkqJqJ tcsdeftcgokd@ a&muf&Sdae+yDjzpf                           aoaoa=ua=u ul;cyfypfvdkufr,f
wyfrawmfqkdonfh jynfzsufppftkyfpk vuf yg;aprsm;ESifh vufwGJa&;ukd               onf? jynfolvlxkonf ykyfa[mifeHapmfaeaom awmfvSefa&;aumifpD                                          vmprf;uG,f avmu"Hw&m;rsm;?
rnfuJhokd@ ,kH=unfukd;pm;&rnfenf;?                                              acwf/ rqvacwf/ e0w etzacwfrsm;ukd tvl;vl;tvdrfhvdrfh ausmf                                                  wrsKd;om;vHk;&J@a&S@a&;
          r=umao;rDu wkdif;&if;om;tiftm;pkrsm;. ,ltJeftufzfpDESifh              jzwfvmcJh+yD;aemuf ta&òcHorRwacwfrSaeI ±kef;xGufvGwfajrmufEkdif&ef                                awG;awG;qq udkifwG,fxdef;ausmif;
awG@vkda=umif; OD;atmifrif; ajymcJhonf? ucsifESifhvnf; a&$vDrSm awG@            tHcJóud;yrf;vsuf&Sdae.? vufyefawmif;awmifudpP v_yf&Sm;aºuG;a=umf                                armif;ESifr,f yifv,fjyif[dkbufurf;
qkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ &Sdae.? ESpfbuf awG@qkHaqG;aEG;&ef jyifqifaecsdefrSmyif ppf     oHrsm;vkd/ &efukef rEœav; puf±kHtvkyf±kHwkd@rS tvkyform; qENjyyGJrsm;                                  v_dif;=urf; rkef;wdkif;awG&Sdr,f
tkyfpkwyfrsm;. ucsife,fajrtwGif; vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_rsm;ESifh            vkd/ v,fodrf;cH ajrodrf;cHwkd@. rauseyfcsufrsm;vkd/ usL;ausmfapmfum;cH                                     tajymus,fwJh tÀ0g
wkdufyGJawGuawmh qufvuf &SdaeqJ jzpfonf? +yD;cJhonfh autkdiftkd                 wkdif;&if;om;a'orsm;&Sd 'kuQonfpcef;rsm;rS wufacgufoHrsm;vkd/ tqifh                                 rn‡mwwfwJh oabmvnf; &Sdr,f
wnfaxmifr_ ESpfywfvnfae@rSmawmh autkdifatu rdrde,fajrtwGif;rS                   qifh zdESdyfr_rsm; cHae&onfh wyfrawmftwGif;rS atmufajc t &mcHt=uyf                                   wu,fudk trSm;rcHwJh vrf;rdk@
ppftkyfpk. wyfpcef;tcsKd@ukd vufeuf}uD;rsm;jzifh ypfcwfum autkdiftkd            wyfom;rsm;. tH}udwfoHrsm;vkd/ vlxkt=um; rmefoGif;oHrsm; nHvmcJh                                       a&G;=updk@av rmvdrfr_;aumif;
ae@ukd *k%fðyvkdufa=umif;ESifh ppftkyfpkwyfrsm;bufuvnf; a'gow}uD;               +yDqkdv#if Armjynf. ynma&;/ usef;rma&;/ trsKd;om;a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/                                           aZmif;wif armif;wif
jyefvnf&rf;orf;ypfcwfcJha=umif;/ autkdiftkdbufu ypfcwfr_rSm ppftkyf             ,Ofaus;r_udpPt00onfvnf; yGifhvif;aom aea&mifjcnfatmuf                                        aomif;b0if at;jrapr,fh vlpm; vlom;odk@?
pkwyftcsKd@ukd aoa=u xdckdufapcJhaomfvnf; ppftkyfpkwyf. vufeuf                  awmufyvmEkdifawmhrnf jzpfavonf? ÔÔÔ
}uD;awGuawmh autkdiftkdukd xdckdufr_r&SdcJha=umif; =um;od&onf?                                                                                                 atmufwdkbm 22&uf/ 2012ckESpf
          tcgrsm;pGm tvdrfcHcJh&+yD;jzpfaom ppftkyfpkESifh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ

    ]autJef,l acgif;aqmifwkdif; vlxktoHudk em;pGifhzdkŒ/ yl;aygif;_yD;                   umwGef;
  jywfom; &J&ifh-uzdkŒ}awmifuav;q&mawmf rdefŒqdk¹rGuf-um;³³³³³³rS
                             tquf                                                                   u
=ur,fqdk&if u&iftrsKd;om;wdk@ &nfrSef;xm;wmawG vuf0,frkcs
a&muf&SdvmrSmjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh u&iftrsKd;om;tm;vkH;[m ,Ofaus;
r_tarG tESpfyJjzpfjzpf/ u&ifhordkif;a=umif;yJjzpfjzpf od&Sd em;vnfzdk@vnf;
vdkygw,f?
           aemuf+yD;awmh wdk@u&ifvlrsKd;awG[m tcsif;csif; ±kdaoav;pm;
&rSmudk 0efav;=uw,f? u&ifvlrsKd;r[kwfwJh wjcm;vlrsKd;awG&J@ rajzmifh
rwfwJh zsm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifr_awGudkusawmh vdkuf,kHw,f? vdkufpk
aqmif;w,f? vdkuf+yD; zufwG,faewwfw,f? tJvdkpdwfxm;awG[m
u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±kH; KNU xJrSm rxm;ygeJ@awmhvdk@ OD;Zif;ajym
csifygw,f?
           aemufqkH; KNU u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±kH;}uD;udk rSmcsifwmu
awmh u&iftrsKd;om;w&yfvkH;twGuf &yfwnfaew,fvdk@ udk,fhudk,fudk
em;vnfxm;w,fqdk&if udk,fhvlrsKd;r[kwfwJh wjcm;olawGvm+yD; jzm;
a,mif;aoG;aqmifaewmawG/ vm+yD; csD;rGrf;ºuGm;0gaewmawG/ vm+yD;
vdrfvnfaewJhol wpfOD;wa,mufudkrS r,kH=unfrdygapeJ@? u&iftrsKd;
om;w&yfvkH; pnf;vkH;nD!$wf=u+yD;awmh KNU u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t
±kH;taeeJh &$ifvef;csrf;ajrhjcif;/ at;csrf;om,mjcif;/ okcaygif;pkHeJ@ &if0,f
ydkufEdkifygapvdk@ OD;Zif; pdwfqEN&Sda=umif; rSm=um;csifygw,f? ÔÔÔ

Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?                                                                                                                                                           pmrsufESm- 7
 atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
               ]autJef,l acgif;aqmifwkdif; vlxktoHudk                                                                                                                                           vli,frsm;&J@
                em;pGifhzdk@/ yl;aygif;+yD; jywfom; &J&ifh=uzdk@}                                                                                                                              pum;vufaqmif
                awmifuav;q&mawmf rdef@qdk¹rGuf=um;
Edk0ifbmv 1&uf? 2012ckESpf/ (autdkifpD)
      u&ifjynfe,f/ zm;tHòrd@e,f&Sd awmifuav;q&mawmf OD;ynmomrdtm; vuf&Sd autJef,ltay: tjrifoabmxm;udk autdkifpDrS oGm;
a&mufawG@qHk ar;jref;xm;jcif;jzpfonf?
                                                                                                                  ar; – q&mawmftaeeJ@
                                                                                                                    vuf&Sd tajctae/ vkyf
                                                                                                                                      KNU&J@
                                                                                                         aqmifcsuf/ &yfwnfcsufawGudk b,f
                                                                                                         vdkjrifygovJ? q&mawmf&J@ tjrifo
                                                                                                         abmxm;udk odcsifygw,f?
                                                                                                                  ajz – KNU &J@ vkyfaqmif
                                                                                                         csufawGeJ@ ywfouf+yD; OD;Zif;&J@
                                                                                                         oabmxm;tjrifudk ajym&r,fqdk&if
                                                                                                         KNU acgif;aqmifwdkif;[m u&ifvlxk
                                                                                                         &J@toHudk em;pGifhzdk@ vdkygw,f? tJvdk
                                                                                                         u&ifvlxk&J@toHudk tav;rxm;bl;
                                                                                                         qdk&ifawmh tckvkyfaewJh +idrf;csrf;a&;
                                                                                                         u atmifjrifr_&zdk@ cJ,Of;ygvdrfhr,f?
                                                                                                                  tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;rSm acgif;
                                                                                                         aqmifydkif; rnDr!$wf jzpfaewmawG/
                                                                                                         tjyeftvSef av;pm;r_ tm;enf;ae                                                 apmqmavmvm;           24ESpf
wmawG/ EdkifiHa&;tydkif;udk od&Sdem;vnf zdk@ tm;xkwfr_avsmh&JwmawG[m u&ifvlxkwpf&yfvkH;twGuf a&S@qufoGm;rJh EdkifiHa&;vrf;pOf(rl0g')udk                                                0goem                 vlrIa&;eJY EdkifiHa&;
t[ef@twm;jzpf+yD; =uef@=umapygw,f? EdkifiHtwGif;ydkif;udk jyef0ifvmzdk@qdkwmuvnf; cufcJygvdrfhr,f? +yD;awmh 'DtcuftcJ=um;rSm KNU [m
                                                                                                                                                                                       ynm                   q,fwef;atmif
olrsm;awGxuf ydk+yD; cufcJaewm[mvnf; 0rf;enf;p&myg?
         u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±kH; KNU [m EdkifiHa&;enf;AsL[mawG bufaygif;pkH od&Sdem;vnfzdk@ vdktyfovdk EdkifiHa&; tcif;tusif;awGudk od&Sd
                                                                                                                                                                                                  usaemfu weoFm&Dwdkif; +rdwf-xm;0,f xl;zpfyavmaus;&Gm
em;vnfzdk@ rsKd;qufopfvli,fawGudkvnf; ðypkysKd;axmifay;zdk@vnf; txl;vdktyfygw,f? KNU tzGJ@tpnf;xJrSm rsKd;qufopfvli,fawGtaeeJ@
                                                                                                                                                                                       Zmwdyg? tazu qufoG,fa&;wyfrS awmfvSefa&;orm;/ taru
yl;aygif;yg0ifr_r&Sdbl;? EdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; oif,lavhvmr_r&Sdbl;? 'Dtwdkif;om qufoGm;r,fqdk&ifawmh KNU tpnf;t±kH;}uD;&J@ aemufqufwGJ
                                                                                                                                                                                       ausmif;q&mryg? arG;csif;armifESr 4a,mufrSm 'kwd,ajrmufom; jzpfyg
tqifwefqmu jywfawmufoGm;Edkifw,f? 'ga=umifh OD;Zif;ajymcsifwmu u&ifvlxkawG u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±kH; KNU xJrSm }uD;}uD;i,fi,f
                                                                                                                                                                                       w,f? 1997ckESpfrSm jrefrmppfwyf awGa&mufvm+yD; e,fajrpdk;rkd;a&;/
t&G,fpkHaygh? t}uD;vnf; t}uD;tavsmuf/ ti,fvnf;ti,ftavsmuf bufaygif;pkH yl;aygif;yg0ifulnDapcsifw,f?
                                                                                                                                                                                       wyftiftm;csJ@xGifvmwmawGa=umifh usaemfwdk@ rdom;pk[m udk,fha'o
         +yD;awmh wdk@vlrsKd;[m u&ifhtrsKd;om;tpnf;t±kH;&J@ tpdk;&aom OD;aqmifr_atmufrSm at;at;csrf;csrf;/ om,m0ajympGmeJ@ aeEdkifzdk@twGuf
                                                                                                                                                                                                             k                                     k Q
                                                                                                                                                                                       rSm rae&JawmhyJ xdi;f -jrefrme,fpyfukd 1997rSm xrf;[if'uonfpcef;udk
ouf}uD;awGa&m/ oufi,fawGyg yl;aygif;yg0ifvkyfaqmifwJhae&mrSm jywfjywfom;om;eJ@ &J&J&ifh&ifh vkyfaqmifzdk@ vdkygw,f? tJvdk &J&J&ifh&ifh vkyfaqmif
                                                                                                                     pmrsufESm (7) odkŒ áááá                                           xGufajy;vmcJh&w,f? 'Dawmh &GmrSm&SdwJh v,f,m/ +cHajrawG tm;vHk;udk
                                                                                                                                                                                       vnf; jrefrmppfwyfu odrf;oGm;jcif; cHcJh&ygw,f? usaemfvnf; u&if
              ]ol@bufuvnf; r#w/ udk,fhbufuvnf;                                                                                                                                         jynfe,frSm 3wef;pmar;yGJudk wpfbmomyJ ajz&+yD; xrf;[if'kuQonf
                                                                                                                                                                                       pcef;udk a&muf&SdvmcJh&ygw,f? 'kuQonfpcef;rSmawmh 3wef;uae
                  r#w&r,f}vdk@qdkwJh aemftkef;vS&J@                                                                                                                                    q,fwef;atmifwJhtxd usaemf ausmif;qufwufcJhygw,f? 'kuQonf
                                                                                                                                                                                       pcef;rSm ausmif;wufwJhtcsdef usaemfhb0 ydk+yD;vHkòcHvmw,fvdk@ cHpm;&ay
                     autJef,l tay: tjrif                                                                                                                                               r,fha&S@udk bmrSar#mfvifhvdk@r&JwJh tajctaetjzpf cHpm;cJh&w,f? 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                       ckESpfrSm q,fwef;atmif+yD; 'kuQonfpcef;rSm tulausmif;q&mtaeeJ@
                                                                                                                                                                                       2ESpf vkyfay;cJhw,f?
                                                                                                 uawmh c%awmh ,m,D nDoGm;                            ar; ?         ? jynfwGif;_idrf;              tJ'DaemufrSm tazuvnf; qHk;yg;oGm;wJhtwGuf q,fwef;vGef
                                                                                                 w,fvdk@ tefwD jrifw,fayghaemf?           csrf;a&; vkyfief;pOftay: autJef,ludk         ausmif;awGudk rwufjzpfawmhbJ 2007ckESpfv,favmufrSm usaemfwdk@
                                                                                                 'gayr,fh nDvmcH jyefvkyfr,fqdk           b,fvdkyHkpHrsKd;eJΠvkyfaqmifapcsifygo       rdom;pkawGtm;vHk; wwd,EdkifiH tajccsaexdkifzdk@ =opa=w;vsm;EdkifiHudk
                                                                                                 &if tajzwpfckawmh xGufvmrSm              vJ?                                          av#muf+yD; 2008ckESpfrSm usaemfwdk@ =opa=w;vsm;EdkifiHudk vma&mufae
                                                                                                 aygh?                                               ajz ?         ? ckeutefwD         xdkifcGifh&cJhw,f? usaemf =opa=w;vsm;EdkifiHrSm a&mufuwnf;u tajccH
                                                                                                             ar; ?       ?autJef,ludk     ajymovdkaygh? udk,fh&J@ rlrSmayghaemf?       t*Fvdyfpmoifwef;wuf+yD; tck TAFE rSm vmrnhf Edk0ifbmwGif; Envi-
                                                                                                 EdkifiHa&;t&/ trsKd;om;a&;t& b,fvdk      Oyrm 'D&nf&G,fcsufu u&if jynf                ronment monitoring and Technology udk diploma oif,l+yD;awmhrSm
                                                                                                 av#mufvSrf;apcsifygovJ?                  ol+idrf;csrf;a&;wpfckvHk;vdk@ ,lwJht         jzpfw,f? udk,fjzwfoef;cJh&wJh e,fajrawGu 'kuQonfawGudk pmem+yD;
                                                                                                             ajz ?                  hJ
                                                                                                                         ? ,H=k unfcwhJ   cgus&if/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; vdk         usaemf wuUodkvf+yD;&if obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m tzGJ@wpfckrSm tvkyf
                                                                                                 vrf;pOftwdkif;ayghaemf? 'gudkawmh        csifwJhtcgus&ifawmh udk,fh&yf                0ifvkyfr,f? usaemfu =opa=w;vsm;EdkifiHom;yJ cH,loGm;&if; wae@
                                          EdkifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;ol aemftkef;vS                       cdkifcdkifrmrm &yfapcsifw,f? bmvdk@      wnfcsufrlaygh w&m;r#wwJh +idrf;              usaemfhe,fajra'oudk jyef+yD; obm0ywf0ef;usif umuG,fxdef;odrf;a&;
               ar; ?                   ? vuf&Sd au usawmh vl}uD;jzpf&if vli,fydkif;              vJ 'Dtay:rSmvnf; tefwDwdk@               csrf;a&; jzpf&r,f? wpftcsufu
tJef,lrSm acgif;aqmifydkif; yÉdyuQjzpfae vnf; atmufydkif;vnf; uGJrSmyJqdk                                                                                                              udk twwfEdkifqHk; jyefvnfðyjyif xdef;odrf;Ekdifzdk@ u&ifvlxkudk oif=um;ydkcs
                                                                                                 vuf&SdtajctaerSm tefwDwdk@               wzufu rw&m;vkyf&ifvnf; cHp                   csifygw,f? 'ghtjyif tjcm;usaemf wwfajrmufxm;wJhynmawGeJ@
w,fav? 'Dtay:rSm b,folawGudk wm 'ga=umifhrdk@ 'DvdkrsKd; jyef+yD;awmh                            EdkifiHrSm&SdwJh jynfwGif;u&ifawG        &mta=umif; r&Sdbl;? wpfzufowf
b,fvdk±dkufcwfr+ jzpfrvJ?                                    acgif;aqmifydkif;awG ±dkufcwfr_[m                                                                                         vli,fav;awGudk jyefvnf ðypkysKd;axmif ulnDoif=um;oGm;+yD; tcuft
                                                                                                 ayghaemf?         vuf&SdtajctaerSm       }uD;yJ jzpfwJh[mawGuawmh rjzpf               cJjzpfaewJh aus;&Gma'oawGu q&m q&mr/ ausmif;ol ausmif;om;awG
               ajz ?                   ? acgif;aqmif wrsKd;om;vHk;udk xdcdkufw,fvdk@yJ           *k%f,lp&m tcsufwpfcsuf jzpfwJh           oifhbl;aygh? 'g +idrf;csrf;a&; t&mr
yd k i f ; 'D v d k r sKd ; jzpf w J h t cgusawmh jrifwmaygh?                                                                                                                          udk ulnDaxmufyHhoGm;zdk@ usaemf qEN&Sdygw,f?
                                                                                                 twGuf 'gudkvJ *k%f,lw,f? 'gay            ajrmufbl;vdk@ tefwD jrifw,f?                            jynfwGif;jynfyu u&ifvli,ftm;vHk;uvnf; tcsdefawGudk
u&if wrsKd;om;vHk;udk ±dkufcwfwm                                     ar; ?        ? tzGJŒtpnf;   r,fh vuf&SdtajctaerSm &yfwnf             +idrf;csrf;a&;qdk&ifawmh ol@bufu
aygh/ bmvdk@vJqdkawmh acgif;aqmif twGuf u&ifvlxktwGuf tm;om                                                                                                                            tuskKd;&Sd&SdtoHk;cs+yD; pmayudk rysif;r&d óud;pm;apcsifygw,f? u&ifhtem
                                                                                                 cJhwJh t&ifwkef;u rlayghaemf? wcsKd@     vnf; r#w/ udk,fhbufuvnf;                     *wfta&;[m usaemfwdk@vufxJudk wae@a&mufvmrSmjzpfwJhtwGuf
ydkif;qdkwmuawmh 'DvdkrsKd; rjzpf csuf/ tm;enf;csuf bmawG &SdrvJ?                                [mawGusawmh rjyifao;wmudk                r#w&r,f? w&m;r#wrS +idrf;csrf;
oifhbl;ayghaemf? jzpfwJhtay:rSm                                      ajz ?        ?'gayr,fh                                                                                            ,ckuwnf;up+yD; rsufpdzGifh em;pGifhvdk@ trsKd;om;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;pmayrsm;
                                                                                                 vufcHw,f? wcsKd@u jyifp&m rvdk           a&;qdkwm jzpfrSmav? w&m;rr#w                 udkvnf; wwftm;oa&G@ avhvmrSwfom;oif,lEdkif=uygap? tacsmif
!d‡!d‡E_dif;E_dif;eJ@ vkyf+yD;awmhrS rjzpf tck vuf&Sdtajctae olwdk@awG                           bl;? &yfwnfoifhw,fvdk@ tefwD             bJ wpfzufowfqdk&ifawmh a&
oifhwmawG jzpfvmwJhtcgus jyef+yD;awmhtajctaeawGudk xdef;                                                                                                                               pdwfeJ@ tdyfrae=ubJ ajcvSrf;oGufoGufeJ@ av#mufvSrf;Edkif&r,f? ar#mf
                                                                                                 jrifw,f? t&if &yfwnfcsuft                &Snfrwnf+rJbl; tefwD tJvdkyJ                 vifhcsufu &ifavmufrSef;rS 'l;avmufom &wwf=uwmrdk@ rdrd,Hk=unf
awmh u&ifwrsKd;om;vHk;udk xd EdkifwmwJhtydkif;awGudk awG@&w,f?                                   wdkif; &yfwnfoifhw,fvdk@ tefwD           jrifw,f?
cdkufwmeJ@ twlwlyJ? bmvdk@vJqdk 'ga=umifhrdk@ 'Dtay:rSm tefwDu                                                                                                                         csufudk rsufajctjywfrcHbJ pmayudk tywfwukwf óud;pm;oif,l=uzdk@
                                                                                                 jrifw,f?                                                 ÔÔÔ                          rSmcsifygw,f? ÔÔÔ
awmh tcsif;csif; uGJw,fqdkwJhtcg awmh avmavmq,f tajctae
 pmrsufESm- 8                                                                                                                                                                            Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?
                                 unDw>upD.                                                                   www.kicnews.org
u-uL>f (16) tbh.f (10)/ vgtD;uxdb>.f/ 2012eH.f                                                                                                                           Volume( 16 ),Issue(10) October,2012

               KNUok;uh(6)rR0J                                                                                                                         KYO wX.fyD.foud;0J
    w>fwJe>yX>ursX>f                                                                                KNUtylRuvkmfw>fb.fvdmfzd;'h'D;w>Clw>zd;utd.fuhRt*D>f
                                                                                                vgtD;uxdbX.f17oD2012eH.f
  trl;zJuD;u&H;uD>fq.ftylR                                                                      pDRzdcGgvh(ch.ftJ.fpH.f)
vgtD;uxdbX.f16oD2012eH.f                                                                                 unD'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&> (KNU) tylR uvkmfw>fb.fvdmfzd;rH'D;                o;tzDcd.f ySRo;p>fv>t[JxD.fv>w>ftd.fzSd.fwz.f tw>fxH.f'D; cgql
pDRcgqlng(ch.ftJ;pH.f)                                                                          w>fClw>fzd;u[Jtd.fxD.ft*D>f unDo;p>fu&> (KYO) &J.fusJRrR0J                      ngutd.fCltd.fzd;t*D>f rh>fub.frR0J'fvJ.fe‹.f w>.fyD.foud;0JvDR$
                                                                                                w>ftd.fzSd.fwcg zJuD>fuDF.fwJ.f=uD>fy,DRuD>fq> w>fvD>fwwDRe‹.fvDR$                         “uwD>ftHR w>f*h>fuDv>t[JuJxD.fto;tHR y0Joh.fo;p>fwz.f
           unDuD>fpJ.f/ uD;u&H;uD>f             p;xD.fvgtD;uxdb>.f 13oD/ 15
                                                                                                         unDo;p>fu&> u&>cd.fcH pDRtJ.fuvkmfph pH;0J b.fxGJ w>ftd.fzSd.f         yb.f,d.fw>fvDR$ yu&>rd>fyS>ftHR v>uvDRrk>fvDRz;e‹.f ywtJ.f'd;xH.f
q.ftylR unD'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&>                    oD wkR 16oDteHRwz.f 'D;eDRz;vDR
                                                                                                wbsDtHR unDo;p>fwz.f w>.fyD.foud;0J b.fC;v> KNU tylR w>f                        v>Rb.f$ b.frEkRtCd b.f[JuJxD.fto;'ftHRvJ.fe‹.f yw>.fyD.foud;
(KNU)ok;uh (6) tylR uD;u&H;                     0J w>fvD>f o>wDRv>trh>f xHElRo
                                                                                                obH.fobk.fv>t[JuJxD.fo;wz.f rh>fub.fbSg&JSuhRv>usJzJvJ.f/ zJ                    tDRvDR$ v>cHokwuJxD.fto;v>Rw*hRe‹.f yub.frRtDR'fvJ.f e‹.f yw>.f
uD>fq.feJ.f&GJ.f'D; ySRb.frlb.f'gv>             0D/ usD>f*DRo0D'D; uD>fq>o0Dwz.f
                                                                                                vJ.fwbdvJ.ft*h>fe‹.fvDR$                                                        yD.foud;tDRvDR$”t*h>f ySRo;p>fv> t[JxD.fw>ftd.fzSd.ftusgw*R pH;
ok;wuyRweDR zJpSRoDtwD>fylR                     vDR$ v>w>ftd.fzSd.ftylR o0Dzdv>
                                                                                                         “uwD>ftHR KNU u&>tylR w>f*h>fuDv>t[Jtd.fxD.fwz.f ySR                   0JvDR$
rR0JR'.f w>fwJe>fy>>furs>>ftrl;                 xHElR/ td;zdx.f/ ueJvh/ v>>fCDmf/
                                                                                                o;p>fwcD rh>fub.fymfCkmfv>zJvJ.fwbd'D; ub.fbSg&SJp>R'fvJ.fe‹>f w>.f                        w>ftd.fzSd.ftylR w>f*h>fv>w>fw>.fyD.foud;tDRwz.f w>fymfvDRCmf
e‹.fvDR$                                        uvD0g/ cD;ydRcH/ zDbkv.fx.f/ uD>f
                                                                                                yD.foud;0JvDR$ w>fv>t&h'd.fwcD wzk'D;wzk tJ.f'd;v>utd.fCltd.fzd;”               0J w>fb.fo;0HR 'fod;w>fuymf*>>fymfus>RtDRt*D>f t0Joh.f td.f'D;w>f&J.f
           vgtD;uxdb>.f 13oDwkR                 q>/ rDcH/ rDzdusd/ vgwd'D; uGHcFJbD
                                                                                                t*h>f pDRtJ.fuvkmfph pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ.fpH.fvDR$                                  w>fusJRv> uqJ;w>.fyD.foud;0Jt*h>f yoh.fngb.ftDRvDDR$
16oDteHR KNU uD;u&H;uD>fq.f                     o0Dwz.ftylR 200bsJ.f [JxD.f0J
                                                                                                         w>ftd.fzSd.ftylR KYO o;p>fwz.f/ o;p>fv>tpl>femf0J bl;';/                          unDo;p>fu&>tHR b.fw>f'k;td.fxD.f zJ 1989eH.f/ vgrhR 23oD
teJ.f&GJ.f y'd.fpDRtJ.fuD>foD/ ok;uh            t*h>f ySRo0Dzd v>t[JxD.frl;tHR
                                                                                                c&Hmfzdw>fbgwz.f/ o;p>fv>unDb.fuDb.fcJ'Ju0DRylRwz.f cJv>mf 37                   teHRe‹.f 'D;tw>fynd.f rh>f'fod;uok;xDxD.f unDo;p>fwz.f xH&l>fuD>foJ;/
(6)/ ok;&h.f (201)cd.f ok;cd.f'd.fzd            tusgw*R pH;0JvDR$
                                                                                                *R [JxD.fw>.fyD.foud;0JvDR$                                                     ySR*h>f0D/ rk>fusdR0JRuGmftuH>ftpDwz.ft*D>fe‹.fvDR$
pDRbkzD/ ok;&h.f (103)cd.f ok;cd.f'd.f                   q>uwD>fcJtHR w>fupD.f[l
                                                                                                         KNU vD>fc>.fo;cd.fe>ftusg w>fobH.fobk.fv>t[JuJxD.ft
zde‹>fph 'D;cd.fe>ft*RweDR wJe>fy>>f0J          xD.fv>KNU cd.fe>fwz.ftb>.fp>R
urs>>f b.fC; xH&l>fuD>foJ;/ w>f                 w>fymfo; w'fod;vdmfo;td.fxD.f                                                  KYO       wX.fyD.foud;0JKNUtylRuvkmfw>fb.fvdmfzd;'h'D;w>Clw>zd;utd.fuhRt*D>f
ul.fb.ful.foh 'D;w>ftd.fql.ftd.fcsh             tzDcd.f urs>>fv>t[JxD.f0J rl;t
tw>ftd.fo;wz.fe‹.fvDR$                          0JtHRwz.f [h.foq.fxD.f0J v>cd.f
           y'd.fpDRtJ.fuD>foD pH;0J“v>          e>fwz.fu'Ju'J utd.fuhR 'D;w>f
y[D.fu0DRtylR yub.ftd.fbl;'D;                   Clw>fzd;t*D>fe‹.fvDR$
urs>>fxDbdtCdyrR0J w>f'k;oh.f                            pDRtJ.fuD>foD pH;0J “y'k;oh.f
ngurs>>ftrl;tHRvDR$ ySRurs>>fw                  ngb.fuhRt0Joh.f v> KNU tylR
z.f yxH.fv> t0Joh.f td.fcd;o*>>f                cd.fe>fu'Ju'J v>wpd>f wvD>ftylR
ySRvDR$ q>uwD>fcJtHR w>f'k;w>f                  w>fxH.fw'fod;'D; w>fzH;w>frRt
,R wtd.fb.ftCdurs>>fwz.f t                      usJrh>fw'fod;oemfuhyzDw>.fe‹.f
w>fzH;tD.frRtD.fudn>f0JwpJ;vDR”                 rh>fwcgCDvDRtCd w>f b.f,d.f
t*h>f pH;0JvDR$                                 wtd.feDwrHRb.ft*h>fvDR$”t*h>f
           cd.fe>fv>ty.fCkmf v>w>f              pH;0JvDR$
rRe>f y >>f u rs>>f t rl ; wz.f p h > f u D ;            uDu&H;uD>fq.ftylR w>frR
pH;0J v>uD>fu&H;uD>fq.ftylR 'f                  0J w>f'k;oh.fngurs>>ftrl;'f tHR
od; wDRc>.fo;uFd w>ftd;xD.fu                    nDEk>f w>frRtDRweH.fe‹.f 2bsD 'D;
e‹>fu*D>f uw>.fyD.foud;0J'D; vD>f               w>frR0J w>f'k;oh.fngurs>>ftrl;cJ
c>.fo; w>ful.fb.ful.foh0JRvD>f 'D;              tHRe‹.f uymfywkR0J wpd>fwvD>f'D;
urR0J'.feh.fvDR$                                v>cH w>fuqJ;rRtDRt*h>f uD>fq.f
           w>frRe>fy>>f urs>>ftrl;tHR           unDcd.fe>fwz.f pH;0JvDR$



