Decentralised Wastewater Treatment spin by mikeholy



Wastewater Treatment

      Project part-financed by the
      European Union (European
      Regional Development Fund)


Published by:                                                        Photo credits:
Umweltbundesamt                                                      Cover: Uwe Merkel
Wörlitzer Platz 1                                                    Page 4: alphaspirit/
06844 Dessau-Roßlau                                                  Page 4+5: Patrizia Tilly/
                                                                     Page 18: IStockphoto
Edited by:                                                           Page 19: Andrei Merkulov/
Wörlitzer Platz 1
06844 Dessau-Roßlau

design_idee_erfurt GbR, Erfurt

Printed by:

This broschure has been produced with the assistance of the European Union ( The content of this publication
is the sole responsibility of the author and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.


          Preface Decentralised Wastewater Treatment                         4

          SPIN Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Highlights

          BUSSE GmbH: Membrane filtration (MF) for wastewater
          treatment                                                          6

          utp umwelttechnik pöhnl GmbH: kläropro® wastewater
          treatment                                                          8

          Bergmann Abwassertechnik GmbH: WSB® clean                          9

          Batch operated wastewater treatment filter system                 10

          Alnarp Cleanwater Technology: ACT Natural                         11

          BAGA Water Technology: BAGA Easy                                  12

          AquaTeq Sweden AB: EcoVee®                                        13

          ENKOSYSTEM: New concept of decentralised
          wastewater treatment                                              14

          Biomimetic Water Purification / Extraction                        15

          Supervision and control systems for harvesting of environmental
          resources through wireless internet technology,
          WEB and smartphones                                               16

          The SPIN Project                                                  18

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment

Semi- and decentralised concepts of water supply and sew-
age disposal infrastructure are of crucial importance with
regard to forthcoming climate and demographic changes in
the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Decentralised treatment systems
for domestic wastewater are also of great importance in
terms of lowering the loads of nutrients introduced into the
Baltic Sea, decreasing the eutrophication potential. In rural
areas and small settlements they are more able to adapt
to yet uncertain challenges than the established centrally-
structured infrastructure. The latter is in addition much
more expensive to install and maintain. Capital lockup of big
centralised water treatment plants lasts for several decades.

Pivotal elements of a more decentralised infrastructure are
not only the installation of such wastewater treatment sys-
tems for small settlements as well as remote private homes,
hotels and SMEs, but also the conditioning and reuse of rain
and grey water. In this context, rainwater management is of
special relevance as it reduces the impact of extreme pre-
cipitation on the environment and, at the same time, enables
the replenishment of groundwater reservoirs. Another key
technology for upgrading all sorts of raw and wastewater
is membrane filtration, which shows its superior potential
whenever the conventional technology reaches its limits.

                                                                                     Decentralised wastewater
                                                                                     treatment in the BSR and the EU
                                                                                     The European Water Framework Directive (2000/60EC) and
                                                                                     subordinate regulations support the introduction of tech-
                                                                                     niques-, which ensure a sustainable use of water. Decen-
                                                                                     tralised wastewater and rainwater management concepts
                                                                                     are especially suitable to make a considerable contribution
                                                                                     towards that goal. All small-scale wastewater treatment
                                                                                     plants offered on the European market need to fulfil require-
                                                                                     ments of the European standard EN 12566-31. In Germany,
                                                                                     which represents the biggest market for such systems in the
                                                                                     BSR, 1.8 million plants (up to 50 PE2) are installed, despite
                                                                                     the fact that 96% of households are connected to public
                                                                                     sewer systems and slightly less than 4% of the population
                                                                                     treat their wastewater in small-scale sewage facilities.
                                                                                     Other BSR countries are below that rate, e.g. Estonia, where
                                                                                     15-20% of the population is not supplied with centralised
                                                                                     sewer systems due to dispersed rural settlement. In Sweden,
                                                                                     about 1.25 million people (13% of the population) are not
                                                                                     connected to municipal wastewater treatment.

1     European standard EN 12566-3: Small wastewater treatment systems for up to 50 PT - Part 3: Packaged and/or site assembled domestic wastewater treatment plants
2     Population Equivalent: unit per capita loading, (PE), in wastewater treatment is the number expressing the ratio of the sum of the pollution load produced during
      24 hours by industrial facilities and services to the individual pollution load in household sewage produced by one person in the same time.