                                            cDyeH.f[H;M>frJ;tCd'0J>fuX>fvmftzDcd.fvD>fu0DRzdwz.fo;wrH
vgtD;uxdbX.f3oD2012eH.f                         vd.fuD>fq.f'D; ,hzFL.fuD>fq.fwz.f               cD wrh>fySR'0J>f0h>fzdb.f$ [J0Jv>          zsgtrHRw*R pH;0J “ywtJ.f b.f'k       bSg&SJuhRtDRt*D>f zJvgpJ;yxhb>.f        y0JwcD yuhRoHuG>fuhRtDRv> uD>f
egolvhR(ch.ftJ;pH.f)                            tHRtylRrJ;wz.f w>fuqS>tDRql                     bsH;wuyR'D; [J[H;e‹>frJ;'ftHR rh>f         wrh>fb.f$ b.fq.f '0J>fxHusdtHR       tylRe‹.f '0J>f[D.fu0DRzd 300 ymfzSd.f   cD'd.f 'D;xHzduD>fzdwz.f w>fcGJ;w>f
                                                uD>fphuzd;t*D>fuFD.fuFD.fzFdcDyeH.f v>          wJwDwD yo;wrHb.f$”t*h>fe‹.f                'D.fvDR0Jz;'d.fvH$ v>'0J>ftuyReh.f   qJ;pkrk>fus>>f'D; qS>xD.f0J vHmfql      ,mfwtd.feDwrH{g$ v>uD>fy,DRt
         weDo&H;uD>fcDtylR '0J>fxH              trRoud;w>f'D; phuzd;cDyeH.ftHR                  vDR$                                       w>ftd.fo; t>xD.f0Jz;'d.fngvDR$       88uFdzdcd.fe>fwz.f 'D;'0J>f[D.fu0DR     ylR 'fth&.f0.fwH.fxHusd ,GRvDR0Jt
usdv>t[J,GRvDR0J'.f v>uD>fq.f                   [J[H;e‹>f0J rJ;wz.ft*h>f '0J>f0h>fzd                     uwD>ftHR uFD.fuFD.fzFdcHyeH.f     ubD'.fvJmfEkmfvDRwohv>Rb.f$          w>f*kRxD.fyoDxD.fu&>wqD ql              od; '0J>fxHusdtHR v>y*D>f rh>fw>f
vGH>fbh.ftylRtHRcDyeH.fv>phuzd w                ud.fpdoh pH;0JvDR$                              wcD [H;e‹>f0J rJ; zJo,J>fcFDuD>fq.f        xHrh>fxD.ftq>uwD>fr;'D; EkmfvDR      uD>fcd.f tlohph.fttd.ft*h>f ud.fpdoh    v>t&h'd.fph>fuD;vDR$”t*h>f pH;0J
cD [J[H;e‹>f0J rJ;zd;wz.ftCd u>>f                           ud.fpdoh pH;0J “'0J>fusdw>f         tylR v>ubD 8bh.f0HR wkRv>yD.f              0JohvDR”t*h>fe‹.fvDR$                pH;0JvDR$                               vDR$
wz.f vDRySD.fuGHmf0JtzDcd.f '0J>fvD>f           *h > f u D t H R v>,H m f v >e;xD . f v D R $   vJ.fcd.fxD;'.fvJmf [H;0Jt*h>f o,J.f                 b.fxGJw>f*h>fwz.ftHR cDy             “v>vHmftHRtzDcd.fuD>fcd.f
u0DRzdwz.f o;wrH0Jb.fe‹.fvDR$                   u>>fuyRwz.f vDRySD.fuGHmf0JvDR$                 cFDuD>fq.f vD>fu0DRzdwz.f pH;0JtCd         eH.fwuyR w[h.f'k;oh.fng [D.fu        wcD wtd.f'D; w>fuhRpH;q>eDwrHR                  ÔÔ
         '0J>fxHusd v>t,GRvDRb.f                t0Joh.f rRw>ftHR wwJyF; ySR[D.f                 oh.fngb.fvDR$                              0DRzd wtd.feDwrHRb.ftCd b.fC;        'H;b.f$ cDyeH.fwcD pH;0Je‹.f uD.fp>
0J '0J>fuD.fq.f/ o&J.fcFDuD>fq.f/ vD            u0DRzdb.f$ ySRv>t[JrRw>fe‹.fw                            vD>fu0DRzdv>wtJ.f'd;ymf           w>f[H;e‹>frJ;w>f*h>ftHR 'fod;w>fu    zSd.fuwdmfymfvDRtod; rR0J'.fvDR$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ubsH;y: -1
             w>fu&Xu&dtw>fb.f*Hmf*lmfvXunD'DuvkyfpXzSd.fu&Xrd>fyS>ftylR'D;xHvD>fuD>fylRw>frkmfw>fck.f
vX=wHed(o0Dwg)
tD;xdbX.f11oD2012                                                                                                                                                     'H;b.f/ uD>fcd.fe‹.frh>fph>fuD;ok;*h>f0Dcd.f us>>f (ppfaoemywdcsKyf)e‹.fvDR$
          w>fuJG;wcgtHRrh>f0J tD.fxl(yD>f&D) tw>fuGJ;v>trh>f0J (u&if                                            tulmf(2)                                                         v>w>f * h > f w >f 0 D w cgtzD c d . f - u>;v>ok ; rk > f ' d . f u b.f ' k ; w>f { g/
                                                                                                                                                                      wb.f'k;w>fb.fvJ.fe‹.fuD>fcd.fteD>fup>fb.fuG>fqdrd.f xd.fuG>fpDRuG>f0Jv>
trsKd;om;tpnf;t±kH;twGif; pnf;±kH;a&;jy\emESifh jynfwGif;_idrf;csrf;
                                                                                                                                                                      xH&l>fuD>f oJ;*h>f0DtzDcd.f/ xHuD>f'Dwbh.f'D;wbh.fw>f&hvdmfb.fxJG vdmfo;
a&;tykdif;=2) ,[H;e‹>ftDRv> ySmf,JRoe‹tylRe‹.fvDR$ ,xH.fv>ySRuGJ;
                                                                                     tw>frRrl'gtylRe‹.f v>tylRuGHmfcgwtd.fxD.fwh>feDwbsD'H;b.f$ t0JtHRrh>f            rD>foDrD>fvgw>fqJ;usdmfb.fxJGtzDcd.f/ xHuD>fwbh.f'D;wbh.fb.fvlRydmfrR
w>fzdtHRtd.fv>w>fc>.fo;vdRvdR'D; uJG;0Jv>tw>fxH.fw>fymfo; uqSJ
                                                                                     w>ftqduw>>fwbsDvDR$ v>w>fe‹.ftCdwuD>fcgcJtHR rh>fw>fq> uwD>f                     xJG w>fod.fwz.ftzDcd.f/ tuyRuyRvDRwH>fvDRqJ;e‹.fvDR$ b.fud;0Jw>f
uqSDtylRe‹.fvDR$ ,o;td.fv>yySRuvkmfwz.f uz;b.f0Jw>fuGJ; wcg
                                                                                     t&h'd.fr;v> ch.ftJef,l.fxH&l>fuD>foJ;t*D>fe‹.fvDR$ cgqlngch.ftJef,l.f            }wDw'>0JRusdR udwdmf'D;ySRb.frlb.f'gt'd.fuw>>fv>y>jy;'D; ok;*h>f0Dcd.f
tHR'D; uoh.fngtgxD.fb.f0Jw>f*h>fw>fusdRwz.f'D; uohyJmfxHeDRz;0J
                                                                                     tw>fvJRxD.fvJRxD'D; ch.ftJef,l.ftw>f*kRu'go; qltvD.fcH tw>ftd.f                  e>fwz.fu[h.ful.f[h.fz; tDRv>ue‹>fb.fw>fq>wJmfv>tvDRwH>fuw>>f
w>f*h>fv>tuJxD.fwh>fto;wcgtHR v>teD>fup>ftw>fxH.f'.f0Juoht
                                                                                     o;urRto;'fvJ.fe‹.f/ uvJRb.f'db.fxH;Ckmf0JwkRqlw>fy>>fq>*kR*Rw                    t*D>fe‹.fvDR$ rR0J'fe‹.f0HRr.f'D; uD>fcd.f urRuhR0Jw>fq> wJmfv>teD>fup>f'.f
*D>f ,uGJ;usdmfxHuhRtD.fxl (yD>f&D) tw>fuGJ;tHRqlunDusdmfe‹.fvDR$ wHed
                                                                                     z.f'D; xH&l>fuD>foJ;w>fu&>u&dv> t*JRvdmfw>fv> 'H.frd.fjch.fpH.f'l.f zdx>         0J'D; eJ.fvDRuhR0Jv>ub.f'k;w>f§wb.f'k;w>f b.fe‹.fvDR$
(o0Dwg)
                                                                                     zdv>tzD.fvdmfpkrRoud;w>f'D; ch.ftJef,l.fwz.ftod;tusgw>fqDwvJ                                rh>fq>wJmf'D;eJ.fvDR0Jw>f'k;z;'d.fwcgv>b.f'k;w>f vH'D;w>f'k;0J
          w>fxk;xD.fuGHmfch.ftJef,l.funD'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&>cd.fe>fo>*Rv>
                                                                                     td.fxD.f0Joh.fe‹.fvDR$ w>f*h>fw>fusdRv>tuJxD.f o;wcgtHR txH&l>fuD>f              e‹.f-u>;v>ub.fqdywkmf0JtcgzJvJ.fe‹.f uD>fcd.fub.fqdrd.fq>wJh'D; eJ.f
trh>f0J=ok;cd.fus>>frlRwlphzd/ y'd.f'hbh;xD'D; ok;cd.f'd.fzd pDR&DuF>>fv> t
                                                                                     oJ;vyDwz.f tw>f'db.fu'guhRw>fe‹.fuJxD.fuhR w>f*H>fw>fbgz;'d.f                    vDR uhR0Jv>t eD>fup>fe‹.fvDR$ w>f}wDw'>0JRusdRok;cd.fus>.fteD>f up>f
w>f rRrl'gylRe‹.f/ ye>fy>>ftDRohv>rh>f0Jw>f*h>fuDtd.fxD.fv> unD'Duvkmfp>
                                                                                     wcgv> uqDwvJuHGmf “uD>fy,DRw>frRw>f rkmfw>fck.ftw>f&J.fw>fusJR”                  q>wJJmf[h.fw>fuvk>fv> uD>fcd.ftzDcd.ftcJG;wtd.fb.f$
zSd.fu&>tylRe‹.fvDR$ b.fq.f'D;w>f*h>ftHR unD'Duvkmfp>zSd.f u&>cd.fe>f
                                                                                     wcgtHR qlt*hRwyRrh>f*hR/ rhwrh>fwcDqltt>wyRrh>f*hR oh0J'.fph>fuD;e‹.f                       uD>fcd.f[h.fvDRw>fuvk>fv> “ub.f'k;w>fvDR” 0HRtvD>fcHe‹.f ok;
wz.f t0Joh.f'k;oh.fngbd;b.f&RvDR0JqlxHuD>f'Dbh.fvHtCdw>f*h>ftHR
                                                                                     vDR$ 'fvJ.f*hR/ 'fod;w>fvDRrk>fvDRz; okwtd.fxD.fw*hRt*D>f/ ok;'D;y>jy;td.f       cd.fus>>fteD>fup>fb.f[H;xD.frl'gv>'k;,RtvD>f'D; ub.fwDcd.f&d>f rJ&J.f
wrh>fv>Rw>f*h>fclol.fwcgv>w>fu&>u&dtylRv>Rb.f$
                                                                                     v> ch.ftJef,l.fy>qS>w>f tzDvmfwz.fCkmf'D; xHzduD>fzd/ unDuvkmf                   usJRvDR uhR0Jw>f'k;w>f,R*h>f0Dub.fxD.f'k;w>f'fvJ.ftw>f&J.fw>fusJRcJ
          w>f[H;e‹>fcd.fe>fo>*RtHR*h>f0Dtw>f*h>frd>fyS>fcd.foh.frh>f0J “w>f*h>fb.f
                                                                                     urs>>fwz.f ub.ftd.f'D; w>fqdrd.fqdr;v>u[h.ful.f[h.fz;rRp>Rcd.fe>f                v>mfe‹.fvDR$ ub.fusJRvDRw>f'k;w>f,Rv>ub.f'k;w>f'fvJ.fe‹.f wb.f
C;bs;pJvdmfto;'D; w>fvJRrRw>frkmfw>fck.f'D; ohph.fy'd.ftw>f&J.f
                                                                                     wz.ftHRv>-u>;t0Joh.fub.frR0JusJ 'fvJ.ftq>uwD>fb.f0JvHe‹.fvDR$                    C;'D;uD>fcd.ftw>frRv>Rb.f$ rh>fuhR'.fw>f}wDw'>0JRusdRudwdmf'D; ok;cd.f
w>fusJR” tCd,qdrd.fv>u,J>frh>fySRv>to;vDxHvD>fuD>fylRw>frkmfw>f
                                                                                               w>fq>uwD>ft&h'd.f'ftHRtcg yw>fxd.fxH'G;xH/ q>wJmfw>f*h>f               us>>ftrlt'ge‹‹.fvDR$ t0JtHRrh>f0J'.fw>feDRz;vDRw>frRtrlt'g'D; w>fpd
ck.fwz.f ub.foh.fngxGJ0Jw>f*h>ftHR'D; ub.fEkmfvDRwJoud; ymfzsgxD.f
                                                                                     wz.feh‹.f ub.fylRzsJ;'D;w>fo;[h/ ub.fylRzsJ;'D; w>ftJ.fwz.fe‹.fvDR$ w>f          w>furDRv>w*R'D;tb>.fp>Rv> uD>ftrJ&uRrR0J tusJoEle‹.fvDR$
oud; tw>fxH.ftw>fymfo;wz.fv>w>f*h>ftHRtzDcd.ftd.f'fvJ.ft*h>ft
                                                                                     q>wJmfwz.f-u>;ub.fvJR0JvdRvdRbs>bs> 'fwuD>fcgw>fuJxD.fwh>fo;                                unD'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&>rR0JvGH>feH.fwbsDcDu&J;bsD.f'd.fw>ftd.fzSd.f
vD>futd.f0Jph>fuD;e‹.fvDR$
                                                                                     trh>ftwD tw>ftd.fo;tod;e‹.fvDR$ y-u>;usJRb.fuhRw>f*h>f tHRv>td.f                 e‹.f rh>f0Jw>ftd.fzSd.f v>tywD>fxD.fuw>>fv> ch.ftJef,l.frR0Jw>ftd.fzSd.fcJ
          ch.ftJef,l.fy>qS>w>fcd.fe>fwz.frh>f*hR/ ySRb.frlb.f'gv>ok;wyRrh>f
                                                                                     'D; w>fuG>fxH xd.fo}wDRu'guhRtDR'D; xH&l>fuD>foJ;teD.fxd.f/ 'D;*H>fcD.fxH;       v>mfwz.ftusge‹.fvDR$ zJcDu&J;bsD.f'd.fwcg'D;wcgtb>.fp>Rw>f*h>ft&h
*hR/ xHzduD>fzdurs>>fwz.frh>f*h>f/ rh>fymfzSd.fxD.ftw>f xH.ftw>fymfo;tgrHR
                                                                                     w>fbs>oJp;tw>fb.fxGJwz.fe‹.fvDR$                                                 'd.fv>xH&l>fuD>foJ;*h>f0D/ ok;*h>f0Drh>f td.f'D; w>fb.fud;0JvD>fc>.fo; xDbd
tguyR0HR/ uG>forHord;u'gw>f*h>ftHR'D; w>fv>-u>;rRwz.f w>frh>frR
                                                                                               zJvgtD;xdb>.f(8)oDteHR ,z;b.fw>fuGJ;wcgv>oDoH.fcd.fySmf                urHwHmfw>ftd.fzSd.f'D; q>wJmfw>f*h>fw>fusdmfwz.f e‹.fvDR$ zJvD>fc>.fo;u
xGJtDR 'ftvD>ftd.ftod;e‹.f/ urh>fw>fv>txD'guhRoElvD>fvHR'D; ol.fxD.f
                                                                                     ,Joe‹tylR/ w>f*h>fcd.fwDrh>f0J/ “w>f*h>fw>fusdRwz.fv> w>fxk;xD.fuGHmf            rHwHmfw>ftd.fzSd.fwcg'D;wcgtb>.fp>RySRv>tb.fwDcd.f&d>frJ &J.fusJRrRw>f
oEltoD/ 'D;uuJxD.f0Jw>fy>>fq>v>tySJR'D;w>fCH;CDd.f'D.fw>f*H>fql.f bg
                                                                                     ch.ftJef,l.fy>qS>w>furHwHmfcd.fe>fo>*R p;xD.fv>ch.ftJ.f,l.fp;xD.fuwdR            wz.fe‹.f ub.frh>f0Jy>qS>w>furHwHmfv> tymfCkmf'D;ySR (11)*Rwz.f
ql.f wzke‹.fvDR$
                                                                                     w>frkmfw>fck.f'D; uD>fy,DRy'd.f” tw>f*h>fe‹.fvDR$ w>fuGJ;ymfzsgxD.f w>f*h>f      e‹.fvDR$ v>ySR(11)*Rtusg/ ySRv>t&h'd.f uw>>fv> trh>f u&>cd.f/
          ySRuGJ;w>f,R(yD>f&DtD.fxl) ,tJ.f'd;'k;oh.fngqdok/ vDRqD'.fw>f
                                                                                     ww>fusdRwz.ftHR rh>fwpH;0Jv> ch.ftJef,l.fvD>fc>.fo;tw>fymfzsgwz.f                u&>cd.f(2)/ eJ.f&GJ>fcd.fus>>f/ eJ>f&GJ>fcd.fus>>foCJR(2)/'D; (3)ySR,J>f*R(w>fud;
unDzdwz.fv>b.fC;'D;w>f*h>ftHR/ ,utd.fv>w>fc>.fo;vdRvdR'D; uGJ;
                                                                                     b.f rh>fw>f*h>fv> ch.ftJef,l.fvD>fc>.fo;cd.fe>fwz.f oh.fngxGJwh>f0J w>f*h>f      ph>fuD;'d.f,J.f'd.f)tHR b.fwDcd.f&d>frJ&J.fusJRrR0Jw>f u&>u&d'Dwcgng
yJmfxHeDRz;tDRe‹.fvDR$ b.frEkRCd,pH;,utd.fv>w>fc>.fo;vdRvdRvJ.f
                                                                                     wz.ftHRtCd,tJ.f'd;yJRxHeDRz; ymfzsgxD.fb.fo; ,w>fxH.f ,w>fymf                    tw>fzH;w>frRwz.fud;eH;'J;e‹.fvDR$
t*h>fe‹.f/ ,tJ.f'd;&SJe>>fy>>fqdt*h>fwpJ;'ftHRvDR$
                                                                                     o;v> w>f*h>fwz.ftHRtzDcd.fe‹.fvDR$                                                          w>f'k;w>f,Rz;'d.fwcge‹.f w>f-u>;'k;tDR{g§w-u>;'k;tDRb.fvJ.f
          chh.ftJef,l.fcd.fe>ftvD>fvRxDuw>>f ySR(5)*Rv>t[H;xD.fw>f*h>f
                                                                                               b.frEkRtCdch.ftJ.f,l.fvD>fc>.fo;b.f[H;e‹>f*h>f0Dv>cd.fe>f(3)*R         $ w>f-u>;qdu wD>fuGHmftDR{g§w-u>;qduwD>ftDRb.fvJtw>f*h>fe‹.f ySR
w>f0DtHRtusg ySRvGH>f*Rrh>f*hR/ cd.fe>fo>*Rv>b.fw>f[H;e‹>ftDRt*h>f t0Drh>f
                                                                                     tHR tzDcd.fe‹.fvJ.ft*h>f yrh>fymfzSd.fuG>fxHuhR'D; yxH.fb.ftDR'ftHR=             v>u b.ftd.fzSd.fw>.fyD.f'D; [h.fw>fq>wJmfe‹.f rh>f0Jcd.fe>f(5)*RtHR ub.f
*hR/ ySRoh.fwz.ftHR ud;*R'J;e‹.frh>fySRoh.fwz.fv>,rkmfwh>f'D;tDR/ v>w>fzH;
                                                                                               ch.ftJef,l.fok;*h>f0Dcd.f[H;pd[H;urDR&J.fusJRrRw>fwz.fe‹.fwv>          rR0Je‹.fvDR$ tvD>frh>ftd.f'D;cd.fe>f(5)*R tHR ub.fud; 0JvD>fc>.fo; xDbdu
w>frRtzDcd.f,rRoud; b.fwh>fw>f'D;t0Joh.fwz.fbl;bl;wH>f wH>fud;*R
                                                                                     uGHmftc>;'d.fe‹>f'H;w>f[h.ftDRrl'gv>ub.frR0Jwz.f$ t0JvJRqJ;vDRpk rk>f            rHwHmf*h>f*DRtltw>ftd.fzSd.f'D; b.fymfzsgxD.fw>f*h>f w>fusdR0HRr;b.f q>wJmf
'J;e‹.fvDR$
                                                                                     us>>fv> w>fuywkmf w>fqJ;w>fc;t*D>fv> twtd.f'D;w>fw>.fyD.fqdw>f                   rR0Je‹.fvDR$ 'fe‹.ftod;,e>fy>>fv> w>f'k;w>f,Rwcge‹.f-u>; v>y ub.f
          cJJtHRch.ftJef,l.funD'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&>cd.f zkw>frs>fbD/ zJt0JuJ
                                                                                     'D; 'd;e‹>fb.fw>fysJv>y>qS>w>f urHwHmf(rhwrh>f)cd.fe>fe‹>fpde‹>furDRtywD>f       'k;tDR{g§w-u>;'k;tDRb.fvJ.f w>f-u>;qduwD>fuGHtDR{g§w-u>;qdu
'H;uD>fy,DRp>zSd.fuvkmf'l.fuD.fu;u&>tu&>cd.fe‹.f/ t0JuGJ;vHmf'D; qJ;pk
                                                                                     xDuw>>fySR,J>f*Rttd.fb.f$ t0J[H;pkeJ.fusJvDRrk>fusdR0JRuGmftw>fzH;               wD>ftDRb.fvJ.fe‹.f ch.ftJef,l.fok;*h>f0Dcd.ftok;cd.f us>>fxJteD>fup>fw*R{dR
rk>f us>>fCkx>xD.f,Rv>teD>fup>f'.f0Jv> ,uuJxD.fb.fySR[h.ful.fw>f
                                                                                     w>frRtusd; tusJwz.f$                                                             uq>wJmf 'D;rR0J'.fe‹.f whohb.fe‹.fvDR$ ub.fymfzsgxD.f0Jw>f*h>fqly>qS>
v> u&>0Je‹.ftylRvDR$ v>tcD.fxH;cge‹.f ,uJxD.fw>fbs>oJp; ySR [h.f
                                                                                               ch.ftJef,l.fok;*h>f0Dcd.ftHR wvlRydmfrRxGJ0J'fw>fu&>u&d tw>fwD         w>furHmfwHmf'D; ub.f[H;e‹>fySRud; *R'J;tw>fo;vDRyvdmf0HRr; q>wJmfrR
ul.fw>fw*R b.fq.fv>cHe‹.f rh>f'fod;,[h.ful.fw>fb.fC;'D;xH&l>f uD>foJ;
                                                                                     cd.f&d>frJtw>feJ.fvDRwz.ftod;b.f$ qJ;pkrk>fus>>fv>w>f uy wkmfw>fc;0HR            0J'.fohe‹.fvDR$
uoht*D>f t0Jxk;uGHmf w>fuwd;rJmfngwzs>.fv> trh>f0J= “w>fbs>oJp;”
                                                                                     tvD>fcHw>fzH;w>frRv>rR0Jb.fC;'D; xH&l>fuD>foJ;tusdRtusJv>b.f xGJ                            v>w>furRw>fywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;t*D>f ch.ftJef,l.fok;cd.fus>>ft
e‹.fvDR$ ,q>rk>fv>fv>ch.ftJef,l.f u&.fcd.fzkw>frs>fbDtHR uemf'H;,R'fv>
                                                                                     'D; ok;*h>f0Dwz.frh>fw>frEkRvJ.fe‹.f ww>.fyD.f 'k;oh.fng'D; Ch;tcGJ;v>ch.f       eD>fup>fvJRxH.fvdmf wJoud;w>f rRw>ftd.fzSd.f'D; qJ;pkrk>fus>>fe‹.f v>rl'g
ngcgtod;wkR rk>frqgweHRtHRe‹.fvDR$
                                                                                     tJef,l.fy>qS>w>furHwHmfcd.fe>fb.frlb.f'ge‹>fpde‹>furDRxD uw>>fySR (5)*R          tzDcd.frh>fw>fv>tvDRqDz;'d.f e‹.fvDR$
          ySRv>b.fw>f[H;e‹>ftDR*h>f0Dok;cd.fus>>frlRwlphzdph>fuD; q>uwD>fzJ
                                                                                     ttd.fb.f'D;rR0J$ ok;*h>f0Dcd.f tHRw'k;oh.fngvD>fc>.fo;y>qS>w>f urHwHmf                      ok;cd.fus>>fpd&dRzkbd.frF;wcsK;vJRylRuGHmf'H;b.ftcg y'd.fzkb;oh.f
e‹.ftcg/ t0Jrh>fud;w>ftd.fzSd.fv>t[H.fwbsDv>fv>ft0JuGJrkmfCkmf,R xD
                                                                                     b.f'D; rRclol.fw>ftd.fzSd.fwz.f$ w>ftd.fzSd.fe‹.f b.fw>frRtDRxJ v>y'd.f'hbh;     rh>fu&>cd.f'D; t0Jrh>f u&>cd.f(2)vDR$ zJe‹.fcgzkbd.frF;eD>fup>fwDcd.f&d>frJvJR
bd e‹.fvDR$ rh>fxH.f,RwbsDv>fv>fe‹.ft0JwJ,R/ “ySRthx>.fbFLeR'D;epH;
                                                                                     xD/ ok;cd.f'd.fzdpDR&DuF>;'D;ok;*h>f0Dcd.fo>*Rtu &l>fylR{dRe‹.fvDR$              xH.fvdmfo;'D; ok;cd.fus>>fch.fnL;'D;wJoud;w>fuywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;t*
q>uhRt0Joh.f tw>foHuG>fwz.f v>uGJ;vhvdRylRe‹.f ,ue.f rRrkmf,
                                                                                               t0Joh.frh>f[JxD.fqly>qS>w>furHwHmfw>ftd.fzSd.fb.fq.f wymfzsg           h>f td.f0Jph>fuD;vDR$ ok;cd.f us>>fpd&dRzk bd.frF;teD>fup>frh>f0J ySRb.frl b.f'g
o;'d.fr;” e‹.fvDR$ t0Jrh>fySRw*Rv> tymf'd.fymfuJw>fbs>oJp;e‹.fvDR$ cJ
                                                                                     xD.ft0Joh.f tw>fzH;w>frRwz.fqlw>ftd.fzSd.fylR&SJ&SJb.f$ y'd.f'h bh;xDe‹.f        v> ok;*h>f0DwyRb.fq.ft0JtJ.f'd;rR e‹>f xHvD>fuD>fylRw>frkmfw>fck.fv> xH
tHR,e>f[lv>ySRwJ/ ok;cd.fus>>frlRwlphzdpH;0J/ “,rRw>fv>ySRtg *R
                                                                                     vD>fc>.fo;xDbd urHwHmf w>frh>f'k;oh.fngtDRv>ub.f[JxD.fw>ftd.fzSd.f               &l>fuD>foJ;tusJe‹.fvDR$ t0JvJRxH.fvdmfw>.fyD.f wJoud;w>f 'D; okcd.fus>>f
tw>fb.fbsK;t*D>fvDR$ v>w>fe‹.ftCd ySRrh>f[h.f,Rrl'g'D;,urR/ ySRrh>f
                                                                                     e‹.f [h.fxD.f0Jw>f*h>fw>fusdRv> tw>ftd.fql.ftd.f csh/wtd.fb.f(rh)wymf            ch.fnL;tok;u&l>f'fcH.ftJef,l.fu&>rd>fyS>ftc>.fp;w*R tod;b.fq.fv>
w[h.f,Rrl'gb.fwcD td.f'.f,wrRb.f'D; 0HRvD>frD.f” pH;0J$ rRu'D;zJvg
                                                                                     zsgxD.fw>f *h>fvDRwH>fvDRqJ;eDwrHRb.f'D; w[JxD.fqly>qS> w>furHwHmf               w>fuywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;t*D>f t0JwqJ;pkrk>fus>>f'D; ok;y'd.fv> ch.ftJef
tD;xdb>.f(8)oD[gcD,td;xD.fue.f bH.fbH.fpH.fw>fupD.f,e>f[lv> uD>f
                                                                                     w>ftd.fzSd.fb.f$ b.fq.frhrh>fv>ok; y'd.frR0Jw>ftd;xD.fw>fqJ;usdmf0JR '>;         ,l.fu&.ftc>.fp;e‹.fb.f$ t0J[JuhRymfzsgxD.fuhRw>f*h>fw>fusdRqlch.ftJef
&h.fcd.fw*RpH;0J ok;cd.fus>>frlRwlphzde‹.f wymf'h.fymfu r>fw>feD wrHRb.f
                                                                                     rl;w>f&J.fw>fusJRwcD vJRwkR0JxDbdvDR$                                            ,l.f xDbdurHwHmf'D; w>fywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc; tw>f*h>fe‹.f wuJxD.fvd.f
'D; zJe‹.f,'dol.f'do;'D;o;unDb.ftDR'd.fr;vDR$
                                                                                               t0Joh.fwtd.fq>x>.fv>ch.ftJ.fw>fymfvDRxH&l>fuD>foJ;w>frRt               xD.f0Jb.f$
          ,xD.fb.fCkmfw>ftd.fzSd.f'D; y'd.f'hbh;xDwbsK;bsDng/ 'D;zJt0J
                                                                                     usdRtusJtzDcd.fb.f'D;xD'g0Je‹.fvDR$                                                         cJtHRok;*h>f0Dcd.f ok;cd.fus>>fteD>fup>fvJRw>.fyD.fw>f/ qJ;vDRpkrk>f
[JxD.fw>ftd.fzSd.fqluD>f,l&d;'fch.ftJef,l.fc>.fp;tcg t0J[JwkR qluD>fqGH.f
                                                                                               w>f*h>f(1)wxH.fe‹.f b.fbs;to;'D; ok;*h>f0D/ xH&l>fuD>foJ;*h>f0D'D;     us>>fv> w>fuywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;e‹.f rh>ft'd;e‹.fb.fw>fo;vDRyvdmfw>f
'>.f/ [J;[;td.foud;,RwkRql,[H.f'H;vDR$ rhrh>fok;cd.f'd.fzdpDR&DuF>.f'D;
                                                                                     w>feDRvDRrl'gw>fzH;w>frRe‹.fvDR$ w>fqdrd.ftd.fxD.fwcg= b.foh.foh.fw>f            [h.ftcJG;v> cd.fe>f'd.f xD(5)*Rv> tb.fwDcd.f&d>frJrRw>fwz.fttd.f{g§
,Re‹.f yrkmfvdmfyo;'d.fr;vDR$ zJytd.f'H;v>rRe>RysDtcg yrh>fwh>fwHR
                                                                                     zH;w>frRv> w>fub.frRtDRv>w>fu&>u&dtylRwz.fe‹.f rh>fv>ub.f                        w'd;e‹>fb.f0Jb.fvJ.fe‹.f ,wJvDR wH>fwohph>fuD;b.f$
oud;'k;'k;wH>fwH>fwz.f'D; tpSRuw>>f yxH.fvdmfb.fyo;wvgwbsD
                                                                                     rR0J'fvJ.fe‹.f we>fy>>fvDRwH>f 0Jb.ftCd{ge‹.fvDR$ yub.f[h.fw>f t'd'D;                       rh>fw'd;e‹>fb.f0J vD>fc>.fo;xDbdurHmfwHmf w>ftd.fzSd.ftw>fq>
xDbdvDR$ ,wJzsgxD.fw>f*h>fwz.ftHRe‹.f wrh>fv>,tJ.f'd;tD.ftl;y-w>R
                                                                                     xd.fo}wDDRuG>ftDRv>uD>ftrJ&uR w>fy>w>fjy;w>frRtDRtoEl'fvJ.f t                    wJmfb.f/ rh>fwChtcJG;[H;e‹>fqdw>ft>.fvDRv> cd.fe>f(5)*Rttd.fb.f'D; rh>f
uGJ;'d.fuGJ;oGgxD.f ,o;t*D>fwrh>fb.f$
                                                                                     *h>fe‹.fvDR$ trJ&uRuD>fcd.ftrlt'ge‹.f rh>f0J b.fwDcd.f&d>frJ'D; &J.fusJRrR 0J    vJR zJto;qJ;vDR pkrk>fus>>fzJto;xJ'.fteD>fup>fw*R{dR tw>fb.f
          eH.fCkqHbsJ.fch.ftJef,l.fw>fy>w>fjy;tw>fpH.fpdRw>fvJRcDzsdtylR
                                                                                     =xH&l>fuD>foJ;*h>f0D/ rk>fusdR0JRuGmf*h>f0D/ y>jy;*h>f0Dw>frRwz.fud;eHR 'J;wu;   o;q>wJmftzDcd.fe‹.f cJtHR rl'gtd.fv> t0Jub.fusJRb.fuhRw>f*h>f tHRt
('f,oh.fngb.fwh>ftod;) w>f[H;*h>f0D'D;xk;xD.fuGHmfok;cd.fus>.fw*Rv>
 ubsH;y: -2
                                                                                    oh.fvDR$ yxH.fb.fv>eJ.f&GJ>fcd.fus>>f teD>fup>fvJRxD.f0Jw>ftd.fzSd.fv> w>f
vD>ftd.f0J'.fe‹.fvDR$ w>frRywkmfuGHmf “ch.ftJef,l.ftw>f}wDw'>vDRo;
w>f'k;z;'d.f” wcgtHRtCd yrh>fuG>fuhRv> xH&l>fuD>foJ;tw>f uG>fwyRe‹.f                rRtDRv>cHwz.ftCde‹.fvDR$                                                               RCSS/SSA tcd.fph.f,GJ.fph.f
tcDynDzsgv>uhR0Jv> t*RwrHR'.fz;'d.fngwcg e‹.fvDR$                                            w>fv>t&h'd.fuw>>fwcDrh>f0J yzD.fw>fpku0JRv> xH&l>fuD>foJ;
         ch.ftJef,l.ftylRySRv> tvD>fvRxDuw>>f/ y>qS>w>furHwHmfcd.f
e>fwz.ftHR t0Joh.frh>fxH.f0Jv> cJtHRrh>fw>fq>uwD>fteD>fuD>fb.f vHv>y
                                                                                    tw>fynd.f t*D>f b.fq.f ySRzD.fw>fpku0JRzdwz.fe‹.f w-u>;'d.fpdv>xH&l>f
                                                                                    uD>foJ;w>fusJRtzDcd.fb.f e‹.fvDR$ ySRv>zD.fCmfw>fpku0JRu&l>fwz.fe‹.f
                                                                                                                                                                           ySR[h.ful.f[h.fz;w>fzdunD
                                                                                    ub.fq>wJmfxH&l>fuD>foJ;w>fzH;w>frR ySRrRxH&l>fuD>foJ;wz.fe‹.f ub.f
ub.frR “w>frkmfw>fck.ftrh>ftwD>f” t*D>fvHe‹.f t0Joh.fwz.furR w>f
ywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;t*D>f wrh>fuxk;,Hmfw>fq>uwD>feDw*Rb.f$ b.f                          vlRydmfrRxJGySRzD.fusdwz.ftcHvDRw>fymfo;tvk>ft v>f'fe‹.fwz.f w-u>;                     uvkmfok;cd.f'd.fvJRylRuGHmf
q.fwuD>fcgtJtHR ok;y'd.fe‹.f rRql.fxD.ftw>f'k;*H.fbgqlucFh.f(ch.ftJ.f               td.fv>w>fy>>fq>tylRb.f$ urs>>fxH&l>fuD>foJ;e‹.f ub.fzD.f ysHR'D; y>qS>
td.f) uvHRpd;wyR&k>f&k>fvDR$ yrh>fuG>fuhRv> 1993=94eH.f tw>fvJRcDzsde‹.f            w>fpku0JRvDR$ wb.frh>fv>w>fpku0JR[h.fw>fuvk>fql urs>>fxH&l>foJ;e‹.f
yuxH.fb.fok;y'd.fu&>u&drRw>f rkmfw>fck.f/ rRw>fywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;'D                   b.f$ ,w>fe>fy>>frh>f0Jcd.fe>ft&h'd.fuw>>f(5)*R b.fw>f Ckx>xD.ftDRv>
;ucFh.f(ch.ftJ.ftd.f) uvHRpd;wz.ftcg'D; v>wq>uwD>fCDtwuyRe‹.f                       ch.ftJef,l.fvHG>feH.fwbsDbsD.f'd.fw>ftd.fzSd.ftcgwz.fe‹.f rh>fySRe‹>fpde‹>f urDRuJ
[JxD.f'k;vDRySD>fuGHmf0J ch.ftJef,l.ftvD>fc>.fo;rRe>R ysDe‹.fvDR$ tcJtHRph>fuD;     xD.fb.fc>.fp;v> ySRurs>>ftxH&l>fuD>foJ; t*D>fe‹.fvDR$ rhrh>fch.ftJef,l.f
ok;y'd.ful.fxD.frR w>frRw>frkmfw>fck.f/ w>fywkmfw>fqJ;w>f c;'D; ch.ftJef            ok;*h>f0Dcd.fe‹.f ,xH.fv> trh>f0JySRzD.fw>fpku0JRtc>.fp;e‹.fvDR$ v>w>fy>>f
,l.f'D; v>wq>uwD>fCDt0JwyRe‹.f t0Joh.futd.f'D; w>ful.fxD.fwdmf                      q>wcgtylRe‹.f ySRb.frlb.f'gwz.f w*Rv> tvD>f'.f0Je‹.f rh>fySRv>t&h'd.f
usJRv> uxD.f'k;ch.ftJ.ftd.ftvD>fc>.fo;“vJ.fZ.f” w>fwdmfusJRutd.f 0J                 cJv>mftvD>ftusJ'.f0J b.fq.fv>w>fwDcd.f&d>frJrRrl'gtcgw>frh>f wvlR
oh.foh.fvDR$ t0Joh.f'k;vDRySD>f[H;e‹.fuhR vJ.fZ.frh>f0HRe‹.f / qlrJmfngwywD>f       ydmfrR xGJ0J'f w>fymfvDRCmfw>f od.fw>foDtd.f0Jtod;b.fe‹.f uxH.fb.f
ch.ftJef,l.frh>fqJ;pkrk>fus>>frRw>ft>.fvDRtDRvDR'D; t0Joh.frh>f*hR/ ch.ftJef        o*>>f0J'D; w>fuD>f w>fcJoh0J'.fe‹.fvDR$
,l.frh>fwqJ;pkrk>fus>>fb.frh>f*R/ ok;y'd.ftHR u'k;td.fxD.f0Jw>f*h>f wrHR rHR                 b.fq.f'D;ySRtg*Rrh>fxH.f0JeD>fuD>fv>ch.ftJef,l.fok;*h>f0Dcd.fus>>ftHR
'D; u[JxD.f'k;u'D;0J ch.ftJef,l.foh0J'.fe‹.fvDR$                                    td.f'D;w>f*H>fp>fbgp>fw>fvDRwlmfvDRumfoemfuh t0JrRw>fe‹.f rh>fv>w>fo;
         uvkmf'l.fw>fy>>fq>tw>fu&>u&dud;zk'J;ymfzSd.fxD.fo;ChxD.f                   bs>tylRvDRwcD yq>rk>fv>f v>y>qS>w>furHwHmfrh>frhR/ vD>fc>.fo;urH
0Jv> w>furRw>fy wkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;v>xHuD>f'Dwbh.ftywD>fb.fq.f                          wHmfrh>f*hRuuG>fe‹>fuhRw>fv> w>f[H;e‹>f*h>f0D v> tzDcd.fwcgtHR t*D>fe‹.f
wkRcJtHR'.fvJmf ok;y'd.fwqdywkmftw>fxD.f'k;ch.ftJ.ftd.fe‹.fb.f$ wu;                 vDR$
'HH;b.fcJtHR ok;y'd.fvJRxD.f u'D;0J,dR'd.fw>fy>>fq> (tJ;pftJ;pfzH.fzH.f)v>                   ok;y'd.fv>tlohph.fwDcd.f&d>frJtDRwzktHR wtd.f'D;w>fol.fwDo;
tqJ;pkrk>fus>>frRwh>fymfw>fywkmf w>fqJ;'D; ok;y'd.fe‹.fvDR$ urh>fv>w>f*h>f          vdRv> uud;xH.fvdmf 0Ju,J>frh>fuvkmf'l.fw>fy>>fq>tw>fu&>u&dwz.f
wz.ftHRtCd ok;y'd.ftySRwz.f[JvlRuJG rkmft0Joh.fv> urRw>fywkmf                       cJv>mfwbsDCD'D;wJoud;w>fu'k;td.fxD.fxHvD>fuD>fylRw>frkmfw>fck.f
w>fqJ;w>fc;v> tqdtcshb.fq.f ch.ftJef,l.fcd.fe>f'd.f xD(5)*RCkmf'D;                  v>'DxH'DuD>fng tywD>fe‹.fwkRcJtHR wtd.feDwbsD'H;b.f$ w>fusJRtHR u
y>qS>w>furHwHmfwz.fwcD uxk;,Hmf0Jw>fq>uwD>fwqD0HRwqD 'D;                            rh>f0Jw>fusJ;p>;xk;vDRz;uGHmf ok;*h>f0Dcd.f(ok;cd.fus>>frlRwlphzd) v>tzD.f
utd.fcd;uG>f[k.f'H;0Jok;y'd.ftw>fusJRtHR tcD.fcgwkRv> ok;y'd.f uwl>f                Cmf0Jok;rk>fwzktHR v>tw>fu&>u&d tylRoh.foh.fvDR$ rhrh>f b.fzk;'f                     vgtD;uxdbX.f16oD2012eH.f
vdmfrR0J'D xH'DuD>fw>f ywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;tywD>f uwkRtd.ftcgoh.foh.f                   e‹.f'D;ywJtDRohv>zJ ch.ftJef,l.fy>qS>w>furHwHmfwz.f tw>fzH;w>f rR                    pzg&SD(ch.ftJ.fpH.f)
e‹.f$ ,wJvDRwH>fwoh.fb.f$                                                           tgv> b.fuG>fqdrd.fq>wJmfw>fv>xH&l>fuD>foJ;*h>f0D'D; ok;*h>f 0Db>.f p>Rt                        ok;cd.f'd.fpDRcFH;qG‹.fv>trh.f ,dR'd.fuvHRxH;ok;rk>f'd.f (RCSS/
         b.fwb.fok;*h>f0Dcd.f (ok;cd.fus>>frlRwlphzd) teD>fup>f'.f0J uqd            q>uwD>ftcgw>f*h>fuDv> tw-u>;wb.fwz.ftHR [JuJxD.fto;e‹.f                              SSA)      ok;cd.fus>>f'd.fpdcH p.f,GJ.fph.f tySR[h.ful.f[h.fz;w>f rh>fph>fuD;
rd.f0J,d,dudmfzdv> w>frRw>fywkmfw>fqJ;w>fc;pH;w>fe‹.f rh>fw>fb.fC;'D;               vDR$                                                                                 unDuvkmfw*R zJvgtD;uxdb>.f 13oDteHR rk>f[gvDRe‹.f vJRylRuGHmf
ok;*h>f0DtCdt0JuqJ;pkrk>f us>>fv>w>fymfo;,d,dudmfzdoh.foh.fvDR$                              ch.ftJef,l.funD'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&>tHR vJRcD*mfuGHmf0Jw>f*h>fuDcJ              0J'.f[D.fcd.fe‹.f yoh.fngb.ftDRvDR$
b.fwb.fuqdrd.f0Jv> y>qS>w>furHwHmf wcDeJ.fvDRCmf0Jw>f*h>f (11)                      wcgtHR rh>fe‹>f*hR*hRb.fb.f/ y>jy;cd.fe>f'D; ok;cd.fe>ftd.fv>ch.ftJef,l.f ylR                  ok;cd.f'd.f pDRcFH;qGh.fv> to;eH.ftd.f0J 74 eH.ftHR cDzsd wl.fb.f0J'.f
xH.f0HRvHtCd 'Jt0Jrh>fok;*h>f0Dcd.fus>>f w*Rtod; ogrh>fqJ;pkrk>fus>>f'D;            wz.f ph>fuD; xd.fClxd.fb.fvdmfuhRo;zD.f*>>fCmfus>R0J unD'Duvkmf                      oGH.fxD.f/ o;/uvhh>fw>fqgwz.ftCd oHuGHmf0J'.f zJuD>fuFD.fwJ.f/ 0h>fuH>frJ
urh>fw>f0HRvDRoh.foh.fph>fuD;vDR$ rhrh>fb.fzk;'fe‹.fw cDtJtHR t0Jub.f               teD.fw,>fv> trh>fch.ftJef,l.fteD.fw,>ftHR rh>fe‹>f*>>f*>>fe‹.f/ v>w>fu               v>t[H.fylRe‹.fvDR$
wJe>fy>>fuhR0J w>f*h>ftHRqly>qS>w>furHwHmfwz.fe‹.fwkRw>fwkmfvdmfuhR                 'd; e‹>fb.fxHvD>fuD>fylRw>frkmfw>fck.ft*D>f/ yemfv>urh>f0Jw>f*H>fw>fbg;z;                      ok;cd.f'd.f pDRcFH;qGh.ftHR rh>f0JySRpl>femfbl;';w*R'D; pH;uwdR0J unD/
tDRohtywD>fe‹.f tvD>f td.f0J'.fvDR$ b.fwb.ft0J uwJ e>fy>>f0J0HRvHoh.f               'd.fwcge‹.fvDR$                                                                      ytd.f'D; ,dR'd.ftusdmf oh0J bsJ;bsJ;bsD;bsD;trJmfng w>fu&>u&dtylRph>f
                                                                                                                                                                         uD; rh>fySRw*Rv>tymf'd.fymfuJtrlt'gt*h>f ySRv>t&hb.f'D; t0J
                                                                                                                                                                         t[H.fzdCDzdv>trh>f ,dR'd.fw>fupD.f0JRvD>f(oSsrf;oHawmfqifh)tJ;'H;x>.f
                 yD>f&DpDRuFD.fuFD.frhtd.fcd;ChxD.f0Jw>frl;w>f&>ftw>fo;unDR                                                                                              tlcd.fqJ pH;0JvDR$
                                                                                                                                                                                   “pDRcFH;qG‹.ftHR rh>fySRw*Rv>tymf'd.ftrlt'gvDR$ td.f'D;w>fol.f
vgtD;uxdbX.f16oD2012eH.f                                                                                                       vHmfusdRzk.fud;v> yD>f&DpDRuFD.fuFD.frh   wDo;&RvDR$ v>w>fe‹.ftCd rRoud;w>f'D; ,dR'd.fok;rk>f'd.f wkRv>toH
egolvhR(ch.ftJ.fpH.f)                                                                                                          uGJRCmf0J b.fC; w>f[H;e‹>f t0Jt           wbsDvDR”t*h>f tlcd.fqJ pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ.fpH.fvDR$
         yD>f&DpDRuFD.fuDF.frhtHR cDzsdrR                                                                                      &htHRe‹.fvDR$                                       pDRcFH;qG‹.ftHR t'hyDRvD>ftd.f0J zJ'loxl.f/ wv>RuD>fpJ'D; td.fzsJ.f
p>R0J'.f ySRv> t[l;*JRxH&l>fuD>foJ;                                                                                                     pDRuFD.fuFD.frhtHR w>f[H;*h>f    xD.f0J zJ 1938eH.f/ vg,lRvH 25oDteHRe‹.fvDR$ zJ 1958=59eH.fe‹.f Ckoh.
zJuD>fy,DRylR oDcgw>fylxD.fvDxD.f                                                                                              0DtDRv>wzd;rHoJ;p;'D; w>fzD.f tDR         ng rRvd0J'.f urs>>fw>ful.fb.ful.fohw>frRvd0HR t0J[H;xD.frl'g 'fuFd
tuwD>fwz.ftCd t0Jb.fw>f[H;                                                                                                     wwl>fvdmf0JtCd 2008 vg'H.f                o&.ftod; v>,dR'd.fuD>fpJ.fuvHRxH;/ (vG,fvifjrdK‹e,f) vGJ>fvhuD>fq.f
e‹>ft&h v>pH.fnD.fyDwh t0JR'>;wcD;                                                                                             pJb>.fxD.fe‹.f [JCh>f0J'.fv> uD>f         ytd.fuvkmftd.ftgtvD>f zJvGJ>fuFJ.fo0DtylRt*h>f yoh.fngb.ftDRvDR$
'fySRrRur.f0J w>fod.fw>foD eD.f*H>f                                                                                            uFD.fwJ.fuD>fy,DRuD>fq>0HR tylR                     w>ftHR0HRtvD>fcH zJ 1960eH.f ok;cd.f'd.f pDRcFH;qGh.ftHR ymfwh>fuGHmf0J
'd.f (228) v>rh>f rRw>fv>wtd.f'D;                                                                                              uGHmfweH.f vgtDulmfe‹.f ySRuD>fy,DR       uFdo&.fw>fzH;w>frR'D; EkmfvDR0J'.f ytd.f'Duvkmf w>fxl.fzsJ;ok;rk>f'd.f
w>fyRuJ (rxDrJhjrif) 'D;vDRb.f                                                                                                 zdv> tvJRwkRv> uD>fcs>wz.f                u&> (ytvz)tylR 0HR'D; zJ1967eH.f ymfzSd.fxD.fto;'D; ,dR'd.fok;rk>f'd.f
v>CdmfylR 6vg zJv>thph.ftCdmf                                                                                                  [JuhR0J'.fv>uD>fy,DRylR cDzsduD>f         SSA/SNIA 'D; [H;e‹>f0Jrl'gv> od.frSHRok;*h>f0D0JRvD>fcd.foh.fwuyR e‹.f
ylRe‹.fvDR$ tcJtHR t0J td.fcd;Ch                                                                                               cd.f tlohph.fw>fuGJrkmftCd 2012eH.f       vDR$
xD.f0J w>fo;unDRe‹.fvDR$                                                                                                       vgzh.f-bLtg&H.fe‹.f t0J [JuhR0J'.f                  zJ 1968eH.f uD>fy,DRcD.frFLeH;y.fwH.f(Auy) xD.f'k;0J t0Joh.f
         yD>f&D tlogxdtD.f (_rdKhr)                                                                                            v>uD>fy,DRtylRe‹.fvDR$ zJt0Jt             cHzke‹.ftCd ytvz tHR uhRymfzSd.fxD.fuhRto;'D; Auy oemfuh
v>turRp>R0J pDRuFD.fuFD.frh tw>f                                                                                               uwD>f t0J b.fw>fzD.ftDRe‹.fvDR$           ok;rk>f'd.f pDRcFH;qG‹.f tHR EkmfvDRtd.fu'kto; v>tod.frSHRv>trh>f ,dR'd.f
                                                                           yD>f&DpDRuFD.fuFD.frh                                                                         w>fClw>fzd; w>fy>>fq>ok;rk>f'd.f (SURA) tylR 'D;uJxD.f0J'.f ySRb.f
rl;w>f&R pH;0Jb.f ch.ftJ;pH.f v>b.f                                                                                                     b.fq.foemfuh uD>fcd.f &R
xGJ w>frl;t0JtHR zJvgtD;uxdb>.f             w>f'D; wul.fuD>fcD'd.f w>fpH.fnD.fyD    w>fymfzsg0J v>0h>fwul.fpH.fnD.fyD          vDRwh>fCmf0J v>ySRv> t[JuhR               rlb.f'g v>ttd.fv> SURA cd.fe>f ok;cd.frd[h(ud;)ph.fuGd.fZh tcD.fxH;w
12oDteHRe‹.f t0J wD.fxD.f0J vHmf            wh tySReJ.fw>fcH*Rw*RvDR$”              wht0JR'>;rJmfng 'D;yD>f&DpDRuFD.fuFD.f     v>uD>fcs>wz.f rh>frRur.fwh>f w>f          *Re‹.fvDR$
w>fo;unDR eD.f*H>f (249§12) v>                        tl ogxdtD.f(_rdKhr) pH;tg     rh trl; rh>fy.fCkmfe‹.f 'fpH.fnD.fyDwh     rl;w>f&Re‹.f w>fub.f[H;*h>f0D 'f                    ok;cd.frd[h oH0HRtvD>fcH qJ;rRoud;0Jw>f'D; ,dR'd.fw>fy>>fq>'D;
0h>fwul.fuD>f cD'd.fpH.fnD.fyDwhbsD.f       xD.f0J yD>f&DpDRuFD.fuFD.f tw>frl;tHR   ymfyeD.f0Jrk>feHRrk>foDe‹.f w>fub.f        w>fur.ftd.f0Jtod;e‹.fvDR$                 wkRv>tvJRylRuGHmf[D.fcd.fwpk [H;wh>frl'g 'ftrh>f RCSS/SSA cd.fok;cd.f
'd.fe‹.fvDR$                                ChxD.fw>fo;unDRue‹>ft*D>f t             vJRChe‹>f w>fo;unDRt*h>f yoh.f                                                       us>.f'd.fpdcH ph.f,GJ.fph.f tySR[h.ful.fw>fw*Rtod;e‹.fvDR$
         t0JpH;0J “w>f[h.f0J pDRuFD.f       w>f*h>fw>fusdR'D; w>fv>tvd.fw           ngb.ftDRvDR$                                          ÔÔ                                       ok;cd.f'd.fzdpDRcFH;qG‹.ftHR oHtq>uwD>f trgegqG‹.fth.f'D; zdcgG 3*R
uFD.frh tw>fur.ftHRwzd;rHvdmft              z.f yD>f&DtlnH.fnH.fxGh'D; tltD.fol.f            yD>f&Dtlogxd pH;0Jv> q>                                                     'D; zdrk.fw*R td.fwh>f0J'D; zdcGgo>*Rv>mfe‹.f cJtHR [H;rl'gv> ,dR'd.f uvHR
o;'D; w>fbs>b.f$ yub.fwJ t0J                &h.fxdwz.f urRp>R0J'.fvDR$              uwD>fcJtHR pDRuFD.fuDF.frhv> w>fx>                                                   xH; ok;rk>f'd.ftylRe‹.fvDR$
oh.fv> w>f*h>fw>fusdRv> t0Joh.f                      w>frl;w>f&>fv> tvd.fCh         EkmfCmftDRv> CdmfylRtHR xJ'.ft                                                                 ySRv>tvJRylRuGHmf[D.fcd.f ok;cd.f'd.f pDRcFH;qG‹.ftpd.ftHR w>fvJRuk>f
wD.fzsgxD.fwz.f ur.fvDR$ t0Joh.f            xD.f0J w>fo;unDRwz.fe‹.f ud;EGH         [H.fzdCDzdwz.f vJRxH.ftDRe‹>fvDR$                                                    vDRuhR zJvgtD;uxdb>.f 18oDteHR v>0h>fuH>frJ/ 0h[JuD>fq.f/ yhvdth.f
rh>f wl>fvdmfwbsD ,ub.fwJuhR                'J; rk>fzDz;(aom-umae‹)teHRe‹.f         zJw,Hmf'H;twD>fylR ,'d;e‹>f b.f                                                      w>foG.fcd.fe‹.f yoh.fngb.ftDRvDR$

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ubsH;y: -3
                                        ursX>fcJvXmfwuxdC.fC.[JxD.f0Jw>fqd;oDy'd.f'hbh;xDtrl;
vgtD;uxdbX.f17oD2012eH.f
egolvhR'D;pzg&SD(ch.ftJ.fpH.f)
         weHRtHR w>frR0J y'd.fpDR'h         w*RvDR$ t0Jv> 'Duvkmft*D>f                    oh.f (NLD) bsD.f'd.fc>.f p;vD>fvHR         pJ.f w>fbH.fw>fb>'D; uD>fq>*h>f0D      0h>fwcD PSDP bsD.f'd.fc>.fp; egph.f      DABtylRrh>f*hR/       NDFtylRrh>f*hR/
bh;xD v>to;eH.ftd.f 65eH.f                  tw>f w l > f q gcD . f q gwh > f t o;e‹ . f   tlbd.foD pH;0J “t0J tw>fymfo;              udwdmf ok;cd.f'd.f tD.fvGh.f/ wD.f     tG.f'D; ySRrRw>frkmfw>fck.f pDRbdeH.f    NHEC      tylRrh>f*hR t0J[H;wh>frl'g
tw>fqd;oD zJunD'D uvkmfp>zSd.f              p;xD.fzJv> yeD>fqH;cg yxH.fb.f                *hR'd.fr;vDR$ v>ySRtg*R w>fb.f             uvh oDcgz;'d.f 'D;uD>fylRySRrHR'd.f    wz.f [JqS>ph>fuD;0JvDR$                  'D;zJ 2004eH.ftylR v> (ENC) u
u&> KNU ok;uh (7) [D.fu0DR/                 vDR$ 'fod;yurRw>fwDwDvdRvdR                   bsK;t*D>fph>fuD; [h.fvDRto;v>mf            o.fxDwz.f trJmfng w>fu&>u&d                      y'd.fpDR'hbh;xDtHR trd>fy>f    vkmf'l.f*h>f0DurH;wHmftylR t0J [H;
oh.fbh.fx.fvD.fu0DRtylRtHR u                t*D>f xDbdod.fySRoDySRtCd v>y                 v>mfphphvDR$ uwD>ftHR w>fw>.fo             wzkb.fpkmfpkmf qS>[h.f0Jw>fo;tk;       trHRrh>f0J eD>frh.fzd'D; tlqGh.fxD 'D;   ph>fuD;rl'g 'feJ.f&GJ.fw*Rtod;e‹.f
rs>>f wuxdC.fC.f [JxD.f0J'.fe‹.f            [H.fzdCDzdt*D>f rh>f0JySR'lySRCdmfw           ud;0J w>frkmfw>fck.ftuwD>f t0Jrh>f         tzDuGDRwz.fe‹.fvDR$                    td.fzsJ.fxD.f0J'.fzJ 1948eH.f th&.f      vDR$
vDR$                                        *RvDR$ b.fxGJvdmfto;'D; Peace                 ySRv>ty.fCkmfy.f*D>fw*Rtod; w                       0HRtvD>fcH urs>>fwz.f zD.f    0.fwH.fuD>fcD/ [Duw;uD>fq.f/ oh.f                 'fe‹.ftod; zJ2004eH.ftylR
         v>w>f v J R qd ; oD v D R uh R     Process tHR uqJ;rR0Je‹.f wJ0JvDR$             csK;wk R 'H ; v>w>f r Re>RzD w >.f ' H ;   Cmf0Jw>fo;tk;tzDuGDRwz.f 'D;           zFL.fcFDo0De‹.fvDR$ zJ 1971eH.f zsd      ok;cd.fus>>fpDRbd.frF;'D; uD>fy,DR
y'd.fpDR'hbh;xDwbsDtHR t[H.fzd              wtJ.f'd;xH.f0J unDzdwz.f vDRrk>f              b.foHuGHmf0JtCd vDRo;tk;'d.f               w>fyRvDRuhR0J y'd.f'h bh;xDtpd.f       xD.f0J'.f w>fpH.fpdRwJpdR (BA            y'd.f tw>fxH.fvdmfw>.fyD.foud;
CDzd'D; KNU ok;uh (3/6/7) ok;               vDRz;b.f$ v>w>fe‹.ftCd w>fcGJ;                r;vDR$”t*h>f pH;0JvDR$                     v> tl;w>fylRv> w>fymfvDRCmftDR/        History) zJ (&efukef0dZ…m ody`H w        o>bsDtusg 'D;zJ 2005eH.ftylR
uhcd.fwz.f/ y'd.fpDRtgwd/ y'd.f             w>f,mfv>t'd;e‹>f0Je‹.f urR0Jv>                          KNU zgt.fuD>f&h.f xDbd           ok;uh (7) 0JR'>;cd.f pDRtJ.fq>q>       uUokdvf) 0h>fwull.f 0H.fZ.fpJth.f zF>f   w>fxH.fvdmfw>.fyD.foud;tuwD>f
&DuF>.fch.f/ y'd.foDoH.fbSJ/ y'd.f pDR      tuw>>fe‹.f pH;0JvDR$”t*h>f y'd.               urH;wHmf rgb;xd ph>fuD; pH;0J              z;zsgxD.f0J ok;cd.fus>>frlwlphzd t     pdrdRe‹.fvDR$                            y'd.f pDR'hbh;xD y.fCkmf0Jtod;
uGJRxl0h/ y'd.fxJ'>>f/ y'd.fpDRvhvDR        pDR'hbh;xDtzdcGgqH; pDRtJ.fuD>fxD             “tcJtHR w>frR0Jw>frkmfw>fck.ft             vHmf[h.fvDRw>fuvk>ftrJmfng b.f                   v>teD>fqH;cgvHRvHR td.f        v>tlohph.f tpdRtpkylR 2011eH.f
qD/ y'd.fqG‹.frD/y'd.frgnhrD.f 'D;v>        pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ.fpH.fvDR$                     usJtHR w>fb.f'db.fxH; td.f0J'.f            xGJok;*h>f0Dtw>f&J.fw>fusJRwz.f        'D;w>fo;qll.fv> uvkmf*h>f0D 'D;zJ        v>w>fcs>w>.fyD.foud;rh>f*hR 'D;
ok;wyR b.frlb.f'gcd.fe>fwz.f w                         rl;t0JtHR b.fw>fp;xD.f             vDR$ 'fvJ.f*hR'fvD.f*hR cd.fe>fv>t         b.fw>frRtDR wkRv>rk>f[gvDR 2e.f        1979eH.f/ vgrhR 23oDteHR [JEkmf          2012eH.f vg,EllRtg&HRtylR w>f
rSHRvDRqDv>trh>f '0J>frhorHcDyeH.f          tDRv> *DRcD 11;30 'D;rR0J'.f 'f               td.fwh>f'H;wz.fph>fuD; 'fod;ue‹>f          &H.fwcDe‹.fvDR$                        vDR0J'.fv> unDw>fy>>fq> KNU              w>.fyD.foud; v>uD>fpJ.ftywD>f
ySReJ.fw>f ';&J;x>.f tliG‹.fpd'D; w>f       c&Hmfzdw>fbl.fw>fbgtod; 'D;w>f                b.f w>frkmfw>fck.fv> trh>ftwD                       y'd.fpDR'hbhxDtHR tylRuGHmf   zgt.fuD>f&h.ftylRe‹.fvDR$ 1983eH.f       w>fywkmfw>fc; tuwD>frh>f*hR t0J
rkmfw>fck.fcd.fe>fwz.f/ y&[dwySRrR          z;zsgxD.fy'd.f 'hbh;xD t*h>ftusdR             t*D>f ub.fusJ;p>;'H;0Jt*h>f”t*h>f          vgtD;uxdb>.f 14oDteHR oHuGHmf          b.fw>f[h.fvDRtDRrl'gv> vD>fc>.f          y.fCkmf 'fySRwDcd.f&dRrJw>fw*Rt
bl.foGH.fu&l>fwcD cGg*JJR'd0hvl.fuFD.f      w>fuGJ;xD&DR/ KNU vD>fc>.fo;/                 pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ.fpH.fvDR$                  0J zJ0h>fwull.frJ.fuv.f'd.f ok;w>f     o;ySRy>Rph rl'g 'D;zJ 1986eH.fe‹.f       od;e‹.fvDR$
[JxD.f0JtrJmfng 'D;ux>.fph.foH.f            *HH>fcD.fxH;w>fu&>u&dweDR'D; od.f                       w>f&J.fw>fusJReD.f*H>f 1 w>f     qg[H.f zJrk>feR 10e.f&H.fbsJ.fv> y     b.fw>fok;uhRtDRv> u&>cd.f ok;
,.frD.f/ od.frSHw>fu&>u&dwz.f/              rSHRw>fu&>u&d tw>fo;tk;vHmf                   Chxkuz.f0HR'D; eD.f*H>f 2 v>trh>f          od.fw>fqge‹.fvDR$ rhrh>ftpd.f wcD      cd.fus>>f pDRbd.frF;t0JR'>; 0HRtvD>f             ÔÔ
y.fwH.fwz.f/ orloud;v> tvJR                 [h.f,l.fwz.fe‹.fvDR$                          uD>fcd.f0JR'>;udwdmf tltD.frh/ uD>fp>      zJvgtD;uxdb>.f 15oDteHR *DRcD          cH w>f[h.ftDR rl'gv>trh>f xH*kRuD>f
wkRv> uD>fcs>wz.f [JxD.f 0J'.fe‹.f                     y'd.fpDR'hbh;xDtw>fqd;oD           zSd.fudwdmf tlch.f,H.f/ 'Duvkmf'H>frd.f    b.fw>f[JuhRqS>tDRql uD>fq>'D;          *RurH;wHmf/ pH.fnD.fyDwh0JRvD>frl'g
vDR$                                        wbsDtHR ySRv>tvJRxD.fwz.ft                    u&h.fpH.f u&>cd.foh.f/ unDuvkmf            KPP       u&>cd.f pDRxdtD.frFH;/       cd.fe‹.fvDR$
         “ygyg rh>fySRy>qS>[H.fcd.f         usg 'Duvkmf'H.frd.fu&h.fpH.fu&>cd.f           *h>f0Dudwdmf pDRxdtD.frFH;/ unD uD>f       'D;ux>.f pJr>>fo.f'D;trg/ zgt.f                     p;zJ 1988eH.fe‹.f v>