Water treatment techniques                                        out of the biological treatment are sedimented in the
                                                                  chamber to which the water is transferred and reintro-
Today, a considerable number of companies in the BSR pro-         duced into the primary clarification. Runoff water nearly
vide systems for decentralised water and wastewater treat-        has bath water quality.
ment. For the latter, three major concepts are commercially
available for SMEs:                                            ■ Membrane technology (membrane bioreactor):
■ Sequencing batch reactor (SBR):                                Such systems operate with microfiltration integrated
    The system comprises three chambers. Wastewater is           in the biological treatment step. Membranes applied
    collected in the first chamber, where coarse solids are       typically exhibit pore sizes from 0.1 to 0.01 µm, holding
    sedimented. It also serves as a wastewater and sedi-         back bacteria and even viruses. Thus, membrane
    mented sludge storage. A certain volume of wastewater        bioreactor systems allow for sterile water conditions
    is transferred to a second chamber where it undergoes        and reuse of wastewater as service water.
    biological treatment (nitrification and denitrification)
    by aeration. The cleared water fraction fulfils national    In principle, the examples given on the following pages
    and EU requirements and allows its runoff back into the    function according to the concepts described above. Certain
    environment.                                               variations of the basic concept constitute their innovative
                                                               nature. They can be also found in the SPIN Database at
■ Fixed film technology:                               by choosing the sector “wastewater”.
  The difference with the SBR technology is the biofilm         The SPIN database brings together innovations from the
  responsible for the degradation of pollutants. It forms in   whole BSR covering several sectors. As such, it is a ready-to-
  the biological treatment chamber on a carrier material,      use instrument for SMEs wanting to push their innovative
  comparable to biofilm-covered stones in a creek. At this      products and for enterprises (or in the case of wastewater
  stage, pre-cleared wastewater is also treated by aeration    also small municipalities or remote houses) seeking an
  for full biological treatment. Subsequently, solids coming   innovative solution for their specific situation.

SPIN                                        SPIN DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

BUSSE GmbH: Membrane filtration (MF) for
wastewater treatment
Busse GmbH is an independent engineering company from Leipzig (Germany). Its extensive
know-how resulted in the development of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for local
wastewater treatment. It is designed for domestic small size wastewater treatment and avail-
able in two sizes suitable for 4 and 8 population equivalents (PE). Due to its modular charac-
teristic, also bigger buildings such as office buildings or hotels up to 500 PE can be equipped
with the system. It applies a microfiltration (MF) technique eradicating bacteria and other
germs from the wastewater, which after filtration can be reused as raw water for e.g. irrigation
or toilet flushing. By means of this innovative wastewater recycling technology it is also possi-
ble to grow fish for everyday consumption on any location of the world without the production
of wastewater. The first wastewater-free treatment system for aquaculture worldwide was put
into operation by Busse GmbH in November 2006 in Thierbach near Leipzig.

The Busse MF Small Size Sewage Treatment System is
designed on the basis of DIN 4261 part 2 and comprises two
treatment steps, namely pre-treatment (1) and aeration (2).
At the pre-treatment step, which also serves as wastewater
storage, biologically-degradable coarse material, such as e.g.
faeces and toilet paper, is dissolved and the non-dissolving
components separated from the wastewater by an aerated
sieve. A pump pumps the water, from which the coarse
material has been separated, to the aeration section. During
this step the organic matter in the wastewater is biologi-
cally degraded by microorganisms and oxygen. In addition to
this, the wastewater is treated physically by microfiltration
membranes (ultrafine filter with 0.4 µm pore size). These
membrane filters eliminate suspended material, even bacte-
ria and germs, ensuring that only absolutely clear, odourless,
hygienically-harmless water (filtrate) leaves the system.

The Busse MF system was tested successfully by the Uni-
versity of Hanover and the Technical University in Berlin.
Wastewater cleared by the system is significantly better
in its quality than required by DIBt (German institute for
structural engineering) Berlin (design qualification approval
Z-55.3-60) and the applicable law. Due to the immersed
microfiltration membranes, in combination with a techno-
logically-required high concentration of biomass, the COD
(Chemical Oxygen Demand) level in the discharged water
can be reduced to less than 30 mg/l and the BOD5 value to
less than 5 mg/l. In 2008, the BusseMF system successfully
surpassed the certification by the PIA Institute in Aachen
according to the EU standard for decentralised wastewa-          and water hygienisation. Recently, the system was tested
ter treatment. The BusseMF fulfills all degradation classes       successfully by NSF International according to standards 20
for water treatment set by European law, such as carbon          and 245 and it is the first system using membrane bioreactor
removal, nitrification, de-nitrification, phosphorous removal      technology that has been certified by the NSF.