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Photo-KIC

                                                          uD>uFD.wJ.tylRySRrRw>zdvXtvHmtk.o;wtd.wz.
                                                                     eH.tHRtvXmeh.w>uzD.tDR
vgtD;uxdbX.23oD<2012eH.
pzg&SD(ch.ftJ;pH.)                          wtd.fe‹.f bd;b.f&RvDRCmf0Jv>                  vHmftvJ.f wtd.fvDRwHmfvDRqJ;w b.ftDRvDR$                               qD'D; w>fv>mfbl.fv>mfph 'fw>fymf tk.fo;/ w>fqg[H.fwcgcgtvHmf
         yS R v>t[J r Rw>f r Rv>            uzD.f0JvDR$” t*h>f pH;0J ch.ftJ;pH.f          z.fcJv>mf uFD.fwJ.fy'd.f bd;b.f&R0J   0h>frJqD;tylR uD>fy,DRySRrR      yeD.fCmftDRtod; 6vgo; orlt tk.fo;'D; w>frRup>ftvHmftk.fo;
uD>fuFD.fwJ.ftylR 'D;ySRrRw>fzd vHmf        vDR$                                          v> p;xD.fvg'H.fpJb>.f 14oDteHR w>fzdt[JrRw>fw*R pH;0J “tylR            *D>f b.f[h.f0J uFD.fwJ.fph 1000b; wz.f wy.fwohub.ftd.f0JvDR$
tk.fo;wtd.fwz.f weH.ftHRt                             ud.fxG‹eJ.f pH;u'D;0Jv>             w>fymfyeD.ftDRtpJRcHuw>>f 'D;u uGHmf vHmfvJ.f rh>ftd.fwcgcge‹.f oh     'D; vHmfw>forHord; w>ftd.fql.f            uD>fuFD.fwJ.fylR ySRv>tzD.f
v>mfe‹.f w>fuzD.ftDRtCd uFD.fwJ.f                                                                                                                                                                   Cmf wpd>fwvD>f w>fcDxHcDuD>fvHmf
y'd.f 'k;oh.f0J ySRrRw>fzdwz.f v>                                                                                                                                                                   tk.fo;trJmfng ySRrRw>fzdvHmftk.f
                                                                                                    ?tylRuGHmvHmvJ.rh>td.wcgcgM.ohvDRI                                                              o; Work Permit wz.fwcD
urR0J tvHmfysJ (Work Permit)
v> tqdtcsht*h>f oh.fngb.ftDR                                                                    usd.phph>uD;vXmz;tgvHtCdw>oh.wz.tHR                                                                 xDbdtoD 90 wbsD b.fvJRrR
vDR$                                                                                      rh>wM>vXRb.M.'fuFD.wJ.y'd.wJ0Jtod;yb.rRvDR/                                                               tgxD.f0J to;orl 'D;rh>fwvJRrR
         0h>frJqD; ySRrRp>R ySRrRw>fzd                                                                                                                                                              tgxD.f0Je‹.f ub.f[h.f0J phtD.fvD;
u&>v>trh>f ,D>fcFH;tlu&>/ w>f                                                                                                                                                                       1000b; wkRv> 5000b;t*h>fe‹.f
bs>*h>f0Drl'gcd.f ud.fxGheJ.fpH;0J “uFD.f                                                                                                                                                           yoh.fngb.ftDRvDR$
wJ.fy'd.fwcD pH;0J ySRt[JrRw>f              w>fyRyeD.fCmf0J          ySRv>ttd.f'D;        p;xD.f [H;0J*h>f0De‹.fvDR$            vDR$ usd.fphph>fuD; v>mfz;tgvH td.fcshv>weH.ft*D>f b.f[h.f 1900
v>txHuD>fylRwz.f ub.frR0J                   Work Permit wz.fph>fuD; weH.f                        w>frh>forHord;xH.fe‹>f0J ySR tCd w>foh.fwz.f tHR rh>fwe‹>fv>R b;t*h>f ,D>fcFH;tl ySRrRp>RySRrRw>f           ÔÔ
Work Permit e‹.fvDR$ rh>fwrR0J              tHR vgtD;uxdb>.f 14oDteHR                     v>tvHmftk.fo;wtd.fwz.f w>f b.fe‹.f 'fuFD.fwJ.fy'd.f wJ0Jtod; y zdu&> pH;0JvDR$
e‹.f weH.ftHRvgv>mfe‹.f up;xD.f             tpJRcHuw>>f ub.frRtgxD.f0J t                  u[H;*h>f0D 'fuFD.fwJ.fw>fbs> eD.f*H>f b.frRvDRt*h>f” pH;0JvDR$                 wuwD>fCD ud.fxG‹eJ.f pH;0J
zD.f0JvDR$ rh>fzD.fCmf'D;vHmftk.fo;         o;orl'D;ySRv>twrRtgxD.f w>f                   BE2522 (bH.ftH 2522)tod; 'D;                 'fe‹.ftod; w>frR0J'.f w>f v>w>furR0J Work Permi tHR
t*Roemfuh Work Permit rh>f                  rRvHmfysJto;orlwz.f/ Work                     u[h.f0J w>fur.f phtD.fvD; 5000 rRvHmfysJ Work Permit tHR b.f t*D>f w>fv>tvd.f0Jwz.f rh>f0J
                                            Permit wtd.fwz.f'D; ySRv>t                    'D; b.ftd.fCdmf 5eH.ft*h>f yoh.fng rR0J cDzsd ySRrRtD.fw>fzd(yJGpm;)w w>f[Jtd.fv>uD>fuFD.fwJ.fylR tvHmf
 ubsH;y: -4
     cDzsdoD.f,hc.wrX.u;yHmfto;tCdxHvkmfxD.'D;vD>u0DRzdwz.                                                                                                            o0Do;yS>fChtD.fph
vgtD;uxdbX.15oD2012eH.f
                        xH.b.w>uDvXw>ul.vJmrRuR                                                                                                                     vXySRvXtrR0JxHuD>f
egolvhR(ch.tJ;pH.)                       td.f0J'.ft*h>f unD'Duvkmfp>zSd.f         xHwr>.f o0Dtzs>.f 40C.fC.f             ol.fxD.ftDR u0HR0J'.f zJweH.ftHR

         yud;uD>fcD/ wDtluD>fq.f
                                         u&> (KNU) wDtluD>f&h.fcd.f y'd.f
                                         pDRtJ.f0g pH;b.f0J'.f ch.ftJ;pH.fvDR$
                                                                                  tylR urs>>f wuv;bsJ.f tw>fzH;
                                                                                  tD.frRtD.ft*h>f y'd.fpDRtJ.f0g pH;0J
                                                                                                                         vged.f0hb>.ftylR'D; uxk;xD.f0J
                                                                                                                         vD*H>fbg 40 rH.fu>.f0>; 'D;cDzsd xH
                                                                                                                                                                     w>f*DRcd.fwz.fttd.
tylR uD>fy,DRy'd.f'D; xl*H>fbg (th                 y'd.fpDRtJ.f0g pH;0J “oD.f,h   vDR$                                   wr>>ftCd usD;thu>.fv>t[;*DR vgtD;uxdbX.f12oD2012eH.f
&S>.f0>;)cDyeH.fwz.f ymfzSd.frR0J oD.f   c.f 'DrFH;igusd cHbdtHR ,GRvDRwe‹>f              wDtlvD>fu0DRzdw*R pH;0J        cJv>mf 56thu>.ft*D>f [h.f0J'.f pDRcgqlng(ch.ftJ;pH.f)
,hc.fxHwr>.ftHR u;yHmfto;t               v>Rb.ftCd xHxD.fuhR v>w>f                “xHe‹.f ,GRvDRv>w>fzDvmf we‹>f         phuF; tuvD>fcHuxdC.fC.ft*h>f
Cd xHusdtylR xH,GRvDRwe‹>fb.f            vl>fcd.f'D; xHvkmfb>uGHmf wdmfcJv>mf     b.f 'D;xHvkmfxD.fuhR v>w>f zDcd.f      oh.fngb.ftDRvDR$
'D; xHvkmfxD.f0JtCd vD>fu0DRzdv>         vDR$ [;xD.f[;vDRuhR wohv>R               'D;xHvkmfb>w>fvDR$ tcJtHR wdR                   tylRuGHmf vgpJ;yxhb>.f
tpdRqgw>fzdw>fvHR'D; ul.fvJmfrR          b.f$ usd;v>ttd.fv> w>fuydR               e‹.f xHvkmfb>uGHmf'DwbdvDR$ tCd        25oDteHR b.fC; w>fol.fxD.f oD.f
uRwz.f xH.fb.f0J w>fvJRw>fuhR            uyR v>trh>f rHul.fo.f/ oJ;o.f/           wkRueH.ftHR ySRpdmfqg w>fzdw>fvHR      ,hc.f xHwr>>ftHRtzDcd.f urs>>f
usJw>fuDw>fcJe‹.fvDR$                    z.fv.f 'D;wl>f&h.fusD;wz.f [;*DR         woh'H;eDwrHRb.f$”t*h>fe‹.fvDR$         wz.f td.f'D; w>fb.f,d.ftCd u
         oD.f,hc.fxHwr>.ftHR p;          uGHmf0JvDR$”t*h>fe!.fvDR$                        yvJ.f0gwdRtHR w>fol.fxD.f      rs>>f 200C.fC.f ymfzSd.fxD.fto;'D;
xD.f vgtD;uxdb>.f 13oDteHR                         b.fC; xHwr>.f u;yHmft          tDR0Jv> oD.f,hc.f xHusdtylR v>         ymfzsgxD.f tw>fb.fo; zJwDtl
xHvkmfb>uGHmf0J yvJ.f0gwdmf v>           o;tHR ySRv>tb.frlb.f'gwz.f               wDtl0h>frk>fxD.fwuyR t,HR24            uD>f&h.f KNU w>fy>[D.fu0DRtylR
w>fvJRxD.fuhRvDR bDuvH.fuFH'D;           wtd.f'D; w>f'k;oh.fng vD>fu0DR           w>.fC.fC.f 'D;td.f,HR0J'D; oD.f,h      e‹.fvDR$
wDtl0h>ftCd vD>fu0DRzdwz.f v>            wz.fb.ftod; xHvkmfxD.ftCd rR             c.fwr>>f 10w>.fe‹.fvDR$                             ÔÔ
uulvgtD.fw>ft*D>f w>fuDw>fcJ             b.f'd;0J'.f o0Dv>ttd.fbl;0J'D;                   oD.f,hc.f xHwr>>ftHR w>f