The innovative wastewater recycling technique also allows      Besides wastewater treatment for households, offices or
fish to be raised for everyday consumption in fish farms any-    hotels, the technique allows running fish farms anywhere
where in the world without wastewater. The technology was      even if there is no connection to a river or lake available.
pioneered at the first wastewater-free fish farm in Germany.     System sizes can be adapted to the water volumes the
It is now possible to raise fish without using large amounts    customer needs to treat. It drastically reduces drinking
of drinking water and without the need for any kind of waste   water consumption due to the efficient purifying process.
disposal. In addition, the use of MBR technology ensures a     No wastewater spoils rivers, lakes, the soil or the sea.
high water quality in the fish-farming basins and therefore
allows much better living conditions compared to a conven-
tional system. The use of antibiotics for fish health reasons
is no longer necessary when fish farms use a wastewater
recycling system with MBR.

                                                                 BUSSE Innovative Systeme GmbH
Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
social:                                                          Contact
In addition to the high quality of treated wastewater, a         BUSSE GmbH
significant advantage of the BUSSE system is its compact,         Ms. Anja Busse
space-saving design which allows installation in cellars.        Zaucheweg 6
Hence, costly excavation works are not necessary.                04316 Leipzig | Germany
                                                                 Tel.: 0341/65984-0
                                                                 Fax: 0341/65984-10

SPIN                                        SPIN DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

utp umwelttechnik pöhnl GmbH: kläropro®
wastewater treatment
Small scale wastewater treatment plants are mostly designed for and offered to households
with wastewater volumes of up to 50 PE (population equivalent). utp umwelttechnik pöhnl
GmbH, with its product kläropro® also offers plants in the range of 50 to 1500 PE especially
suitable for SMEs or small settlements. The system, which functions according to the sequen-
cing batch reactor (SBR) principle, can easily be adapted to the individual wastewater volumes
due to its modular composition. A special feature provided by utp is the remote supervision
(telemetry) which can replace daily checks and monitoring by the operator which are requested
by national law in some European countries, e.g. Germany. Cleaning capacity of the fully bio-
logical system is comparable to centralised facilities.

An SBR wastewater treatment plant basically comprises two
treatment steps. First, wastewater runs into the mechanical
primary treatment where coarse solids are sedimented and
stored with the secondary sludge from the SBR reactor in the
sludge storage. Mechanically pre-treated wastewater is also
kept in storage, hydraulic overload is prevented by an ad-
ditional security storage. Second, by means of a filling device
operated by compressed air, the biological stage is charged
with pre-treated wastewater within a very short period of
time with a defined minimum quantity (cycle volume). The
nitrification and de-nitrification phases are followed in case
of an appropriate load by the settlement phase during which
clear water as well as a sludge layer are formed. The clear
water layer is drawn off through the outlet by means of a
compressed air sewage lifting unit. Surplus-activated sludge
is brought back into the primary treatment and is stored
there together with the primary sludge.

The functioning of the system is illustrated in a short movie
available online:

Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
SBR systems exhibit a high carbon clearing ratio (>90%). The
technique applied to the wastewater is free of wear which
also holds true for air compressors, resulting in low main-      Provider:
tenance costs. By making use of the offered remote monitor-
ing, operators do not have to take care of their wastewater      utp umwelttechnik pöhnl GmbH
treatment, which will increase acceptance of such decentral-
ised systems among entrepreneurs.                                Contact
                                                                 Mr. Roland Pöhnl
                                                                 Weidenberger Str. 2-4
                                                                 D-95517 Seybothenreuth | Germany
                                                                 Tel.: +49 (0) 9275 60566-47
                                                                 Fax: +49 (0) 9275 60566-68

Bergmann Abwassertechnik GmbH: WSB® clean

Bergmann Waste Water Engineering supplies the wastewater treatment solution WSB® clean.
WSB® clean is based on the moving bed biofilm technology. It is designed for wastewater
quantities ranging from 1 to 1,000 PE or 1 m3/day up to 200 m3/day. Systems have been in-
stalled in the field of municipal wastewater treatment as well as in touristic applications like
restaurants, resorts and campgrounds. Every plant can be planned individually according to the
local effluent requirements and customer specifications. Its strength is the handling of under-
load situations or high loading variations. So far, more than 35,000 units have been installed
in 14 countries.