KNU pH;0Jw>fymfo;w'fod;td.fxD.fvXcd.e>ftusgtHRb.
                                                             vdmfzd;'huhRvH                                                                                             unDuD>fpJ.f/ &;rwHuD>fq.f xH0.fbsD'D; yeDusJcHo0Dwz.ftylR
                                                                                                                                                               w>f'de‹>f0J o0Dzdw>f*DRcd.fcDvDoemfuh o0Do;yS>f ChtD.fph v>ySRo0Dzd 'D;
vgtD;uxdbX.f27oD2012eH.f                                                                                                                                       uFdzdwz.fttd.ft*h>f ySRv>trRe‹>f ySRw>f*DRcd.fwz.f pH;0JvDR$
pDRcgqlng(ch.ftJ;pH.f)                                                                                                                                                  &;rwHuD>fq.ftylR xHzduD>fzdeD.f*H>f0JRvD>f(v0u)'D; Norwegian
                                                                                                                                                               Refugee Council-NRCwz.f vJRrRe‹>f0J'.f o0Dzdwz.f tw>f*DRcd.f
          w>fu&>u&dtylR w>f*h>fv>tuJxD.fto;wz.fcgqlnguvkmf                        tHR cDzsd KNU w>fbs>w>f*H>fp>fbgp>ftCd 'fod; cd.fe>fcJv>mf uol.f
                                                                                                                                                               'D;ymfvDR0J'.f o0Dwzs>.fcHoD p;xD.f zJvgpJ;yxhb>.f wkRv>vgtD;u
w>fClw>fzd;t*D>fe‹.f KNU unD'Duvkmfp>zdS.fu&> w>.fyD.foud;0J bl;                  rHo;rHuhR0J 'D;uD>fylRuD>fcs>unDzdwz.fph>fuD; wtJ.f'd;0Jv> KNU tylR
                                                                                                                                                               xdb>.f 5oDteHRe‹.fvDR$ o0Do;yS>fweDR Ch0J'.f o0Dzdph ySRw*R uF;
bl;wH>fwH>f zsdzsdzsgzsg 'D;uhRrRvdmfzd;'huhR0J0HRvHt*h>fe‹.f weHRtHR bd;         w>fvDRrk>fvDRz; uJxD.f0Jb.fe‹.f ok;cd.fpDRv.fihG.f wJtgxD.f0JvDR$
                                                                                                                                                               1000 wkR5000uF;t*h>f xH0.fbsDo0Dzdw*R pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ;pH.fvDR$
b.f&RvDR0J'.fvDR$                                                                          'fch.ftJ.f,l.ftvHmfbd;b.f&RvDRtylR w>fymfo;tod;e‹.f uwD>ftHR
                                                                                                                                                                        “w>f'de‹>fySRwcD wJ0Jv>cDvDvDvDR$ b.fq.foemfuh wcsK;'d'H;
          zJvgtD;uxdb>.f 25oDwkR 26oD teHRe‹.f KNU rR0J *h>f*D>ftl                w>fu&>u&dtylR w>f*H>fp>fwz.fe‹.f cd.fe>fwz.fuy>qS>0J'D; w>.fyD.f
                                                                                                                                                               b.fe‹.f yb.fvJRqJ;vDRyrHRv> o0Do;yS>fttd.f 'D;yb.f[h.fv>phy,DR
w>ftd.fzSd.fvDRqD zJunDuD>fpJ.f/ zgtguD>f&h.f [D.fu0DR/ vh0g'Ju0DRe‹.fvDR$        oud;CkuhRw>ftp>'D; 'fusJoEltd.fCmftod; uqJ;cgxD.f oud;0Jt*h>f
                                                                                                                                                               5000uF;vDR$ uFdzdwz.f b.f[h.f0Jwuxd”t*h>f pH;0JvDR$
v>w>ftd.ftylR vD>fc>.fo;xDbdurH;wHmf'D; vD>fc>.fo;uwDRqdurH;wHmf                  e‹.f ymfzsgxD.f0J'.fvDR$
                                                                                                                                                                        cDzsdb.f[h.fph'fe‹.ftCd o0Dzdv>t[h.fphwe‹>fwz.f [J'dw>f*DRcd.f
40*R [JxD.f0J 'D;w>.fyD.foud;0 b.fxGJcd.fe>fv> w>fxk;xD.fuGHmftDR                          KNU vD>fc>.fo;urH;wHmfzdw*Rv>trh>f rgnhrD>f pH;0J “w>fo
                                                                                                                                                               wohb.ftCd uJxD.fw>fb.f'db.fxH;v> o0Dzdwz.ft*h>f o0Dzdw*R
3*Rw>f*h>ftHR bsJ;bsJ; bsD;bsD;0HRtvD>fcH 'd;e‹>fb.fuhR w>fe>fy>.fe‹.fvDR$        bH.fobk.fuJxD.fto;v> KNU tylR'ftHRe‹.f rh>fw>fvDRo;tk;v>
                                                                                                                                                               qJ;wJu'D;0JvDR$
          KNU teJ.f&GJoCJR =1 ok;cd.fpDRv.fiGh.f pH;0J “w>f*h>fv>w>fxk;           'Dwuvkmft*D>f'd.f'd.frk>frk>fvDR$ w>f*h>ft0JtHR zJyuhRuG>fuhRtq>uwD>f
                                                                                                                                                                        xH0.fbsDo0Do;yS>fvD>fvHRw*R pH;0J w>fx>0J ySRw*Re‹.f xJ
xD.fuGHmfcd.fe>ftHR zJyw>.fyD.foud;tDRtcg t0Joh.ftb.f'D; y0Joh.fb.f               yymftDRv>w>f*h>ft&h'd.f'D; w>frRv>yub.frRtDRqlngwz.f yuG>fuhR
                                                                                                                                                               3000uF; 'D;w>foltDRv> ySRb.frlb.f'g v>t[J'de‹>fySR w>f*DRcd.fv>t
wJvdmfo;'ftHRe‹.f w0HReDwbsDv>Rb.f$ v>w>fe‹.ftCd yuG>fuhRv>w>fCl                  'ftHR'D; yrRtDRvDR”t*h>f pH;0JvDR$
                                                                                                                                                               rh>f v0u'D; NRC wz.ft*D>f w>fv>mfbl.fv>mfphv> tvd.f0Jtuvkmf
w>fzd;t*D>f 'D;uhRrRb.fvdmfuhR'ftHRe‹.f rh>fw>fv>t*hRuw>>f 'D;cd.fe>f                      wuwD>fCD w>fymfo;w'fod;uJxD.fto;v>cd.fe>fwz.ftusg
                                                                                                                                                               uvkmft*h>f 'H.f0H.fbH.f w>fupD.funDusdmfuGJ;vhvdRw>f&J.f w>fusJRtylR
wz.f v>tvD>fv;v>tylRuGHmftod; w>fuhR[h.fuhRtDRvDR$ uqJ;[H;rl'g                    tHR w>fuhRrRb.fvdmfzd;'huhRtDR0HR'D; up;xD.frR0J'.f vD>fc>.fo;urH;wHmf
                                                                                                                                                               pH;wh>fCmf0JvDR$
wkRv>cD;u&J; 150Dw0De‹.f ytd.f'D;w>fb.fo;vDR” t*h>f pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ;              w>ftd.fzSd.fe‹.f zJwvgtHR 31oDteHRe‹.f 'D;zJwqD0HR w>fup; xD.frRuhR0J
                                                                                                                                                                        b.fq.foemfuh NRC ySRrRw>fzdwcD pH;0J v>unDw>fuD>fpJ.ft
pH.f e‹.fvDR$                                                                     150Dw0D cD;u&J;w>ftd.fzSd.f zJed.f0hb>.f vGH>fEGHwEGHtylR t*h>f yoh.fngb.f
                                                                                                                                                               ylR [;rRe‹>f0J'.f urs>>f w>f*DRcd.fcDvD 'ftrh>f One Stop Service w>f&J.f
          v>*h>f*D>ftlw>ftd.fzSd.ftylR w>fxH.fw'fod;v>t[JuJxD.fwz.f               tDRvDR$
                                                                                                                                                               w>fusJRtod;e‹.fvDR$ v>t0Joh.ft*D>f v>trh>f w>fvJRw>fuhR/ tD.ftD'D;
                                                               KNU *h>*DRtlw>td.zSd.                                                                           w>fv>mfbl.fv>mfpht*Rwz.f &J.fusJRrR0J v>teD>fp>f'.f0Je‹.fvDR$
                                                                                                                                                                        NRC ySRrRw>fzdw*R pH;0J “NRC ySRrRw>fzdcJv>mfC.fC.f
                                                                                                                                                               w>fv>mfbl.fv>mfphcJv>mf 0JRvD>fwz.f&J.fusJRCmf0HRvHvDR$ o0Do;yS>fwz.f
                                                                                                                                                               rRw>f'ftHR ye>f[lb.ftCd o;wrkmfb.f$ b.frEkRCdvJ.fe‹.f Ch0Jph'ftHR
                                                                                                                                                               tCd ySRweDReDRvd.fb.f0J w>f*DRcd.f eD>feD>f'D; w'db.f0JtCd” pH;0J'.fvDR$
                                                                                                                                                                        'fe‹.ftod; &;rwHuD>fq.f/ yeDusJcHo0DtylRph>fuD; o0Do;yS>f
                                                                                                                                                               x>ph ySRurs>>fttd.f/ ySRv>w'db.f w>f*DRcd.feDwbsD'H;e‹.f w*R4500uF;/
                                                                                                                                                               ySRv>uqDwvJ w>f*DRcd.fvD>fvHRwz.f w*R 3500uF;t*h>f vD>fu0DDRzd
                                                                                                                                                               wz.f pH;0J'.fvDR$
                                                                                                                                                                        tcJtHR vgtD;uxdb>.ftylR&;rwHuD>fq.ftylRe‹.f w>f'de‹>f0J'.f
                                                                                                                                                               xHzduD>fzdw>f*DRcd.f ySReD.f*H>futd.f0J 700C.fC.ft*h>fe‹.f yoh.fngb.f
                                                                                                                                                               tDRvDR$

                                                                                                                                                                    “NRC ySRrRw>fzdcJv>mfC.fC.f w>fv>mf
                                                                                                                                                               bl.fv>mfphcJv>mf 0JRvD>f wz.f&J.fusJRCmf0HRvHvDR$
                                                                                                                                                               o0Do;yS>fwz.frRw>f'ftHRye>f[lb.ftCdo;
                                                                                                                                                               wrkmfb.f$ b.frEkRCdvJ.fe‹.f Ch0Jph'ftHRtCd ySR
                                                                                                                                                               weDReDRvd.fb.f0J w>f*DRcd.f eD>feD>f'D; w'db.f 0Jt
                                                                                                                                                               Cd”
                                                                                                                                          Photo-KIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ubsH;y: -5
          vged0hbX.wcsK;vXmfM.                                                                                       uFD.fwJ.fcDyeH.fw,Hmfb.fup;xD.fbD0J
            unDuD>fpJ.tylR                                                                                            uD;u&H;=&;rwHupX>fodvh.fusJ
             w>fuCkxXxD.                                                          vgtD;uxdbX.f27oD<2012eH.f
                                                                                  zdcgGvh(ch.ftJ;pH.f)
          u0DR'h<o0Do;yS>fwz.f                                                             unDuD>fpJ.fuvHRxH; uD;          &;rwHvHvDR$ cJueH.f yxd.f[D.fcd.f                   uD;u&H; ql&;rwH ySRv>       t*h>f unDuD>fpJ.f w>fqJ;usd;qJ
                                                                                  u&H; ql&;rwH odvh.fusJ w>fwdmf           vD>foh.fwz.fvDR$ rh>f0HR' kyup;xD.f        tvh>fxD.fvh>fvdRw*R pH;0J“ yrh>f     us>udwdmf pDRch.frD.frFH; wJtgxD.f
                                                                                  usJR v>w>fucl.f0JtoDtHR weH.f            cl.f0JusJt*h>f” pDRch.frD.frFH;pH;0JvDR$   cl.fusJtoDe‹.f y0Joh.f ySRv>tCh>f    u'D;0JvDR$
 vgtD;uxdbX.f26oD<2012eH.f
                                                                                  tHR eH.fv>mfe‹.f uFD.fwJ.fw>fcl.fusJcD              uDF.fwJ.f 'D;uD>fy,DRcd.fe>f    xJ;upH.f pJ;uJ;odvh.figwz.ft*D>f              uD;u&H; ql&;rwH w>fcl.f
 pzg&SD(ch.ftJ;pH.f)
                                                                                  yeH.f v>trh>f pHq.fu.f,dx.f (pD          oh.fwz.f tw>fb.fo;tzDcd.f w>f              weHRvJRuwkR0JwbsDcHbsDvDR$ t         usJw>fwdmfusJRtHR b.fw>fp;xD.f
         unDuD>fpJ.ftylR uD>fq.fwbh.fb.fwbh.f u0DR'h'lo0Dy>qS>w>f                 qefuef,dkx) up;xD.f rR0Jt*h>f            rR0J w>fck.fusJ w>fwdmfusJRtHR th          cJtHR usJe‹.f tupl;tH.fwpJ;tCd       &J.fusJRtDR v>tylRuGHmf 2004 eH.f
wz.ftHR zJvged.f0hb>.f 2012eH.f tv>mfe‹.f w>fuCkx>xD.ftDR wkRt                    yoh.fngb.ftDRvDR$                        &S>.f w>f*kRxD.fyoDxD.fphw>; rRp>R         w>fb.f,d.ftd.ftgvDR$ 0HR'D; usJw     vHemfuh w>fvD>ftHR rh>fv> unD'D
0HRe‹.f yoh.fngb.ftDRvDR$                                                                  unDuD>fpJ.f w>fqJ;usd;          0J uFD.fwJ.fw>fcl.fusJcDyeH.f (pDqef       cD[;*DRtgtgtCd rlcd.frh>fplRe‹.f     uvkmfp>zSd.fu&> (KNU) t[D.fu
         &;rwHuD>fq.f y>qS>w>fcd.ftlrHF;wh.f pH;0J “xHuD>f'Dwbh.fty               qJ;us>udwdmf pDRch.frD.frHF; pH;b.f0J    u.f,dx) 'D; cDyeH.ftHR [H;rl'g'D;          usJ'Dwbd uvDmfuyHmfvDRq>.fw          0DRtCd [D.fu0DRylRw>frkmfw>fck.f
wD>f b.frRtDRtCd &;rwHph>fuD; u0DR'hwz.f w>fp;xD.f&J.fusJRtDRe‹.fvDR$             ch.f tJ;pH.fv> w>fcl.fusJtHR tqdu        rR0JJe‹.fvDR$                              z.ftd.f0Jt*h>f” pH;0JvDR$            wtd.f b.ftzDcd.f zJ 2005eH.f w>f
vged.f0hb>.ftv>mfe‹.f w>furRtDRwkRt0HRvDR” t*h>f pH;b.f0J ch.ftJ;pH.f             w>>f w>fxd.f0J[D.fcd.f'd; p;xD.f oh                 uD;u&H; ql&;rwHup>>f                     v>w>fwdmfusJRtHR uD>fu      rRt0JtHR b.fw>fywkmfCmftDR'D;
vDR$                                                                              ugnH.feD.f wkRqluD;u&H;e‹.f uFD.f        usJtHR t,HRtd.f 40w>.f/ w>fvJR             ,DR thuFheH,>.fwz.f'D; ySRrRw>fzd    wvgtHR w>fuuhRp;xD.fuhRtDR
         uwD>ftHR unDuD>fpJ.f/ zgt.fuD>fq.ftylR u0DR'hwz.f cJv>mftd.f             wJ.fy'd.f ucl.fe‹>f0JusJtoDe‹.fvDR$      usJ ,Hmf0J 3e.f&H>f 'D;w>fwdmfusJRtHR      wz.f [H;rl'g 'D;pJ;zDu[.fw>fzd       e‹.fvDR$
0J 9 bh.ftusg u0DR'h (3)'D; u0DR'ht*RweDR w>fuCkx>xD.f u0DR'hcd.f                          “w>fcl.fusJt*D>f pJ;zDu[.f      rh>f0HRe‹.f w>fvJRusJ ubl;vDR0J            w>fvHRwz.fwcD cHuyRv>mf ySR                      ÔÔ
'fw>f[h.fw>f z;tod;0HR0JvHe‹.f yoh.fngb.fvDR$                                     v>ub.foltDRwz.f [JwkR0Jv>                o>ylwyle‹.fvDR$                            ohySRb.fwz.f uzD.fxD.f 0J'D;rR0J
         0h>fzgt.f/ eD.f*H>f (3) u0DR'h [H.fwqHcd.fw*R pH;0J “yu0DR'hylR
[H.fwu,Rcd.f/ [H.fqHcd.f td.f0J 47*Rtusg yrR0J w>fCkx> 'fw>f[h.f
w>fz; w>fclol.ftod; 'D;w>fCkx>xD.f0J ySR 3*Rtusg ,[h.ftDRw>fz;w
*RvDR$ ySRv>ttd.f wh>fcH*RwcD ,oh.fng t*h>ftusdRb.ftCd ,w
[h.ftDRw>fz;b.f”t*h>f pH;0JvDR$
         v>u0DR'hySRy>qS>w>fcd.f w>fuCkx>xD.ftDRt*D>f w>fuGJrkmfCmf
tDRwoD 'D;ySRv>t[JuGJrkmfw>fwz.f pH;0Jv> urs>>f[h.fw>fz;wohb.f'D;
vJRue.f/ uG>fuD'D; oh0J 'D;rh>fwtJ.f'd;vJRoemfuh td.fohtzDcd.f
,wvJRb.ft*h>fe‹.f 0h>fzgt.f/ u0DR'h (3) ydmfrk.fw*R pH;0JvDR$
         0h>fzgt.ftylR ,we.f'H.fy.f(&wem'Dy) eD.f*H>f (9) u0DR'hph>fuD;
w>fuuhRCkx>xD.fuhR u0DR'hy>qS>w>ftoDt*D>f u0DR'hySRb.frlb.f'g
wz.f uGJrkmf0J'.f ySRv>tuH>ftpDtv>tySJR/ ySRv>to;td.f rRw>fwz.f
v>u[JwD.fxD.f trHRe‹.fvDR$
         'fu0DR'h/ 'lo0Dy>qS>w>f w>fbs> eD.f*H>f 3w>fbs>eD.f*H>f'd.f (5)
tod; ySRv>tb.fw>fCkx>xD.ftDRv> u0DR'hy>qS>w>fw*Re‹.f urh>fySR
v> ttd.fv>u0DR'htylR tpSRuw>>f teH.fwqH wuwD>fCD uwD>ftHR
rh>fySRv>ttd.fv> u0DR'hylReD.feD.f'D; to;eH.fub.fySJR0J 25eH.ft*h>f ymfzsg
xD.f0JvDR$
         v>e‹.ftrJmfng 'fw>fbs>ymfzsg0Jtod; ySRv>tuJxD.f 'hu0DR§'l
o0Dcd.fwz.f ub.fv>ySJR0J 'D;w>ful.fb.ful.foh/ uluRtD.ftDv>ySJR/ td.f
'D;w>ftd.fql.ftd.fcshv>t*hR 'D;o;td.f[H;rl'g/ zJ[H;xD.frl'gtq>uwD>f                      Photo-KIC
wb.frh>f0J y'd.f ySRrRw>fzdb.f'D; ySRzD.fpku0JRwz.f/ u&>zd v>w>fu&>v>
twzd;oJp;b.f w>f*h>fb.fxGJ td.f0J 11xH.fe‹.fvDR$



                           y'd.fzD.fe‹>fuFD.fwJ.fpJ;uJ;(qdkifu,f)vXwzd;rH'D;oJp;zJ'0J>f[D.fu0DRylR
vgtD;uxdbX.f8oD<2012eH.f
pzg&SD(ch.ftJ;pH.f)                     pH;0JvDR$                                 wzd;rHoJp;'D; pJ;uJ;odvh.fv>ySR          xh ymfvDR'.f -wJR (*dwf) zJuqD0g xD.fto;'D; td;xD.f0J}wJR zJtJ;0JR                       tylRuGHmf ySRuD>fy,DRzdv>
         weDo&H;uD>fcD/ '0J>fuD>f&h.f            t0JpH;0J “tylRuGHmf wzd;         [k.fwz.f v>usJ'Dwbd y'd.ftok;            o0DwwD w>frJmfngok; cr& (tkdif0kdif) ok;'Ju0DRe‹.f'D; Ch0J od                   ttJ.f'd;y‹SR pJ;uJ;odvh.f v>uFD.f
rh;w;uD>fq.f p;xD.foyFL.fcFDo0D         oJp;rh>f*hR/ zd;oJp;rh>f*hR EkmfvDRe‹>f   wz.fv>trh>f w>frJmfngok;eD.f*H>f         (595) ok;&h.fcd.f ok;cd.f tD.fuFD.f'D; vh.f,D>f tbl;tvJe‹.fvDR$                 wJ.fuD>fwuyRwz.f w>fuqg 'D;
wkRv> th&S>.fusJrk>fz;'d.f'DwwDR        cJv>mfvDR$ tcJtHR we‹>fv>Rb.f$            (2) 'k;,mfcd.f ok;cd.f'd.fzd ZD.fvGh.f   ok;puD;zd o.fZh.ftl wz.f ymfzSd.f               }wJRwz.ftHR w>ftd;xD.f          ySRhtDRt*D>f r>0J'.f ySRwqD'D; b.f
e‹.f p;xD.f vgtD;uxdb>.f 5oDt           u;yH;Cmf0JusJ'D; zD.f0JvDR$ yrh>f[h.f                                                                                     tDRv> wzd;rH'D;oJp;b.f'D; x>0J           [h.f0Jph 4000b; wkRv> 5000
eHR uFD.fwJ.fwuyR pJ;uJ;odvh.f          phoemfuh we‹>fv>Rb.f$ pJ;uJ;od                                                                                            '.f pJ;uJ;odvh.fwcd.f 'ftuvkmf           b;'D; w>f[JuhRpdmfe‹>ftDRv> wzd;
v>t[JEkR qluD>fy,DRtylR v>w             vh.fwz.f w>fwysJEkmfph>fuD;b.f                                                                                            '.f0Jtod; uFD.fwJ.fph 500b; wkR          rH'D;oJp;b.fe‹.ft*h>f yoh.fngb.f
zd;rH'D; oJ;p;wz.fe‹.f [D.fu0DRy'd.f    t*h>f” pH;0JvDR$                                                                                                          v> 1000 b;tCd pJ;uJ;odvh.f               tDRvDR$
tok;wz.f zD.ftDR'D; [H;*h>f0DtDR                 w>fvD>f v>w>fzD.f0J odvh.f                                                                                       v>wzd;rH'D;oJ;p;wz.f [JtgxD.f                     pJ;uJ;odvh.fv> wzd;rH'D;
vDR$                                    ,D>f (pJ;uJ;) cJtHR rh>f0J'.f unD                                                                                         0JvDR$                                   oJp;wz.f teD.f*H>feD>f'G;[JtgxD.f
         uFD.fwJ.f=uD>fy,DRuD>fq>       'Duvkmfp>zSd.fu&> (KNU)/ ok;uh                                                                                                     vD>fu0DRzd w*RpH;0J “tcJ        0Jv> [D.fu0DRylR0JtHR tylRuGHmfw>f
uD>fuFD.fwJ.f/ ugcF;e.fbl&H.fuD>f&h.f   (4)t[D.fu0DR'D; tylRuGHmfwEGHt                                                                                            tHR pJ;uJ;odvh.fcJv>mfC.fC.f [J          [H;*h>f0DtDRwtd.fb.ftrJmfng vD>f
tylR qJ;uJ;odvh.fwz.f vDRr>f0J          wD>fylRe‹.f KNU zD.fcsK;0J ySR[k.f pJ;                                                                                    EkmfvDR0Jv> twzd;rH'D;oJp;b.f            u0DRw>f*>>fw>fus>R wtd.fb.ft
tgtCd uFD.fwJ.fy'd.fwz.f Chw>f          uJ;odvh.f 3*R v>ttd.fv> uDF.f                                                                                             e‹.fvDR$ tylRuGHmf e[h.fphrh>f0HR'D; e   Cd uwD>ftHR pJ;uJ;odvh.fv>tzd;
rRp>RtzDcd.f [D.fu0DRy'd.ftok;w         wJ.fwuyR 'D;EkmfqluD>fy,DRtylR                                                                                            pdmfohvDR$ cDzsdys>fuhR0J'ftHR tgxD.f    rH'D;oJp; w>fxk;xD.ftDRwtd.f'H;
z.f orHord;'D; zD.f0J'.f pJ;uJ;od       'D; ySR 3*RtHR b.fw>f[h.fvDRuhR                                                                                           tCd w>f*h>fuDwz.f [JuJxD.f0Ju            b.fe‹.f vD>fu0DRzdwz.f pH;0JvDR$
vh.f(qkdifu,f)wz.ftHRt*h>f ySR          ql uFD.fwJ.fy'd.f tplylRe‹.fvDR$                                                                                          ,Du,D'D; CH;xD.f0JvDRe‹.f” pH;0J
v>ttd.fbl;'D; uFD.fwJ.fok;w*R                      tylRuGHmf pJ;uJ;odvh.fv>                                                                                       vDR$
 ubsH;y: -6
atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
                                         a&S@ae apmausmfausmfrif;tr_                                                                                                   ajymufusm;wdkuf
atmufwkdbmv 16&uf ? 2012ckESpf/
(autkdifpD)                               t,lcH0if&ef apmihfqdkif;ae                                                                                                  jynfolŒppfoifwef;
         jrefrmEdkifiH. a&$0ga&mif
                                                                                                                            tywfpOf aom=umae@wdkif; &ef
                                                                                                                                                                        xm;0,fa'ocH
awmfvSefa&;twGif;u EdkifiHa&;
v_yf&Sm;olrsm;twGuf tr_vdkuf
ay;&if; w&m;±Hk;awmfudk rxDrJhjrif
                                                                                                                            ukefwdkif;w&m;&Hk;a&S@wGif azmfjy
                                                                                                                            xm;+yD; a&S@ae apmausmfausmfrif;              100ausmf
                                                                                                                            . tr_wJGygvmcJhygu w&m;±Hk;rS
ðyr_ yk'fr 228ESifh axmif'%f 6v
tjypfay;cHcJh&+yD; tif;pdeftusOf;
                                                                                                                            owfrSwfazmfjyxm;onfh ae@&uf
                                                                                                                            wGif oGm;a&muft,lcH0if&rnf[k
                                                                                                                                                                          wufa&muf
axmifxJwGif zrf;qD;cHxm;&onfh                                                                                                                                      atmufwdkbmv 8&uf? 2012ckeSpf/
                                                                                                                            od&onf?
a&S@ae apmausmfausmfrif;tr_ t                                                                                                                                      eef;ol;av(autdkifpD)
                                                                                                                                      vuf&SdtcsdefY tif;pdef
,lcH0ifEdkif&ef apmifhqdkif;v#uf&Sd                                                                                                                                  weoFm&Dwdkif; xm;0,fc±dkif&Sd urf;±dk;wef;ppfXmecsKyf-u&c.
                                                                                                                            axmiftwGif; xdef;odrf;cHxm;&
onf?                                                                                                                                                        ppfAsL[m(2) uGyfuGJr_vufatmufcH ajcvsifwyf&if;(104)XmecsKyf tajc
                                                                                                                            onfh apmausmfausmfrif;udk rdom;
         ‚if;tr_ESifh ywfoufI                                                                                                                               pdkufonfh xm;0,fòrd@jyifywGif ajymufusm;wdkuf jynfol@ppfoifwef;udk
                                                                                                                                      G
                                                                                                                            pk0ifrS vJI rnfol wOD;wa,mufr#
atmufwdkbmv 12&ufae@u                                                                                                                                       ,ckv 5&ufae@rSpI pwif oif=um;ay;cJh&m a'ocH 100ausmf wuf
                                                                                                                            oGm;a&muf awG@qHkcGifhr&a=umif;
&efukefwdkif;a'o}uD;w&m;v$wf                                                                                                                                a&mufcJh=ua=umif; od&onf?
                                                                                                                            ESifh w&m;pGJqdkcH&onfhudpPESifh ywf
awmf jypfr_t,lcH trSwf 249§12                                                                                                                                        u&c vufatmufcH ajcvsifwyf&if;rsm;jzpf=uonfh (104)/
                                                                                                                            oufI apmausmfausmfrif; a&;
jzifh &efukefwdkif;a'o}uD; w&m;±Hk;                                                                                                                         (273)/ (282)/ (280) ESifh (25)wdk@rS enf;jypkpkaygif; 10 OD;u xm;0,fc±dkif&Sd
                                                                                                                            om;xm;onfh            pmwdkav;wpf
wGif pmwifcJha=umif;t,lcH0ifay;                                a&SŒae apmausmfausmfrif;                                                                     jrif;cHabmf/ awmifoHk;vHk;/ azmif;awm/ oðyacsmifESifh 0ghukef;aus;&Gmtkyfpk
                                                                                                                            apmiftm; r=umao;rDu vufcH&
rnfh w&m;v$wfawmfa&S@ae OD;                                                                                                                                 ponfhaus;&Gmtkyfpkrsm;rS a'ocHrsm;udk jynfol@ppfrsm;twGuf ajrjyif
                                                                                                                            &SdcJha=umif; a&S@aeOD;oef;xGef;u
oef;xGef;atmif(òrd@r)u autdkifpD                  apmausmfausmfrif;onf               olrsm;onf wpHkw&m jypfr_usL;                                           ajymufusm;wdkuf ppfoifwef;oif=um;ay;jcif;jzpfonf?
                                                                                                                            qdkonf?
odk@ ajymonf?                            w&m;±Hk; rxDrJhjrifðyr_ pGyfpJGcsufjzifh    vGefxm;ygu oufqkdif&m jypfr_t                                                   jrefrmppfwyfESifh eD;pyfolwpfOD;u “t&ifu oifwef;wufzl;
                                                                                                                                      a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;ae
         “usaemfu OD;apmausmf            w&m;pJGcHxm;&+yD; tzrf;tqD; rcH             vdkuf tjypfay; ta&;,ljcif; cH&                                         wJholawGyJ jyefwuf=uwmyg? &efoleJ@awG@&if b,fvdkypfcwf&w,feJ@b,f
                                                                                                                            mufykdif; 2008ckESpf/ edk0ifbmv 7
ausmfrif;udk csxm;wJhjypf'%f[m           Edkifojzifh 2008 'DZifbmvqef;               rnf[k orRwu ajymqkdxm;                                                 vdkv_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf&w,fqdkwmawGudk oifjyay;w,f? t"duawmh
                                                                                                                            &ufae@wGif a&S@aeapmausmfausmf
b,fvdkrS Oya'eJ@ rudkufnDygbl;?          ydkif;u xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyfodk@xGuf         onf?                                                                   ppfbufqdkif&meJ@ ywfoufwmawGudk oifay;ygw,f”[k ajymonf?
                                                                                                                            rif;onf w&m;±Hk;udk rxDrJhjrifr_
av#mufwifcsuft&vnf; rSm;ae               ajy;wd r f ; a&S m if c J h o nf ? jynf y            a&S@aeapmausmfausmfrif;                                                ,ck oif=um;ay;onfh ppfoifwef;onf 2012ckESpf/ atmufwdk
                                                                                                                            yk'fr 228t& axmif'%f 6v
ygw,fqdkwmudk ajym&r,f? olwdk@           a&muf jrefrmEdkifiHom;rsm;tm;               t,lcHpmwifEdkifa&;twGuf a&S@                                           bmv 5&ufrS pwifum 'DZifbmvukefydkif;txd oHk;vwm =umjrifh+yD;
                                                                                                                            uscH&ef trdef@csrSwfcHcJh&+yD; ,ck
bufu vufcHw,fqdk&ifawmh                  jrefrmEdkifiHodk@ jyefvm=u&ef ,ref          ae OD;nDnDaxG;ESifh OD;atmifol&def                                     oifwef;umvtwGif; oifwef;om;rsm;. pm;a&;aomufa&;udpPrsm;udk
                                                                                                                            2012ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 29&ufae@
EdkifiHawmfbufuae &efukefwdkif;          ESpf =o*kwfvu orRw OD;odef;pdefrS           xGef;wdk@rS tcsuftvufrsm;ESifhw                                        cv&(104)wyf&if;rSpDpOfay;+yD; vpma=u;aiG ay;aqmifjcif;r&Sda=umif;
                                                                                                                            wGif w&m;±Hk;rS ta&;,laxmifcs
a'o}uD; w&m;v$wfawmf vuf                 zdwfac:cJhonfhtwGuf 2012ckESpf/             uG vdktyfonfrsm;udk vdkufvHvkyf                                        vnf; od&onf?
                                                                                                                            vdkufjcif;jzpfa=umif; EkdifiHa&;t
axmuf!$ef=um;a&;rª;eJ@ usaemf            azazmf0g&Dvu jynfawmfjyefcJhpOf             aqmifay;rnf[k           OD;oef;xGef;                                            trnfrazmfvdkol xm;0,fòrd@cHwpfOD;uvnf; “'Doifwef;qif;+yD;
                                                                                                                            usOf;om;rsm; ulnDapmifha&Smuf
wdk@ wpfa,mufwzuf ajym&r,f”              tzrf;cHcJh&jcif; jzpfonf?                   atmif(òrd@r)u ajymqkdonf?                                              &if &GmrSmyJ jyef+yD;ae&w,fav? jynfol@ppfqdkawmh &GmudkyJ vHkòcHatmif
                                                                                                                            a&;toif;-jrefrmEdkifiH (AAPP)
[k ‚if;u ajymqdkonf?                              okd@aomf jynfyrS jyefvm                     t,lcH0if&rnfh tr_rsm;udk                                      umuG,fapmifh=unfhzdk@yJcdkif;wmyg? vufeufawGvnf; ppfwyfuay;xm;
                                                                                                                            . rSwfwrf;t& od&onf? Ô
                                                                                                                                                            w,f? wcsKd@qdk aoewf ypfwwfae=ujyD”[k ajymonf?
                                                                                                                                                                     oifwef;wufa&muf+yD;onfh a'ocHrsm;taejzifh udk,fhaus;&Gm
                                                                                                                                                            rsm;wGif jynfol@ppf wm0efxrf;aqmif&mY tcsdeftuef@towfr&SdbJ
         ukr`%DrS oJpkyf,lr_a=umifh                                                                                                                         &Gmol}uD;rsm;uom OD;pD;aqmif&Guf+yD; tu,fI usef;rma&;raumif;
                                                                                                                                                            jzpfvmygu tem;,lcGifh&Sda=umif;vnf; od&onf?
                                                                                                                                                                     ‚if;jynfol@ppfoifwef;wGif trsKd;om;rsm;udkom ac:,l+yD; vl
     xm;0,fjrpfurf;yg;ðyusum a'ocHrsm;                                                                                                                      vGwfjzpfap/ tdrfaxmifonfjzpfap touf 20ausmfrS touf 50txd
                                                                                                                                                            udkom ac:,l=ua=umif; a'ocHrsm;. ajymjycsuft& od&onf?
                 rauseyf
atmufwdkbmv 3&uf? 2012ckESpf/
                                                                                                                                                                     ,if;jynfol@ppfoifwef;udk +yD;cJhonfh 2011ckESpf/ rwfvrSpwif+yD;
                                                                                                                                                            wpfvwm=umcsdefjzifh xm;0,fc±dkiftwGif;&Sd a'ocHrsm;udk oif=um;ay;cJh
eef;ol;av (autdkifpD)                                                                                                                                       +yD;aemuf ,ckoif=um;ay;aeonfh 'kwd,t}udrfajrmufoifwef;wGif
      weoFm&Dwdkif;twGif;&Sd òrd@        onfh ausmfausmfòzd;ukr`%DrS vm              ausmfòzd;ukr`%DrS oabFm 8pD;jzifh      tcsdefavmufrSyJ 0ifvdk@ &w,f”[k ,cifwufa&muf+yD;olrsm;ESifh emrusef;jzpfI vltpm;xdk; wufa&muf
e,fav;ckwGif pD;qif;v#uf&Sdaom           a&mufpkyf,ljcif;jzpfa=umif; xm;             o&ufacsmif;òrd@e,fxJwGif pwif          ajymonf?                        vmolrsm;udk oif=um;ay;aejcif; jzpfa=umif; od&onf? ÔÔÔ
xm;0,fjrpfrS oJrsm;udk puFmyl            0,fòrd@cH udkpdk;odef;u ajymonf?            pkyf,laejyD; yifv,f0txd pkyf,l                 xdk@tjyif jrpfa&twGif;&Sd
zufpyfukr`%DrS vma&mufpkyf,l                      udkpdk;odef;u “xm;0,fjrpf          oGm;rnf[k =um;odxm;a=umif;             oJrsm;udk rjzpfrae pkyf,lrnfqdkyg
aeojzifh urf;yg;òydusr_rsm; jzpfyGm;     a&jy\emu awmfawmfudkqdk;ae                  o&ufacsmif;òrd@e,fbufrS a'ocH          u a&atmufteuf rnfr#txd
aeonhftwGuf xm;0,fa'ocH                  ygw,f? urf;yg;awGu òydusvm                  rsm;u ajymqdkae=uonf?                  pkyf,lrnfhta=umif;ESifh urf;yg;rsm; ,laeonfhta&;udpPudk ajz&Sif;            bl;vm;vdk@ usaemfwdk@u jyefar;yg
rsm;u rausreyf jzpfae=uonf?              w,f? olwdk@u a'ocH awGudkvnf;                        trnfrazmfvdkol a'ocH          òydusr_twGuf rnfodk@vkyfaqmif aqmif&Gufay;&ef xm;0,fa'ocH                   w,f? jrefrmEdkifiHrSm {&m0wDjrpfa&
                                                                                                                                                                300OD;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;um ‚if;           pD;qif;ovdkrsKd; xm;0,fjrpfa&u
    ]xm;0,fjrpf a&jyóemu awmfawmfudkqdk;ae ygw,f? urf;yg;awGu NydKusvm w,f?                                                                                     pmudk 88rsKd;qufopfausmif;om;           usaemfwdk@twGuf tifrwef t
                                                                                                                                                                acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh xm;0,fa'o          a&;}uD;ygw,f”[k ajymonf?
     olwdkYu a'ocHawGudkvnf; ajymjyNyD;rS vkyfwmr[kwfbl;? NyD;awmh usaemfwdkY                                                                                   zGH@òzd;wdk;wufa&;tzGJ@rS orRw OD;              ,ck E S p f q ef ; yd k i f ; rS p I
 xm;0,fNrKUdxJuvnf; r[kwfbl;? bdwfuae vmNyD;rS pkyfwmudkawmh trSeftwdkif; ajym&&if                                                                              odef;pdefxH pufwifbmvu wif              weoFm&Dwdkif;twGif; tDwmv#H
                                                                                                                                                                jycJh+yD;jzpfa=umif;vnf; udkpdk;odef;   xdkif;ukr`%DrS a&eufqdyfurf;pDrH
                                 rauseyfbl;}                                                                                                                    u ,ckvdk ajymonf?                       udef;vkyfief;rsm;udk pwiftaumif
                                         ajymjy+yD;rS vkyfwmr[kwfbl;? +yD;                                                                                                  “pmtay:rSm orRwqDu          txnfazmfaer_a=umifh pDrHudef;ae
           xm;0,fòrd@e,f/ o&uf                                                       wpfOD;u “usaemfwkd@u rpkyfapcsif       ay;rnfwdk@udk ‚if;ukr`%Drsm;bufrS
                                         awmh usaemfwdk@ xm;0,fòrd@xJu                                                                                          awmh bmta=umif;rS jyef=um;vm            &mrsm;rS a'ocHjynfolrsm; tdk;tdrf
acsmif;òrd@e,f/ avmif;vHkòrd@e,fESifh                                                vdk@awmh r[kwfygbl;? 'gayr,fh          vma&muf today;apcsifa=umif;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ajymif;a&$@ay;cJh&ovdk um;}uD;rsm;
a&jzLòrd@e,frsm;wGif jzwfoef;pD;         vnf; r[kwfbl;? bdwfuae vm                   xm;0,fjrpfa&u awmfawmfav;              vnf; xm;0,fòrd@cHrsm;u ajymqdk wm r&Sdao;ygbl;? ukr`%Dbufu
                                         +yD;rS pkyfwmudkawmh trSeftwdkif;                                                                                      ajymwmuawmh jynfaxmifpk0ef              jzwfoef;r_a=umifh vrf;rsm;ysufpD;
qif;aeaom xm;0,fjrpfa&xJrS                                                           udk wdrfae+yD? xm;0,fem;rSmqdk         onf?
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ae+yD; a'ocHrsm;rS oGm;vma&;
oJrsm;udk puFmylEdkifiHodk@ wifydk@&ef   ajym&&if rauseyfbl;”[k autdkif              awmfawmfav;udk tajctaeqdk;                     odk@aomf ukr`%Drsm;bufrS }uD;u csay;vdk@vkyfwJh yHkpHrsKd;eJ@
                                                                                                                                                                                                        tcuftcJrsm;ESifh óuHawG@ae=u&
twGuf bdwf(jrdwf)òrd@e,f&Sd puFm         pDodk@ ajymonf?                             ae+yD? oabFmawGbmawG 0ifvdk@           wpHkw&m ta=umif;=um;vmjcif;/ ajymw,f ? wd k i f ; a'o}uD ; aum
                                                                                                                                                                                                        onf? ÔÔÔ
ylESifh pD;yGm;a&; zufpyfvkyfudkifae               vuf&SdtcsdefwGif ausmf            awmif r&awmhbl;? a&wufwJh              today;jcif;rsm;r&Sdojzifh oJpkyf jynfolvlxku bmrSvkyfydkifcGifhr&Sd
Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?                                                                                                                                                                         pmrsufESm- 9
atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
jynfwGif;wuUodkvf wufa&mufEdkif&ef a&$@ajymif;ausmif;om;rsm;
                   pcef;oGif; avhusifhae
atmufwdkbmv 3&uf? 2012ckESpf/
p'zef;a&Smif; (autdkifpD)

          jref r mjynf a &$ @ ajymif ;          ðyvkyf&jcif;jzpfa=umif; BMWEC               tqifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;          odk@ jyefvnf tajccsaexdkifrnfhol      aom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;             av#muf&Sd ausmif;rsm;wGif ynm
ausmif ; ol a usmif ; om;rsm;tm;                OuUX aemfazma&u ajymonf?                    taejzifhf jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd wuU         rsm;twGuf usef;rma&;/ jyefvnf         taejzifh EdkifiHawmfrS owfrSwfxm;       a&;qd k i f & maqmif & G u f r _ r sm;ud k
u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;&Sd oufqdkif                             “'De,fpyfwav#mufrSm&Sd            odkvf0ifwef;pmar;yGJodk@ 0ifa&muf      ae&mcsxm;a&; pwJhu¾toD;               onfhtwdkif; oufqdkif&m jynfwGif;        u&ifjynfe,ftpdk;&tzGJ@/ jrefrm
&m pmppfXmersm;wGif wuUodkvf                    wJh a&$@ajymif;jrefrmausmif;awGrSm          ajzqdkEdkif&ef &nf&G,fI aqG;aEG;cJh    oD;rSmvnf; twwfEdkifqHk; aqmif        &Sd wuUodkvftoD;oD;odk@ 0if             a&$@ajymif;ynma&;azmifa';&Sif;
0if w ef ; 0if a &muf a jzqd k E d k i f & ef   jrefrmjynf oif±kd;!$ef;wrf;twdkif;          =ujcif;vnf; jzpfonf?                   &GufEdkifatmif tpDtpOfrsm; pwif       a&mufynmoif=um;Edkifrnfjzpf             ESifhtwl BMWEC wdk@rS yl;aygif;
,refae@(atmufwdkbmv 2&uf)                       oifwJhausmif;u enf;w,fav?                             a&$@ajymif;jrefrmausmif;     a&;qGJaeyg+yD”[k qdkonf?              a=umif; tqdkygwm0ef&Sdoluquf            vkyfaqmifoGm;rnf[kvnf; aemf
u pwif+yD; pcef;oGif;avhusifhr_                 tJ'Dawmh 'Du ausmif;olausmif;               ol a usmif ; om;rsm;taejzif h                    wuUodkvf0ifwef;pmar;yGJ     ajymonf?                                azma&u ajymonf?
rsm; ðyvkyfae+yDjzpfa=umif; od&                 om;awG u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;&Sd                 tqifajyacsmarG@pGm pmar;yGJ ajz        ajzqdk&mY a&$@ajymif;ausmif;ol                jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd pmppfXm                   xk d i f ; -jref r me,f p yf w pf
onf?                                            oufqdkif&m          pmppfXmersm;rSm         qdkEdkif&ef jynfe,ftpdk;&rS oabm       ausmif;om;rsm;taejzifh tjyifajz       e toD;oD;wGif ajzqdkrnfh ausmif;        av#muf a&$@ajymif;ausmif; 74
          jrefrma&$@ajymif;ynma&;               wuU o d k v f 0 if w ef ; pmar;yG J u d k   wlcGifhðycsuf&&Sdxm;ouJhodk@ jynf      tjzpfom ajzqdk&rnfjzpf+yD; ‚if;       olausmif;om;rsm;udk BMWECt              ausmif;wGif ausmif;olausmif;
axmufyHhr_azmifa';&Sif;ESifh jrefrm             tcuftcJr&Sd ajzqdkEdkifatmif tck            e,f0ef}uD;csKyfudk,fwdkif oufqdkif     wdk@udk owfrSwfxm;onfh t&nf           aejzifh axmufcHcsufay;&rnfjzpf          om; aygif; 7aomif;0ef;usifcef@&Sd+yD;
a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm; ynm                    vdk pcef;oGif;avhusifhr_awG ðyvkyf          &mtpdk;&tzGJ@rsm;ESifh ynma&;0ef       tcsif;rsm;ESifhtnD pdppfa&G;cs,f      +yD; rSwfyHkwifr&Sdolrsm;taejzifh       BMWECrSm ‚if;a&$@ajymif;ausmif;
a&;aumfrwD-BMWEC wdk@ yl;                       ay;aewmyg”[k aemfazma&u                     }uD;Xmersm;odk@ wifjyxm;+yD;jzpf       oGm;v#uf&Sd&m vuf&SdtcsdefwGif        ,m,DrSwfyHkwifuwfESifh vdktyf           q&m/ q&mrrsm;tm; t&nft
aygif;+yD; pufwifbmv 25&ufae@                   ajymonf?                                    a=umif; u&ifjynfe,fynma&;              t&nftcsif; ppfaq;atmifjrif+yD;        aom oif±kd;!$ef;wrf;pmtkyfrsm;/         csif;jr‡ifhwifay;jcif;/ uav;oli,f
wGif u&ifjynfe,f0efjuD;csKyf OD;                          ,if;odk@aqG;aEG;&mwGif a&$@       !$ef=um;a&;rª;±kHk;rS wm0ef&Sdol       xm;onhf ausmif;olausmif;om;           Avmpmtkyfrsm;udk u&ifjynfe,f            rsm; umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif;/
aZmfrif;xH oGm;a&mufaqG;aEG;cJh                 ajymif ; jref r mausmif ; om;rsm;.          wpfOD;u autdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?         70OD;udk jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd ouf         tpdk;&tzGJ@rS ulnDyHhydk;ay;oGm;rnf     ausmif ; ol a usmif ; om;rsm;tm;
&m a&$@ajymif;jrefrmausmif;om;                  ynma&;tqif h t wef ; tvd k u f                        ‚if;u “a&$@ajymif;ausmif;    qdkif&mynma&;Xmersm;odkh pm&if;       [k od&onf?                              oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm; ulnDvkyf
rsm;. ynma&;ESifhywfoufI o                      u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;&Sd ausmif;                olausmif;om;rsm;&J@ynma&;om            ay;oGif;xm;+yD; jzpfonf?                      quf v uf I a&$ @ ajymif ;       aqmifay;aeonhf ynma&;aumfr
abmwl n D r _ r sm;&&S d c J h o nh f t ay:     rsm;wGif ynmoifcGifh&&Sda&;ESifh a&$@       ru jynfe,ftpdk;&tzGJ@&Jh OD;aqmif                xdk@tjyif wuUodkvf0if       ausmif;rsm;enf;wl jynfwGif;e,f          wDwpfck jzpfonf?
,ckvdk pcef;oGif;avhusifhr_rsm;                 ajymif;ausmif;rsm;rS txufwef;               r_/ vrf;!$efr_wdk@eJ@tnD jynfwGif;     wef;pmar;yGJudk ajzqdkatmifjrif       pyf IDP ae&mrsm;ESifh e,fpyfwpf                                 Ô