Wastewater is first collected in a septic tank where primary
sludge is stored. Hereafter, sinkable materials are held back
in the pre-clearing compartment before the biological clear-
ing stage is reached. Supported by compressed air aeration,
a biofilm of microorganisms attached to a carrier material
made from polyethylene with a large protected surface
(500 m2/m3) clears the water. It is then transferred into the
final sedimentation tank, where remaining sludges are re-
moved via a sludge-collecting gutter and pumped back into
the septic tank in a time-controlled manner. Biologically-
cleared wastewater reaches runoff via a discharge device.

Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
The difference with standard fixed film systems is the
floating carrier material (matrix) which allows its agitation
during the aeration step for complete stirring of wastewater
and microorganisms. This significantly enhances the water
clearing performance in comparison to statical films and,
as a result, reduces sludge accumulation. WSB® clean pro
is equipped with a control unit for the power supply as well
as the automatic control of the compressor and immersion
pumps in the final sedimentation. For optimized operation at
minimum energy consumption, the aerator works intermit-
tently, with changing operation and recess times. Thus,
energy consumption is as low as 70 kWh per resident and
                                                                Bergmann Abwassertechnik GmbH
year. Actual operating parameters can be precisely defined
taking into account the varying wastewater accruals during
the course of the day.                                          Bergmann Abwassertechnik GmbH
                                                                Mr. Lars Bergmann
                                                                Am Zeisig 8
                                                                09322 Penig (OT Wernsdorf)
                                                                Tel.: +49 (0)37381 86 10
                                                                Fax: +49 (0)37381 8 61 3

SPIN                                        SPIN DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Batch-operated wastewater treatment filter system
The technology has been developed in Estonia by the University of Tartu, Institute of Technol-
ogy. Batch-operated wastewater treatment filter system can be used in different wastewater
treatment plants for domestic and industrial wastewater. Effluent results meet the require-
ments of Estonian and EU standards and legislation for discharge to water bodies. The research
group is looking for a partner for system design and sales, investment in technology and indus-
trialisation of the technology.

The system consists of a septic tank, inflow/distribution
well, filter cells and an outflow/recirculation well. The cells
are filled with soil media. In batch-operated constructed
wetlands (CW), the filter is rapidly filled to capacity, remains
filled for a long enough period of time and in a repeating
process, is drained and refilled. The advantage of batch
operation continuous flow operation in wetland systems is
supported by the fact that even at very low drain-fill fre-
quencies, the batch operation of subsurface flow (SSF) CWs
ensures that the microbial population at any given point will    Economic Aspects: The construction costs of systems filled
be exposed to decreasing organic carbon concentration. This      with LWA (light weight aggregates) would, in Estonia, range
allows variation between aerobic and anoxic conditions in        from 1279 to 1051 Euro/PE (for 50 to 100 PE), compared to
the wetland environment and therefore enhances organic           AWP with equivalent loading rates and treatment perform-
matter and nitrogen removal. Studies have shown that the         ance, consisting of concrete basins for nitrification, second-
quantity of additional oxygen introduced to the filter matrix     ary sedimentation and sludge thickening, with construction
during the drain process increases as the drain-fill frequency    costs of 1432 to 1112 Euro/PE. If we also consider operating
increases.                                                       costs, such as electrical power, chemical, labour, sludge
                                                                 treatment costs and depreciable cost, which total 84 to
While operating in batch mode, it is possible to re-circulate    72 Euro/year for batch-operated filter systems and 129 to
the treated water. The batch cycle consists of filling time,      96 Euro/year for AWPs, the batch-operated filter system
incubation time (variable), draining time and recuperation       could be an economically sound alternative to wastewater
time. The usage of timer-controlled pumps narrows the            treatment in small communities (up to 200 inhabitants). This
distinctions between natural treatment systems and conven-       conclusion is based on a lifetime assessment of different
tional systems. Re-circulation is also used in the activated     treatment systems. In the evaluation of depreciable cost, the
sludge processes, for instance to remove nitrogen. The tech-     lifetime of facilities is considered to be 40 years, although in
nology has been tested in real conditions.                       the case of batch-operated systems a lifetime of 20 years is
                                                                 assumed for the filter material.

Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
Environmental Aspects: Wastewater treatment plant effluent
results meet the requirements of Estonian and EU standards
and legislations (for example BOD, COD, TSS, Ntot and Ptot)
for discharge to water bodies. Those systems suit well to the
landscape and they help to increase the biodiversity.              Provider:

Social Aspects: Batch-operated systems are easy to maintain        University of Tartu, Institute of Technology
                                                                   Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
                                                                   Tel.: + 372 737 4800, + 372 737 4900
                                                                   Erik Puura, Director
                                                                   Tel.: + 372 737 4802, + 372 506 9882

Alnarp Cleanwater Technology: ACT Natural
Alnarp Cleanwater Technology, a small Swedish company, has developed a wastewater treat-
ment system based on nature’s own way of treating wastewater - The ACT Natural system. This
means, among other things, that the system does not require any chemical additives, instead
it uses natural microorganisms and plants. Conventional sewage systems work with so-called
septic tanks which means that these systems require regular sludge withdrawal. ACT Natural
has no septic tanks, but instead works with a sludge digestion process, i.e. the sludge is degra-
ded into a form that can be disposed of by microorganisms and plants in the system.

The ACT Natural system is designed to treat domestic waste-
water in two main steps. No chemicals have to be added to
the process and no sludge withdrawal is necessary, as the
sludge is digested in the system.

The first main step, ProACT, is a tank consisting of two cham-
bers in which organic matter is treated in two sub-processes.
The wastewater is led into the first chamber, in which the
water is treated through an anaerobic process that can be
compared to a natural digestion process. In this first step, or-
ganic matter is degraded and nutrients are released. As more
wastewater is added to the first chamber, water already in
the system with a high amount of sludge will be transferred
to the second chamber where it is exposed to a bio bed.

Here, drain field microorganisms degrade the remaining
organic sludge to a level which can safely be passed on to        Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
the next step in the process. The water passes yet another        social:
bio bed in the ProACT system before it is pumped to the           Act Natural is designed to mimic nature’s own way of
second main treatment step of the ACT Natural system, the         purifying sewage water. The system does not require any
InterACT. Here the wastewater is exposed to a third type of       chemical additives. There is no need for sludge withdrawal
microorganisms as well as to a set of aquatic plants that         as the sludge is degraded by microorganisms and digested by
feed on nutrients in the water.                                   plants in the system. Implementation of an Act Natural plant
                                                                  lowers the nutrient load to the surrounding environment and
                                                                  thereby reduces eutrophication of the Baltic Sea.


                                                                    Alnarp Cleanwater Technology

                                                                    Visiting address:
                                                                    Pomonavägen 4, Alnarp (SLU area)
                                                                    Mailing address:
                                                                    PO Box 206
                                                                    SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
                                                                    Tel.: +46 40 462690

SPIN                                         SPIN DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

BAGA Water Technology: BAGA Easy
BAGA Water Technology, founded in 1992 and based in Karlskrona, Sweden, specialises in
equipment and solutions for water and sewage water treatment. BAGA Easy is a series of
uncomplicated and efficient plants for domestic wastewater treatment. BAGA Easy offers
a number of advantages: simplicity, reliability, low investment costs and considerably lower
power consumption. The plants come in standard sizes from 1 - 6 households. These systems
meet the highest standards “high level” NFS2006:7 set by Naturvårdsverket (Swedish Environ-
mental Protection Agency).

The high levels of purification are achieved using a patented
method of proportionally adding flocculants to the water
flow, directly into the septic tank. The system is completed
with a drain field or reinforced infiltration. The septic tank is
also equipped with a filter to prevent flocculants from enter-
ing the drain field.