                                                                                                                                                                                  KNU wyfr[m(6)wGif
    urBmhq&mrsm;ae@ rJaqmufòrd@wGif usif;y                                                                                                                                         vlxk&Sif;vif;yGJðyvkyf
                                                                                                                                                                         atmufwkdbmv 16 &u?f 2012 ckESpf /
atmufwdkbmv 5&uf? 2012ckESpf/
                                                                                                                                                                         (autkdifpD)
eef;ol;av (autdkifpD)
                                                                                                                                                                                  u&ifjynfe,f aumhu&dwfòrd@e,ftwGif;&Sd u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;
         xdkif;EdkifiH wmhcfc±dkif/ rJ          wGif jyocJh=uonf?                           a=umif; ,ckvdk ajymonf?                BMAT . vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpmrsm;/        t±Hk;-autJef,l wyfr[m(6)wGif aumhu&dwfòrd@e,f twGif;a&;rª; tyg
aqmufòrd@&Sd Child Development                          a&$@ajymif;jrefrmausmif;                    aemfarxl;u “tcktcsdef          b¾ma&;tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk wifjy         t0if ppfbufqdkif&m acgif;aqmiftcsKd@wdk@u a'owGif;aus;&Gm vlxkrsm;
Center- CDC ausmif;wGif a&$@                    q&mwOD;jzpfol q&maZmfxufu                   rSmqdk&if    ausmif;wdkif;rSmvdkvdk    jcif;rsm;tjyif pmpDpmuHk;òydifyGJ/    tm; ,ck&ufydkif;twGif; &Sif;vif;yGJ ðyvkyfcJhonf?
ajymif;jrefrmausmif;rsm; pkaygif;I              “a&$@ajymif;ausmif;u q&m/ q&m               axmufyHhr_awG avsmhoGm;w,f?            abmvHk;òydifyGJrsm;twGuf qkay;yGJ                          J                        k               f l
                                                                                                                                                                                  &Si;f vif;yGo@kd wufa&mufonfh vlxrsm;u autJe,acgi;f aqmif
8}udrfajrmuf urBmhq&mrsm;aeudk                  rawGudk *k%fðy+yD;awmh aqmifyk'f            avsmhoGm;ayr,fhvdk@vnf; olwdk@&Jh      rsm;/ azsmfajza&;tpDtpOfrsm;jzifh     rsm;t=um; oabmxm;uGJ vGJa=umif; owif;xGufay:cJhr_ESifh ywfoufI
,ae@eHeufu pnfum;odkufòrduf                     av;wpfckvkyfwm odyfaumif;yg                 tcuftcJawG=um;uaeyJ                    nae 4em&DwGif ±kwfodrf;cJhonf?        acgif;aqmifrsm;tcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nD!$wfr_&Sd=u&ef wdkufwGef;cJha=umif;
pGm usif;ycJh=uonf?                             w,f? 'DrSm&SdwJh q&m/ q&mrawG               ausmif;olausmif;om;awGudk ypfr                  rJaqmufòrd@wGif xdkif;ynm    od&onf?
         apwem/ 0goem/ tepfem                   uvnf; ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;                 oGm;bl;? tepfemcH+yD; ynmoif           a&;XmewGif rSwfyHkwifxm;onfh                   ,if;udpPtay: aumhu&dwfòrd@e,f twGif;a&;rª; y'dkapmt,faumf
qdkonfh emoHk;emESifh tem*wfrsKd;               awGtwGuf pHjyjzpfzdk@ vdktyfw,f”            =um;ay;ae=uwmyg”[k a jym               w&m;0ifausmif;aygif; 74ausmif;        aomu “autJef,lrSmjzpfwJh acgif;aqmiftcsif;csif; wc%wmtwGif;
qufopfav;rsm;twGuf ynm                          [k ajymoGm;cJhonf?                          onf?                                   ESifh rSwfyHkrwif&ao;onfhausmif;      rSm tjrifrwlr_a=umifh tvkyfrSm vkyfenf;vkyf[ef rwl=uayr,fh yef;
oif=um;ay;aeaom q&m/ q&m                                urBmhq&mrsm;ae@ tcrf;                                        f h
                                                                                                    BMTA rS OD;pD;usi;ycJonfh      8ausmif;&Sd&m pkpkaygif; q&m/q&m      wdkif[m wpfckwnf;yJjzpfwJhtwGuf bmrSpdk;&drfp&m rvdkbl;vdk@ vlxkawG
rrsm;udk *k%fðyonfhtaejzifh t                   tem; wufa&mufonfh CDC rS                    ,ae@tcrf;tem;odk@ jrefrma&$@           rOD;a& 830OD;&Sdonf? Burma            udk usaemfwdk@ &Sif;jycJhygw,f”[k ajymqkdonf?
crf;tem;udk ESpfpOf usif;ycJh&jcif;             q,fwef;ausmif;ol aemf±dkrDxl;u              ajymif;q&m/q&mrrsm;/ ausmif;ol         Migrant Teacher Association-
                                                                                                                                                                                  ,ck atmufwdkbmv 13&ufrS 16&ufae@txd autJef,l aumh
jzpfa=umif; rJaqmuftajcpdkuf                    vnf; udk,fusKd;pGef@ tepfemcH+yD;           ausmif;om;rsm;/ &yfrd&yfzrsm;/ Edkif   BMTA udk 2005ckESpf/ atmufwdk
                                                                                                                                                                         u&dwfòrd@e,ftwGif;a&;rª; y'dkapmt,faumfaom/ wyfr[m (6)rS wyf
jrefrma&$@ajymif;a'o q&m/ q&m                   vlr_a&;pdwf"gwf tjynfht0jzifh               iHjcm;om;rsm;ESifh owif;axmuf          bmv 17&ufae@wGif pwifzGJ@pnf;
                                                                                                                                                                         &if;(201)rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;bl;azm/ wyf&if;(103)rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;aeap;ESifh
rrsm;tpnf;t±Hk;-BMTA OuUX                       ausmif ; ol a usmif ; om;rsm;ud k           rsm; tygt0if vlOD;a& 400eD;yg;         cJh+yD; rzGJ@pnf;rDuwnf;u urBmh
                                                                                                                                                                         tjcm;acgif;aqmiftcsKd@u EdkifiHa&;/ ynma&;ESifh usef;rma&;udpPrsm;ESifh
vnf;jzpf/ CDC ausmif;tkyfvnf;                   ynmoif=um;ay;aeonfh q&m/                    wufa&mufcJh=u+yD; tcrf;tem;            q&mrsm;ae@udk xdkif;EdkifiHa&muf
                                                                                                                                                                         ywfoufI vlxktm; &Sif;vif;ajymqkdcJhjcif; jzpfonf?
jzpfonfh q&mref;a&$ESif;u ajym                  q&mrrsm;tay: aus;Zl;wifrd                   tpDtpOft& y&d\wfrsm;udk                jref r ma&$ @ ajymif ; ausmif ; q&m
                                                                                                                                                                                  y'dkapmt,faumfaomu “usaemfe,fajrxJrSm vlxkeJ@ ydk+yD;
onf?                                                                                                                               q&mrrsm;u usif;ycJh=uonf? Ô
                                                                                                                                                                         awmh eD;pyfatmif t+rJae&rSmjzpfwJhtwGuf 'Dvdk&Sif;vif;yGJawG ðyvkyf
         q&mref;a&$ESif;u “a&$@                                                                                                                                          &wmyg? vlxkawGuvnf; usaemfwdk@&Jh &Sif;vif;r_awGudk óudqdkwm awG@&
ajymif;q&m/ q&mrawG&Jh wefzdk;/                                                                                                                                          ygw,f? aemufavmavmq,f wdkufyGJawG r&SdwJhtwGuf vlxkawGu
ay;qyfr_awGu ordkif;wGifavmuf                                                                                                                                            vkyfudkifpm;aomufr_awG enf;enf;tqifajyvmw,f”[kajymqdkonf?
w,f? 'ga=umifh 'DvdkrsKd;yGJudk us                                                                                                                                                qufvufI aumhu&dwfòrd@e,ftwGif; aus;&Gmrsm;twGuf t
aemfwkd@u q&m/ q&mrawG pkpk                                                                                                                                              v,fwef;ausmif; zGifhvSpfEdkif&ef A[dku ynma&;XmeESifh wdkifyif+yD; vkyf
pnf;pnf;eJ@ olwdk@&J@cHpm;csufawG/                                                                                                                                       aqmifoGm;rnf[k vlxk&Sif;vif;yGJwGif yg0ifonfh acgif;aqmifrsm;u
olwdk@&J@ &ifxJu tyltyifawG                                                                                                                                              ajymonf?
enf ; enf ; av;jzpf j zpf o uf o m                                                                                                                                                xdkvlxk&Sif;vif;yGJudk atmufwdkbmv 13/ 15ESifh 16&ufae@
oGm;Edkifzdk@vnf;yJ ESpfpOfESpfwdkif;                                                                                                                                    rsm;wGif ae&mcGJI xD;Elaus;&Gm/ 'kwd,ae@tjzpf uavmfa0:&GmESifh wwd
usif ; ycJ h w mjzpf y gw,f ” [k a u                                                                                                                                     ,ae@tjzpf aumfcsJ&Gmwdk@wGif oHk;}udrf ðyvkyfcJh=u+yD; xD;El/ tdk@zdk;xmh/ ueJ
tdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?                                                                                                                                                     av;/ v,fac:/ uavmfa0:/ acgzdk;cD;/ azmbkvmhxmh/ aumfcsJ/ armcD;/ arm
         reuf 9em&DcGJwGif pwif                                                                                                                                          zdk;uvdk;/ vm;wdkESifh uGD;csJabm ponfh&Gmrsm;rS a'ocHvlxk 200ausmft
onhf ‚if;tcrf;tem;udk q&m/                                                                                                                                               xd wufa&mufcJh=uonf[k yg0ifcJholrsm;u ajymonf?
q&mrrsm; a&S@quf &yfwnfoGm;                                                                                                                                                       aumhu&dwfòrd@e,ftwGif;&Sd vlxkrsm;udk yHkrSeftm;jzifh wESpfv#if
Edkif=u&ef Take a Stand For Tea-                                                                                                                                         2}udrf &Sif;vif;yGJrsm; ðyvkyfusif;yv#uf&Sd&m ,ckðyvkyfonfh vlxk&Sif;vif;
chers! qdkonfhaqmifyk'fjzifh ,ae@                                                                                                                                        yGJudk acwœ&yfxm;+yD; aemufydkif;wGif qufvuf vkyfaqmifoGm;rnf[k
ðyvkyfonfh q&m/ q&mrrsm;ae@                                       urBmhq&mrsm;aeŒ tcrf;tem;wGif ausmif;olausmif;om;av;rsm; aw;oDcsif; oDqdkaepOf                         aumhu&dwfòrd@e,frS autJef,lacgif;aqmifrsm;u qdkonf? ÔÔÔ
 pmrsufESm- 10                                                                                                                                                              Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?
                                                                                                                                                                                       atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
             RCSS/SSA acgif;aqmif p0f,Gufppf. twdkifyifcH                                                                                                                   aomufa&cyf wrHydwfqdk@r_a=umifh
                                                                                                                                                                                a&v#HxGuf+yD; a'ocHrsm;
                  u&iftrsKd;om; AdkvfrSL;}uD;uG,fvGef                                                                                                                        ul;oef;a&mif;0,f&ef tcufóuH
atmufwdkbmv 16&uf? 2012ckESpf/
                                                                                                                                                                           atmufwkdbmv 16 &u?f 2012 ckESpf /
pzef;a&Smif; (autdkifpD)
                                                                                                                                                                           autdkifpD
           o#rf;jynfawmifydkif; wyf                                                                                          o#rf ; jynf p nf ; vH k ; nD n $ w f o nf h              yJcl;wdkif;/ awmifilòrd@e,f   ae@u ‚if;a&avSmifwrHqnfudk
rawmf RCSS/SSA&Sd 'kwd,                                                                                                      awmf v S e f a &;wyf r awmf -SURA             wGif jrefrmtpdk;&ESifh a&$pGrf;tif       rnfonfhtcsdefwGif pwifIydwf
AdkvfcsKyf}uD; p0f,Gufppf. twdkif                                                                                            wGif 0ifa&mufcdkv_Hum SURA                    (at;&Sm;a0g)ukr`%Dwdk@ yl;aygif;         ypfvkdufa=umif; rod&Sd&aomfvnf;
yifcHtjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonfh u&if                                                                                             acgif;aqmif Adkvfrdk;[def;(ac: ) p0f          onhf aomufa&cyf a&avSmifwrH              xdkae@ ae@vnf 11em&DcefhwGif y
trsKd;om;wpfOD;jzpfol Adkvfrª;}uD;                                                                                           uG%fZdef;. udk,fa&;t&m&Sd jzpf                ydwfqdk@r_a=umifh acsmif;a&pD;qif;r_     vuf0wHwm; a&epfjr‡yfae+yDjzpf
apmcspfaqGonf atmufwdkbmv                                                                                                    vmcJhonf?                                     &yfwef@um a&v#HxGufonhf t                um ,ae@txd ESpfjr‡yfaeqJjzpfI
13&ufae@ naeydkif;wGif uG,fvGef                                                                                                        Adkvfrkd;[def; uG,fvGef+yD;         wGuf awmifola'ocH vlxkrSm                          l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    awmifia'ocHrsm;rSm wpf&ufv#if
oGm;cJhonf[k od&onf?                                                                                                         aemuf o#rf;jynfawmfvSefa&;wGif                ukefpdrf;rsm; ul;oef;a&mif;0,f&ef        0if a iG o d e f ; &mES i f h c sD + yD ; xd c d k u f &
           uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf                                                                                            qufvufyg0ifI vuf&Sd RCSS/                     vrf;yrf;qufoG,fa&; cufcJv#uf             a=umif;vnf; awmifila'ocH wpf
74ESpf&Sd+yD;jzpfonfh Adkvfrª;}uD; apm                                                                                       SSA acgif;aqmif 'kAdkvfcsKyf}uD;              &Sdonf?                                  OD;u ajymonf?
cspfaqGonf aoG;wdk;/ESvHk;/ausmuf                                                                                            p0f,Gufppf. twdkifyifcHtjzpf                             aomufa&cyfacsmif; ay:                  ‚if;u “a&awGu atmuf
uyfa&m*grsm;jzifh xdkif;EkdifiH/ csif;                                                                                       uG,fvGefonftxd wm0efxrf;                      wGif wnfaqmufxm;onfh ‚if;a&              bufudk qufpD;vdk@ r&awmhbJeJ@
rdkif&Sd ol.aetdrfwGif uG,fvGef                                                                                              aqmifcJhonf?                                  avSmifwrHonf ,ck atmufwdk                tay:udkjyefwufoGm;+yD; a&v#H
oGm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf?                                                                                                                   vuf&Sd o#rf;awmfvSefa&;             bmv 13&ufae@u abm*vd}uD;                 oGm;wm/ tck wHwm;u tpte
           Adkvfrª;}uD;apmcspfaqG onf                                                                                        wGif Adkvfrª;}uD;apmcspfaqGuJhodk@            òrd@ESifh awmifilòrd@udk jzwfoef;oGm;    vHk;0 rjrif&awmhavmufatmif
Ak'<bmom0ifwpfOD;jzpf+yD; u&if/                                                                                              u&ifvlrsKd; trsm;tjym;onf                     vm&onfh yvuf0wHwm;a&epf                  a&jr‡yfoGm;+yD? 'ga=umifh 'Dae@txd
ytdk0f;ESifh            o#rf;pum;wdk@udk                                                                                     o#rf;vlrsKd;ESifhtwl wwwfwtm;                 ðryfoGm;ojzifh a'ocHrsm; ukeful;         bmypPnf;rSo,fvdk@udk r&awmh
u|rf;usifpGm ajymqdkEdkifonfhtjyif                                                                                           wm0efxrf;aqmifv#uf&Sda=umif;                  oef;a&mif;0,fI r&awmha=umif;             bl;”[k ajymonf?
tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;Yvnf; wm0ef                                                                                                  OD;cGefqdkif;u ajymonf?                       u&if t rsKd ; om;tpnf ; t±H k ; -                 aomufa&cyf acsmif;ay:
udk tav;xm;oljzpfa=umif; ‚if;                                                 AdkvfrSL;}uD; apmcspfaqG
                                                                                                                                       Ad k v f r ª ; }uD ; apmcspf a qG   KNU awmifilc±dkif OuUX y'dkapm           wGif wnfaqmufxm;um awmif
ESifh &if;ESD;aomrdwfaqGjzpfol o#rf;        1958-59ckESpfwGif vlxkynma&; om;vGwfajrmufa&;tzGJ@(ytv                           onf uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD;eef;a&$             t,f0g;u autdkifpDodk@ajymonf?            ilòrd@ta&S@bufrdkif 24rdkifcef@uGm
oHawmfqifh owif;Xmet,f'Dwm                  oifwef; wufa&muf+yD;aemuf z)odk@ 0ifa&mufcJh+yD;aemuf 1967                       tdrfESifhtwl om; 3OD;ESifh orD; 1OD;                     y'dkapmt,f0g;u                wGif wnf&Sdonfh yvuf0wHwm;
OD;cGefqdkif;u ajymonf?                     o#rf;jynfawmifydkif;/ vG,fvifòrd@ ckESpfwGif                o#rf;jynfwyfrawmf    usef&pf+yD; om;oHk;OD;pvHk;rSm o#rf;          “aomufa&cyfeJ@ jrpfief;acsmif;           onf a omuf a &cyf a &avS m if
           ol(apmcspfaqG)u tvkyf            e,f&Sd ytdk0f;vlrsKd;trsm;qHk;aexdkif SSA/ SNIA ESifh yl;aygif;um ppf            jynf a wmif y d k i f ; wyf r awmf w G i f    ESpfcku pD;vmwJha&awGu qufr              wrHESifh 10rdkiftuGmta0; &Sd+yD;
wm0efudk ta&;xm;w,f? opPm                   &m vG,f*s,f&GmwGif ausmif;q&m a&;r[mrdwfcsKyfXmewGif wm0ef                       vuf&Sd wm0efxrf;aqmifv#uf&Sd                  oGm;EdkifawmhbJ awmifukef;ay:rSm         awmifilòrd@.ukef;jrifhydkif;wGif wnf
&Sdw,f? tJ'ga=umifhvnf; aowJh               tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf[k xrf;aqmifcJhonf?                                    onf?                                          &SdwJh wHwm;vnf; a&jr‡yfoGm;w,f?         &Sd onf?
txd o#rf;jynfwyfrawmfeJ@ vuf                od&onf?                                                 1968ckESpfwGif Armjynf             uG,fvGefol Adkvfrª;}uD;apm          oGm;vmvdk@ r&awmhbl;? aemuft                      aomufa&cyf a&avSmif
wGJ tvkyfvkyfEdkifwmaygh”[k OD;                          xdk@aemuf 1960ckESpfY uGefjrLepfygwD(Auy)u ‚if;wdk@                 cspfaqG. ±kyftavmif;udk atmuf                 eD;tem;rSm&SdwJh awmifolawG&Jh +cH       wrHudk ,ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvwGif
cGefqdkif;u autdkifpDodk@ajymonf?           Ad k v f r ª ; }uD ; apmcspf a qG o nf ESpfzGJ@udk 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufcJhaom      wdkbmv 18&ufae@wGif csif;rdkif                awGaum rif;uGwfoD;/ uGrf;/ zm            t+yD;aqmufvkyfI v#yfppf"mwf
           olonf           rGefjynfe,f&Sd   ausmif;q&mb0udk pGef@v$wfum a=umifh ytvzonf AuyESifh                             c±kdif/ 0def;[dkifòrd@e,f&Sd ydef;vHk{nfh     vmeJ@ 'l;&if;oD;+cHawGaum tJ'Da'         tm; 40 r*~g0yf pwif xkwfvkyfEkdif
oxHkZmwdjzpf+yD; 1938ckESpf/ Zlvdkif        ytdk0f;trsKd;om; vufeufudkif yl;aygif;aomfvnf; Adkvfrª;}uD;apm                   ocFsdKif;wGif psmyetcrf;tem;jzifh             ouxGufwJh toD;tESHawGtukef               &ef óud;yrf;v#uf&Sd+yD; xdka&avSmif
v 25&ufae@wGif arG;zGm;um                   awmfvSefa&;jzpfonfh ytdk0f;trsKd; cspfaqGonf r[mrdwfjzpfaom                      oò*õvfrnfjzpfa=umif; od&onf?                  qHk;±_H;oGm;w,f”[k ajymonf?              wrHa=umifh a&0yfrnfh {&d,mrS
                                                                                                                                                                                      aomufa&cyf a&avSmifw          O,smOf+cH{uaygif; 56{utwGuf
                                                                                                                                                                           rH ydwfqdk@r_ESifh ywfoufI ouf           jrefrmusyfaiG odef;ESpfaxmifeD;yg;
       KNUtwGif; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;ESifh nD!$wfr_&Sd&ef                                                                                                                    qdkif&mwm0ef&Sdolrsm;u a'ocH             udkom ay;aqmifcJhao;a=umif;
  atmufwdkbmv 17&uf? 2012ckESpf/ KYO aqG;aEG;                                                                                                                              rsm;xH today; ta=umif;=um;
                                                                                                                                                                           jcif; r&SdouJhodk@ a&v#HxGufr_
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    od&onf?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             +yD;cJhonfh pufwifbmv
  zdk;cGg;av; (autdkifpD)
                                                                                                                                                                           a=umifh xdka&avSmifwrHteD;&Sd            25&ufae@u aomufa&cyfa&
         u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk;-KNU twGif; jyefvnfoifhjrwfap                               tpnf;ta0;wGif aqG;aEG;oGm;aom tcsufrsm;tm; oabm                                aus;&Gmaygif; 40cef@rS a'ocH             avSmifwrH wnfaqmufr_ESifh ywf
a&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_jzpfvm&ef xdkif;- jrefrme,fpyfwpfae&mwGif                  xm;tqifhom csrSwfcJh+yD; twnfjykcsuf&&Sda&;twGuf qufvuf aqG;                           jynfol wpfaomif;ausmftwGuf               oufI pdk;&drfr_&Sda=umif; qENxkwf
,refae@u u&ifvli,ftpnf;t±Hk;-KYOrS uruxðyvkyfum tpnf;                               aEG;vkyfaqmifoGm;&ef tpDtpOf&dSonf[k od&onf?                                           pD;yGm;a&; xdcdkufepfem+yD; qHk;±H_;r_   azmfyGJwpfckudk a'ocHaus;&Gmvlxk
ta0; usif;ycJhonf?                                                                          u&ifvli,frsm;. EdkifiHa&;/ vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&m ponfh pGrf;              rsm;pGm&Sdaea=umif; y'dkapmt,f0g;        200OD;cef@u awmifilc±dkif&Sd KNU
         ‚if;tpnf;ta0;wGif vuf&dS autJef,l twGif; jzpfay:aeonfh                     &nfrsm; jr‡ifhwif&ef &nf&G,fI 1989ckESpf/ arv 23&ufae@wGif u&ifvl                      u qufajymonf?                            xdef;csKyfe,fajrY ðyvkyfcJh=uao;
yÃdyuQ&mrsm;udk rnfonfhenf;vrf;jzifh 0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif;=urnfudk u&ifvl              i,ftpnf;t±Hk;(KYO)udk pwif wnfaxmifcJhjcif; jzpfonf? ÔÔÔ                                          atmufwdkbmv 13&uf             onf? ÔÔÔ
i,ftzGJ@tpnf;toD;oD;rsm;u wufa&mufaqG;aEG;jcif;jzpf[k u&ifvl
i,ftpnf;t±Hk; 'kOuUX apmtJhuvlap;u ,ckvdk ajymonf?
         “tck autJef,ltwGif; jzpfay:cJhwhJ jy\emawG[m vli,f
rsm;taeeJ@ b,ftcef;¾rSm yg0ifawmh b,fvdk0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif;=u r,fqdk
wmudk aqG;aEG;wdkifyif=uwmjzpfw,f? t"duawmh wpfzGJ@eJ@wpfzGJ@ pnf;
vHk;apcsifw,f”[k apmtJhuvlap;u autdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?
         tpnf;ta0;wGif KYO rS vli,frsm;/ Ak'<bmomukd,fpm;ðyonfh
vli,frsm;/ c&pf,mefudk,fpm;ðyonfh vli,frsm;/ u&if'kuQ onfpcef;&dS
vli,frsm;ESifh tjcm;vli,frsm; pkpkaygif; 37OD; wufa&mufaqG;aEG;cJh
onf?
         autJef,l A[dkacgif;aqmiftwGif; jzpfay:cJhonfh yÃdyuQrsm;
udktay: tpnf;ta0;wGif wufa&mufcJhonfh vli,ftzGJ@toD;oD;rS
‚if;wdk@. tjrifoabmxm;rsm;ESifh a&S@aqmiftwlwuG pnf;vHk;nD!$wf
&ef rnfodk@vkyfaqmifoGm;&rnfudk wpfzGJ@csif;qDrS aqG;aEG;r_rsm; ðyvkyf
cJh=uonf?
         vuf&dSjzpfay:aewJh jy\emawGudk usaemfwkd@ vli,fxktaeeJ@
pdk;&drfwmayghaemf? ukdf,fhrdcif tzGJ@tpnf;udk uGJxGufwmawG rjrifapcsif
bl;? aemuf bma=umifh tJvdkrsKd;jzpf&ovJqdkwmudk aqG;aEG;cJhw,f?
aemif rjzpfatmif b,fvdkvkyf=urvJqdkwmudk wdkifyifaqG;aEG;=uwm
jzpfw,f”[k tpnf;ta0;wufa&mufol vli,fwpfOD;u ajymonf?                                                                              u&ifvli,ftpnf;t±Hk;rS u&ifvli,frsm; aqG;aEG;aepOf
Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?                                                                                                                                                                                          pmrsufESm- 11
atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
                                               tpf'fae@ qD;&D;,m;typf&yf csKd;azmufr_
                                                   xdyfwef;oHwrefawG pdwfysuf
AGDtdkat (jrefrmydkif;)
29? 10? 2012

           rlpvifawG&J@ tpf'fyGJawmfumvtwGif; qD;&D;,m;EkdifiHrSm typf
tcwf&yfpJxm;Ekdifa&; óud;yrf;csuf ratmifrjrif jzpfcJhwJhtay: EkdifiHw
umoHwrefawGu t}uD;tus,fpdwfysufa=umif; ajymqdk=uygw,f?
           ukvor*~eJ@ tm&yfbftzGJ@csKyfwdk@&J@ txl;oHwref Lakhdar
Brahimi =um;0if aphpyfay;cJhwJh typf&yfoabmwlnDcsufudk orRw
bm&Sm t,fvf-tmq'ftpdk;&ppfwyfua&m olykefawGbufuyg csKd;
azmufcJh=uwmyg?
           wdkufcdkufr_awG &yfqdkif;oGm; ulnDzdk@twGuf EdkifiHwumtodkuf
t0ef;taeeJ@ 'Dhxufydk+yD; vkyfaqmif&r,fvdk@ ukvor*~ twGif;a&;rª;csKyf
befuDrGef;u awmifudk&D;,m;EkdifiHrSm wevFmae@u ajymcJhygw,f?
           wdkufyGJawGqufjzpfaewJhtwGuf pdwfraumif;bl;vdk@ ±k&Sm;EkdifiH/
armfpudkòrd@awmfrSm a&mufaewJh txl;oHwref b&m[DrDu ajymayrJh ol
=um;0ifaphpyfay;cJhwJh oabmwlnDcsuf[m b,fwkef;urS w&m;0if t
ypf&yf oabmwlnDcsufwck r[kwfcJhbl;vdk@ ajymygw,f? b&m[DrD[m
±k&Sm;EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; qma*s;vufAfa&mhAfeJ@ aqG;aEG;zdk@ ±k&Sm;EkdifiHrSm
a&mufaewmyg?


                          qENjyyJGawGa=umihf w±kwf "mwkpuf±kH pDrHudef; qkdif;iHh
         w±kwfEdkifiH ta&S@ydkif;rSm    aqmufr,fh tpDtpOfudk qdkif;iHh                                               &ufawGeJ@csD vrf;ay:xGuf qENjyr_                       'D"mwkpuf±HkeJ@ ywfouf
a&eH "mwkpuf±Hkwck wnfaqmuf             xm;r,fhta=umif; Ningbo òrd@u                                                 awGudk axmifeJ@csDwJh Ningbo a'               +yD; a'ocHawG&J@ wdkifwef;ajymqdkr_
r,fh pDrHudef;udk a'owGif; avxk         òrd@e,fpnfyift&m&SdawGu ajymyg                                               ocH a wG u yl ; aygif ; cJ h = uw,f v d k @   awGudk em;axmifzdk@ paeae@ nydkif;
npfnrf;r_awG jzpfvmrSmudk pdk;&drf      w,f? Ningbo òrd@&J@ Zhenhai urf;                                             rsuf j rif o uf a oawG u ajymyg               u a'ocHawGudk Ningbo òrd@awmf
=uwJh a'ocHawGu &ufawGeJ@csD            ±dk;wef;a'orSm aqmufvkyfr,fh                                                 w,f? wcsKd@qENjyolawGu armf                   0efeJ@ uGefjrLepfygwD t}uD;tuJwdk@
qENjycJh=uwmrdk@ tJ'Da'ou tm            a&eHcsufpuf±Hkudk w±kwf a&eHukr`                                             awmfum;awGudk ajymif;jyefvSef+yD;             u awG@qHkcJhwJhta=umif; wm0ef&Sd
%mydkifawGu pDrHudef;udk ,m,D           %D}uD;wckjzpfwJh Sinopec &J@ vuf                                             &JawGudk raxrJhjrif vkyfwmawG &Sd             olawGu ajymygw,f? a'otpdk;&
&yfqdkif;vdkufygw,f? 'DpDrHudef;        atmufcH ukr`%Dwpfcku ydkifwm                                                 cJhw,fvdk@ tm%mydkifawGu ajym                 taeeJ@ 'DpDrHudef;udk t+yD;owf&yf
a=umifh jzpfvmEkdifwJh obm0ywf          yg?                                                                          qdkcJh=uovdk qENjyolawGuvnf;                  qdkif;rvm;/ 'grSr[kwf vlxk&J@zd
0ef;usif ab;qdk;awGeJ@ ywfoufvdk@                 ckvdk a'ocHtpdk;&u pDrH                                            olwdk@udk vlpkcGJcJhzdk@ &JawGu rsuf          tm;awG r&SdawmhwJhtcg 'DpDrHudef;
ody`Henf;us avhvmoHk;oyfr_awG           udef; a&$@qdkif;r_awG jzpfvmwJhtxd                                           &nf,dkAHk;awGoHk;+yD; ESdrfeif;cJhw,f         udk jyefprvm;qdkwm avmavm
vkyfaecsdefrSm pDrHudef;wdk;csJ@wnf     jzpfcJhwJh wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olawG&J@        AGDtdkat (jrefrmXme) 28? 10? 2012   vkd@ qkdygw,f?                                q,f aoaocsmcsm rod&ao;yg
                                                                                                                                                                   bl;?


  t=urf;zufzkd@ }uHpnfr_eJ@ vl 11a,mufukd tif'kde D;&Sm;rSm zrf;qD;
AGDtdkat (jrefrmXme) 27? 10? 2012

                                                                                                                              *sumwmòrd@awmfu tar&duefoH±kH;eJ@ wjcm; jynfwGif;jynfyu
                                                                                                                     ypfrSwfawGukd wkdufckdufzkd@ }uHpnfolawGtjzpf oHo,&Sdol vlaygif; 11
                                                                                                                     a,mufukd zrf;qD;vkdufwJhta=umif; tif'kdeD;&Sm; &JwyfzJG@u ajymygw,f?
                                                                                                                     t=urf;zuf0g' wkdufzsufa&; txl;wyfzJG@u c±kdif 4ckrSm zrf;qD;r_awG
                                                                                                                     vkyfcJhwmvkd@ tif'kdeD;&Sm;&JwyfzJG@ ajymcGifh&ol Suhardi Alius u paeae@
                                                                                                                     rSm ajymvkdufwmyg?
                                                                                                                              wkdufckdufr_awGudk qufwkdufqkdovkd vkyfaqmifzkd@ pDpOfaew,fvkd@
                                                                                                                     rouFmwJhtwGuf r=umcifurS topfzJG@pnf;vkdufwJh tif'kdeD;&Sm; Hara-
                                                                                                                     kah qGefeDv_yf&Sm;r_ tzJG@0ifawGukd zrf;qD;cJhwmvkd@vnf; ajymygw,f?
                                                                                                                              wkdufckdufzkd@ ypfrSwftjzpf a&G;cs,fxm;wJh txJrSmawmh *sumwm
                                                                                                                     òrd@u =opa=w;vs oH±kH;teD;rSm&SdwJh ukefwkdufwck/ tar&duef owÎKwGif;
                                                                                                                     vkyfief;}uD;wckjzpfwJh Freeport-McMoRan &J@ a'ocH±kH;cef; wckeJ@ Sura-
                                                                                                                     baya rSm&SdwJh tar&duefaumifppf0ef±kH;awG omru tv,f*smAm;rSm&Sd
                                                                                                                     wJh &Jpcef;wckvnf; yg0ifw,fvkd@ ajymygw,f? zrf;qD;r_awGtwGif; AkH;
                                                                                                                     awG/ usnfqHawG/ peufwHawG/ AkH;vkyfenf; pm&Gufpmwrf;awGeJ@ wjcm;
                                                                                                                     azmufcJGa&; ypPnf;awGukdyg odrf;qnf;&rdw,fvkd@vnf; tm%mykdifawGu
                                                                                                                     ajymygw,f?
                                                                                                                              zrf;qD;r_tay: tar&duefeJ@ =opa=w;vs oH±kH;awGuawmh wpkH
                                                                                                                     w&m rSwfcsufay; ajymqkdwmrsKd; r&Sdovkd/ t=urf;zuf wkdufckdufzkd@ }uH
                                                                                                                     pnfr_[m b,favmuftxd c&D;a&mufae+yDqkdwmukdvnf; tm%mykdif
                                                                                                                     awGu xkwfazmfrajym=uygbl;?

 pmrsufESm- 12                                                                                                         Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?
                                                                                                                                                                   atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
ref,ludk ±H_;onfhyGJwGif                                                                     omrefxuf tqrwef}uD;rm;aom
udkifwG,faom 'dkift                                                                                t±kd;pk}uD; awG@&Sd
wGuf cs,fvfqD;                                                                         aqmf'Dtma&bD;,m; EdkifiH
                                                                            twGif;&dS tdkref/ ,DrifEdkifiHwdk@ESihf
ta&;qdk                                                                     e,fedrdwfcsif;xdpyfaeaom Avm
                                                                            &yfuGufac: tm&ADbmompum;
                                                                            ESihf Rab-uikhaleetrnf&dS urBmh
                                                                            t}uD;qHk; oJuEœm&twGif;wGif
                                                                            omrefvlcE<mudk,fxuf tqr
                                                                            wef}uD;rm;aom t±dk;pk}uD;udk wl;
                                                                            azmfawG@&dScJh&a=umif; od&onf?
                                                                            tar&duefa&eH&SmazGwl;azmfa&;
                                                                            ukr`%Dwpfckjzpfaom Aramco
                                                                            ukr`%Donf tqdkygoJuEœm& t
                                                                            wGif; a&eH&SmazGpOf wl;azmfawG@&dScJh&
                                                                            jcif;jzpf+yD; aqmf'Dtma&bD;,m;
                                                                            bmoma&;toif;u xdkae&mudk
                                                                            od r f ; qnf ; xm;cJ h a =umif ; od &
                                                                            onf? odk@aomf ppfbufoHk; &[wf
                                                                            ,mOfrsm;u ,if;vl±dk;pkrsm;udkrSwf
Monday,29 October 2012 17:56                                                wrf ; wif " mwf y H k r sm;±d k u f u l ; cJ h
           cs,fvfqD; toif;onf y&D;rD;,m;vd*f tzGJ@csKyfxHodk@ 'dkifvl}uD;   onf? tar&duefEdkifiH e,l;a,muf
rmhcfuvufwefbmh*f. yGJtay: udkifwG,fr_rsm;ESifh ywfouf+yD; ta&;             òrd@&dS HydeParkodk@ ydk@aqmifay;cJh
qdkr_rsm; ðyvkyfcJha=umif; od&onf?                                          onf? ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;u tqdkyg                          aMumifwpfaumif\ ac:aqmif&modkY
           tdrfuGif;wGif refcsufpwm ,lEkdufwuftm; (3-2)jzifh ta&;edrfh      vl±dk;pk"mwfyHkrsm;udk avhvmpl;prf;
aom yGJpOfwGif 'dkifvl}uD; uvufwefbmh*fonf rdrdwdk@toif;rS upm;o            r_rsm; ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? avhvmpl;                       vdkufyg&if;vGefcJhonhf ESpf2000ausmfu
rm; (2)OD;tm; rESpfòrd@p&m toHk;te_ef;rsm; ajymqdkcJha=umif; cs,fvfqD;u
pGyfpGJcJhonf? vuf&Sd Oa&my csefyD,Htoif;onf uvufwefbmh*fESifh
                                                                            prf;olrsm;. tqdkt& a&S;acwfxdk
                                                                            vlom;rsKd;EG,fpkrsm;onf aqmf'D
                                                                                                                                        a&mrocõsKif;wpfckudkawGU&dS
ywfouf+yD; wdkif=um;r_ ðyvkyfxm;a=umif; twnfðycJhonf? uvyft                 ESihf tdENd,EdkifiHajrmufydkif;a'owpf
                                                                                                                                      tDwvDEdkifiH a&mròrd@om;wpfOD;jzpfonhf rdkifudkumyDqdk qdkolonf atmufwdkbm 16&ufae@ nydkif;wGif
oif; ajyma&;qdkcGifh& t&m&Sd wpfOD;u “u|efawmfwdk@[m y&D;rD;,m;vd*f         0d k u f w G i f u sif v nf u suf p m;cJ h
                                                                                                                           tdrfarG;a=umifwpfaumif. vrf;jyac:aqmif&modk@ vdkufygoGm;&m vGefcJhonhf ESpf2˜000ausmfu a&mracwf
pnf;rsOf;a&;&m tzGJ@qDudk wdkif=um;xm;ygw,f? 'dkif[m u|efawmfwkd@&J@        a=umif; rSef;qcJh=uonf?
                                                                                                                           *locõsKif;wpfae&mudk awG@&dScJh&a=umif; atmufwdkbm19&uf owif;rsm;wGif azmfjycJhonf? umyDESihf ‚if;.
upm;orm; ESpfa,mufudk rwlnDwJh jzpfpOfESpfckrSm rESpfòrd@p&m toHk;t                                                        rdwfaqGwpfOD;wdk@onf n10em&Dcef@wGif tqdkyga=umif. toHay; ac:aqmif&maemufodk@ vdkufygoGm;cJh&m
E_ef;awGeJ@ ajymqdkcJhygw,f”[k ajym=um;oGm;onf?                                       tm;upm;owif;ESifh                    ‚if;wdk@aetdrfESihf ruGma0;vSaom rm'DyDx&mvmwm &yfuGufteD;wGif a&mrocõsKif;twGif;odk@ rar#mfvihfbJ
           tqdkyg wdkif=um;r_onf FAtqifhxd wufa&mufrnf[kvnf;                     xl;qef;axGvmowif;rsm;udk                  awG@&dScJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdka&mrocõsKif;onf 0ifayguftwGif;odk@ 0ifa&muf=unhfonhftcg xl;qef;tHh=ozG,f a&m
‚if;u qdkonf? “ckcsdefrSmawmh u|efawmfwkd@ bmrSaemufxyf rSwfcsuf                       paumvfjrefrm ESifh                  racwf*locõsKif;wdk@. tjyiftqiftcrf;tem;ESihf vlt±dk;pkrsm;udk awG@&dS&a=umif; od&onf? ,if;a&mrocõsKif;
ray;vdkao;ygbl;”[kvnf; cs,fvfqD; ajyma&;qdkcGifh& t&m&Sdu ajym
                                                                                  pG,fpHktifwmeuf pmrsufESmrS              *l. tpdwftydkif; tawmfrsm;rsm;onf ysufpD;,dk,Gif;ae+yDjzpf+yD; bDpDwpf&mpkrS at'DESpf&mpkacwftwGif;
=um;oGm;onf? cs,fvfqD;onf ref,ltoif; tEdkif*dk;udk oGif;,l+yD;aemuf
                                                                                       ul;,lazmfjyygonf?                   a&mrwdk@. tEkynmvuf&mrsm;jzpfa=umif; tDwvD a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&Sifrsm;u twnfðyajym
[mAD;,m; [meef'ufZf atmifyGJcHpOf cs,fvfqD; y&dowfrsm;u uGif;
                                                                                                                           =um;cJhonf?
twGif; t&m0wÎKrsm;ESifh ypfaygufojzifh uGif;vHkòcHa&;wpfOD; '%f&m&
oGm;aom jzpfpOftwGufvnf; pHkprf;rnf[k qdkonf? ,if;vHkòcHa&;rSm
'%f&m&cJhonfhaemuf uGif;twGif;wGifyif vJSavsmif;um ukor_ cH,lcJh&
+yD; aemufydkif;wGifrl aq;±Hkyg wufcJh&a=umif; od&onf?                                       aermudk ac:,lEkdifawmhrnf qdkjcif;tm;
                                                                                                                 bmpDvdkem jiif;qdk
                                                                                                                                                       Monday,29 October 2012 22:13
                                                                                                                                                                   aermudk ac:,l&ef oabm wlnDr_ &&Sdxm;+yD qdkaom owif;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                          udk bmpDvdkem toif;u jiif;qef oGm;cJhonf?
                                                                                                                                                                   qef;wdk@pf toif;rS b&mZD;vf vufa&G;pif wdkufppfrª;udk vmrnfh
                                                                                                                                                          aEG&moDwGif bmpDvdkemu pmcsKyfrnf[k awmiftar&du owif;Xmersm;
                                                                                                                                                          u azmfjycJhonf? aermtwGuf bmpDvdkemu ,l±dk(10)oef; óudwifay;
                                                                                                                                                          acsum upm;orm;twGuf ,l±dkoef;(50)wef tajymif;ta&$@udpP óud
                                                                                                                                                          wif oabmwlnDxm;a=umif; owif;rsm;udk pydefxdyfwef; uvyftoif;
                                                                                                                                                          u y,fcscJhonf? qef;wdk@pfbufuvnf; tapmydkif;u tqdkygowif;rsm;
                                                                                                                                                          udk jiif;qefxm;cJh+yD; jzpfonf?
                                                                                                                                                                   touf(20)om &Sdao;aom b&mZD;vf vli,faoG;opf upm;
                                                                                                                                                          orm;av;tm; bmpDvdkemtjyif &D;,Jvfruf'&pfESifh cs,fvfqD;toif;
                                                                                                                                                          rsm;uvnf; tvdk&Sdae=uonf? bmpDvdkem tm;upm; 'g±dkufwm tef'dk
                                                                                                                                                          eD ZlbDZm&ufwmu “'Dowif;awGta=umif; u|efawmf r&Sif;jywwf
                                                                                                                                                          awmhbl;? aerm[m qef;wdk@pf&Jh upm;orm;yg? ol[m pmcsKyft&
                                                                                                                                                          (2014)xd qef;wdk@pfrSmyJ upm;aerSm jzpfygw,f”[k ajz&Sif;cJhonf? ae
                                                                                                                                                          rmonf (2014)ckESpfxd b&mZD;vfwGifom tajccs upm;+yD; tem*wf
                                                                                                                                                          wGifrl Oa&mywGif ajccs&ef a&G;cs,fvmzG,f &Sdaeonf?




Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?                                                                                                                                                              pmrsufESm- 13
                                                                                           atmufwdkbmv? 2012ckESpf/ u&ifowif;pOf
                     y'dka';Apfaxm psmyetcrf;tem; vlaygif; 1axmife D;yg;
atmufwdkbmv 17&uf? 2012 ckESpf?
eef;ol;av? pzef;a&Smif; (autdkifpD)
                                        wufa&muf
                                                                                                                                                                              vGrf;ol@yef;acGrsm;udkifaqmif+yD;
          u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t                oDcsif;rsm;jzifh azsmfajzjcif;/ y'dkapm   pm;vS,fa[mif; OD;bdkaomif;u           +idrf;csrf;a&;&&SdzdkhtwGuf qufvuf               y'dkapma';Apfaxm. ±kyftavmif;                        om ZeD;armifESH/ zm;tHòrd@rS PSDP
±H k ; (KNU) wyf r [m(7)e,f a jr             a';Apfaxm. udk,fa&;twÎKy`wœd              “olu t&rf;udk pdwfoabmxm;             óud ; yrf ; oG m ;=u&OD ; rS m yg”[k a u         udk tkwf*lwnf&Sd&m ydk@aqmifjcif;/                   rS jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;
aoabxmha'owGif ,ae@ usif;                    zwf=um;jcif;/ KNU A[dkXmecsKyf            aumif;w,f? trsm;tusKd;t               tdkifpDodk@ ajymonf?                             AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rlwl;ap;zdk;. trdef@pm                 vS,feef;ap;tGmESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;
yðyvkyfcJhonfh y'dkapma';Apfaxm              tygt0if/ u&ifvlxktajcðytzGJ@              wGufvnf; pGef@pGef@pm;pm;eJ@ vkyf                tcrf;tem; tpDtpOf                     udk wyfr[m(7)±Hk;xdkifrª; Adkvfrª;tJh                tusKd;aqmif apmbdk;eDwdk@vm
65ESpf. psmyetcrf;tem;odk@ vl                tpnf;tcsKd@ESifh r[mrdwftzGJ@t            aqmifay;w,f? tckvuf&Sd +idrf;         yxrydkif; 0wfðyqkawmif;jcif;t+yD;                qJqJrS zwf=um;jcif;tjyif ppfbuf                      a&mufydk@aqmifcJhonf?
xky&d\wf wpfaxmifeD;yg; wuf                  pnf;rsm;rS ay;ydk@onfh 0rf;enf;           csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;aewJhtcsdefrsKd;rSm   wGif 'kwd,ydkif;tjzpf orRw±Hk;0ef                qdkif&m tpDtpOfjzifh ðyvkyfcJhum                                rdbrsm;jzpfonhf aemfar;zd;k
a&mufum ‚if;. aemufqHk;c&D;udk               a=umif; o0%fv$mrsm;udk zwf                yg0ifvkyfaqmifaeolwpfOD;tae           }uD;OD;pdk;odef;/ OD;atmifrif;/ jynf             tcrf;tem;udk ae@vnf 2em&DcGJ                         ESifh OD;a&$awmwdk@rS {&m0wDwdkif;/
vdkufygydk@aqmifcJh=uonf?                    =um;cJh=uovdk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rlwl;ap;      eJ@+idrf;csrf;a&;yef;wdkifra&mufcif   axmifpk0ef}uD;OD;cif&D/ trsKd;om;                wGif tqHk;owfcJhonf?                                 [oFmwòrd@e,f/ opfjzLacsmif;&Gm
          psmyeodk@ y'dkapma';Apf            zdk;u trSmpum;ajymqdkcJh&m vkyf           aoqHk;oGm;wJhtwGuf ajymrjy            'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ u&ifwkdif;&if;                        y'd k a pma';Apf a xmonf                  wGif 1948ck/ rwfv 10&ufae@u
axm. rdom;pk0ifrsm;ESifhtwl                  azmfudkifzufwOD; qHk;±_H;oGm;aomf         wwfatmif 0rf;enf;&ygw,f”[k            om;a&;&m0ef}uD; apmxGef;atmif                    +yD;cJhonfh atmufwdkbmv 14                           arG;zGm;cJhol y'dkapma';Apfaxm
KNU wyfr[m 3/ 6/ 7rS wyfr[m                  vnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;udk vlxk       ajymonf?                              jrifh/ u&ifjynfe,f vHkòcHa&;ESifh                &ufae@u &efukefwdkif;/ r*Fvm'Hk                      onf 1971ckESpfwGif &efukef 0dZ…m
rª;rsm;/ y'dkapmtm;wdk;/ y'dkapma&m          vdkvm;ygu qufvkyfoGm;&rnf                           KNU zm;tHc±dkifrS t+rJ      e,f p yf a &;&m0ef } uD ; Ad k v f r ª ; }uD ;   ppfaq;±HkwGif n 10em&DcGJausmfY                      -ody`HwuUodkvfwGif ordkif;bmom
*smcif/ y'dkapmaomoDbGJ/ y'dkapm             jzpfa=umif; ajymqdkcJhonf?                wrf;aumfrwD0if ref;bxGef; u           atmif v G i f / awmif u av;q&m                   tqkwfa&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefoGm;cJh                      t"dujzifh 0dZ…mbGJ@ (BA.History)
uG,fxl;0if;/ y'dkapmxJ',f/ y'dk                      y'dkapma';Apfaxm. psm             vnf; “tckvdkqHk;±H_;oGm;wm tck        awmf ponhfjynfwGif;rS txifu&                     onf ? ‚if ; .±k y f t avmif ; ud k                   &&SdcJhonf?
apmav;avmf a qm/y'd k a pma&$                yeodk@ udk,fwdkif vdkufvHydk@aqmif        vkyfaewJh +idrf;csrf;a&;jzpfpOft      yk*~dKvfrsm;tjyif tzGJ@tpnf;toD;                 atmufwdkbmv 15&ufreufwGif                                       olonfi,fpOfuwnf;u
armif;/ y'dkref;+idrf;armif tygt0if          ay;ol ppfudkif;wdkif;/ ,if;rmyifòrd@      wGuf xdcdkufr_awmh&Sdwmayghaemf?      oD;rS vGrf;ol@yef;acGrsm;udk ay;ydk@             e,f p yf b uf o d k @ jyef v nf o ,f                 yif trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gwfjyif;xef
t&yfzuf/ ppfzufwm0ef&Sdacgif;                e,ftrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf          bmyJjzpfjzpf usef&dSaeao;wJh acgif;   vmcJhonf?                                        aqmifvmcJh&m KPP OuUX apm                            cJh+yD; 1979ckESpf/ arv 23&ufae@
aqmifrsm;/ txl;{nhfonftjzpf                  (NLD)rS jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,f              aqmifawGtaeeJ@vnf; ppfrSefwJh                    ‚if;aemuf y&d\wfrsm;rS                xG e f ; atmif j rif h / a'guf w mpd k i f r G e f   wGif u&ifhawmfvSefa&;xJodk@KNU
xm;0,frif;orD;ukr`%DrS ref;ae;                                                                                                                                                                                                     zm;tHc±dkifrS pwif 0ifa&mufcJh
*sif;'g±dkufwm OD;aiGpdk;ESifh +idrf;csrf;                                                                                                                                                                                         onf? 1983ckESpfwGif c±dkifrS A[dk
a&; tusKd;awmfaqmifrsm;/ y&[d                                                                                                                                                                                                      b¾ma&;Xmeodk@ wm0efay; v$J
w aoG;vª&Sifrsm;tzGJ@rS o±kyf                                                                                                                                                                                                      ajymif;jcif;cH&+yD; 1986ckESpfwGif
aqmifa0VKausmfwdk@tjyif a'guf                                                                                                                                                                                                      OuUX AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmbdkjr.±Hk;odk@
wmpifoD,marmif/ r[mrdwftzGJ@                                                                                                                                                                                                       ajymif ; a&$ @ wm0ef a y;jcif ; cH & +yD ;
tpnf;rsm;/ ygwD0ifrsm;/ EdkifiHjcm;                                                                                                                                                                                                aemuf EkdifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD/
a&mufrdwfaqGrsm;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;                                                                                                                                                                                                  w&m;a&;Xmewm0efcH ponfwdk
om;rsm; wufa&mufcJh=uonf?                                                                                                                                                                                                          wGif wm0efay;tyfcH&onf?
          “ygyg;[m usaemfwdk@&J@                                                                                                                                                                                                              1988wGif DAB tzGJ@wGif
tdrfaxmifOD;pD;yg? ol[m trsKd;                                                                                                                                                                                                     vnf;aumif;/ NDF wGifvnf;
om;a&;twGuf yifyifyrf;yrf; t                                                                                                                                                                                                       aumif;/ NHEC wGifvnf;aumif;/
vkyfvkyfcJhwmudk usaemfwdk@ i,f                                                                                                                                                                                                    2004ckESpfwGif ENC . wdkif;&if;
i,fav;uwnf;u awG@jrifcJh&                                                                                                                                                                                                          om;a&;&maumfrwDwGiftwGif;
w,f? usaemfwdk@udkvnf; rSefrSef                                                                                                                                                                                                    a&;rª;tjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0ef
uefuef vkyfaqmifzdk@ t+rJoGefoif                                                                                                                                                                                                   xrf;aqmifcJhonf?
cJhwmrdk@ usaemfwdk@ r d o m ; p k                                                                                                                                                                                                            xd k @ tjyif 2 004ck E S p f w G i f
twGufol&J                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmbdkjrwdk@ESifh jrefrm
aumif;wpf                                                                                                                                                                                                                          tpdk;&wdk@                 awG@qHk aqG;
a,muf y gyJ ?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  aEG;a&; oHk;
P e a c e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       }ud r f p vH k ;
processe J @                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     w G i f
ywfouf                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             vnf;
vdk@ av;
yif w J h t
&mudk
c e
xm;
+yD;




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              aumif ; /
aemufrS qufvkyf                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2005ck E S p f w G i f v nf ;
oGm;&r,fvdk@ajymw,f? u&ifawG                                                                                                                                                                                                       aumif; yg0ifcJhovdk OD;odef;pdef
uGJuGmwmvnf; ol rjrifcsifbl;?                                                                                                                                                                                                      tpd k ; &vuf x uf 2 011ck E S p f / t
'Dawmh tcGifhta&;&or# tqHk;xd                                                                                                                                                                                                      vGwfoabm +idrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;
vkyfoGm;r,fvdk ajymcJhygw,f”[k                                                                                                                                                                                                     yGJESifh 2012ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif
y'd k a pma';Apf a xm.om;i,f                                                                                                                                                                                                       jynfe,ftqifh typftcwf&yfpJ
apmt,faumfaxmu autdkifpD                                                                                                                                                                                                           a&; aqG;aEG;yGJwGif OD;aqmifolwpf
odk@ ajymonf?                                                         uG,fvGefoGm;NyD;jzpfaom y'dka';Apfaxm psmye                                                                                                                  OD;tjzpf vkyfaqmifcJhonf?
          tcrf;tem;udk eHeuf 11                                                                                                                                                                                                              ‚if;uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD;
em&DcGJrS pwif+yD; c&pf,mefbmom
jzifh 0wfðyqkawmif;jcif;/ "rRaw;
                                                                               tcrf;tem; jrifuGif;                                                                                                                                 jzpfol aemf*sif;*smESifh om; 2OD;/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   orD; 2OD; usef&pfcJhonf? ÔÔÔ

 pmrsufESm- 14                                                                                                                                                                  Karen Information Center rS vpOf xkwfa0jzef@csDonf?

								
To top
;