BAGA Easy is ideal for both permanent and recreational
living as it can be shut down for long periods and automatic-
ally starts up to full effect, without delay in the purification
process, as soon as water enters the system.
In order to make it as easy as possible to maintain the plant,
a support agreement providing a Programmable Logic Con-
trol (PLC) system is offered. The control system supervises
the plant day and night using text messages to inform about
the status and possible measures.
Water is pumped from the septic tank out to the bio bed.
Simultaneously, flocculants are added into the septic tank.
The flocculant reacts with nutrients (phosphorus and
nitrogen) and easily degradable substances measured as BOD        The uncomplicated design of BAGA Easy, containing only
(Biological Oxygen Demand) and precipitates to the bottom         one pump, results in a high grade of reliability. Upon signing
of the septic tank. The conditions for an efficient flocculation    a support agreement, the plant becomes equipped with a
are that the flocculant is added proportionally to the inlet       remote PLC control system, further enhancing the reliability
and an efficient mixing of the liquids.                            as the plant is constantly monitored.
BAGA Easy contains a filter through which all wastewater           Every wastewater plant uses oxygen in the biological
must pass before reaching the drain field. The filter guaran-       purification process. Many conventional plants use energy-
tees that the outlet is completely free from sludge or par-       consuming fans constantly running. BAGA Easy needs no
ticles. The filter is an important part of the process as sludge   fan, as oxygen is supplied through the bio modules, making
or particles will affect the biological process. The integrated   it completely silent and reducing power consumption to a
pump of the septic tank feeds the water through a sprinkler       minimum.
tube, evenly distributing it into the drainfield. Thus, the
drainfield does not necessarily have to be downstream of the
tank. It also gives the opportunity of placing the drainfield at
some distance from the tank.
Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,                       BAGA Water Technology
The simplicity of the construction and design of BAGA Easy          Contact
reduces the power consumption to a few kWh per month.               Reimer Rexmyr
Normally, conventional water treatment plants utilise               Fiskhamnen 3
components such as pumps and fans, constantly consuming             371 37 Karlskrona | Sweden
electrical power. BAGA Easy only uses one pump, consuming           Tel.: +46 (0)455 616 150
power only when the plant is in use.                      

AquaTeq Sweden AB: EcoVee®
AquaTeq is a medium-sized Swedish company that has developed a patented system, EcoVee®,
which dewaters sludge directly in septic tanks. Water and microorganisms are returned to the
tank. At the same time the water is oxygenised, improving the natural purifying process. The
transported volume is reduced by 95%. The sludge has a dryness of approx. 25-30% and is
ready to be composted or used for energy production.

A combination of a septic tank (with one or more compart-
ments) and a drainage system is the most common treat-
ment method for individual septic systems. In brief, it works
like this: The liquid from the septic system filters into the
ground whilst the sludge stays in the septic tank. Micro-
organisms in the ground and tank purify the water. Sub-
sequent composting turns the sludge into an effective soil
improvement material.

Ordinary sludge suction empties the tank. The microorgan-
isms disappear at the same time and it takes a long time
before the biological process starts again. The discharge
increases, as does the amount of suspended substances
which can obstruct the infiltration process, with impaired
functioning as a result.

AquaTeqs patented system, EcoVee®, dewaters the sludge
directly in the septic tank. Water and microorganisms are
returned to the tank. At the same time the water is oxygen-
ised, improving the natural purifying process. The transport-
ed volume is reduced by 95%. The sludge has a dryness of
approx. 25-30%, ready to be composted or used for energy         Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
production.                                                      social:
                                                                 The main advantage of this system compared to other similar
EcoVee® is a mechanical separation system using no               systems is that the sludge is withdrawn from the septic tank
chemicals. Transportation to sewage treatment plants is no       but the water and microorganisms are returned. Thus, the
longer necessary. The EcoVee® system promotes long service       natural cleaning capacity is maintained in the septic tank
lifetimes of the septic tank and the infiltration system by us-   and unwanted transportation of water is avoided.
ing nature’s own treatment plant. Also, the operators benefit
from a safe yet challenging working environment. Reduced
transportation needs lower the costs and the greenhouse


                                                                   AquaTeq Sweden AB

                                                                   Kalmar Tech Park,
                                                                   393 56 KALMAR | Sweden
                                                                   Tel.: +46 (0)480 270 10
                                                                   Fax: +46 (0)480 125 80

SPIN                                       SPIN DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ENKOSYSTEM: New concept of decentralised waste-
water treatment
ENKOSYSTEM is an integrated biological system for decentralised treatment of residential
sewage and polluted waters. It generates highly oxygenated and BOD-free water which may be
used as grey water for e.g. watering the garden. ENKOSYSTEM is designed and constructed to
serve single households. However, it is scalable and can also serve a larger number of house-
holds and high-rise buildings in an urban environment through proper scale-up and process
controls. For bigger sewage flows, several systems can be combined into a cluster.

The system features a microbiological wastewater clearing
process combined with the root system of selected aquatic
and bog plants in a botanic bed. It requires a very small
construction footprint and consumes little energy compared
to conventional wastewater systems. ENKO-SYSTEM can
easily be incorporated into new garden designs. Furthermore,
it can be applied to pool water cleaning without the use of

                                                               Fig. 2 Working ENCOSYSTEM

Fig. 1 Idea of ENKOSYSTEM

Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,                   Provider:
■ Designed both for single household and small settlements
                                                                ENKO SA
■ Small construction footprint
■ High efficiency                                                Contact
■ Sludge and odour-free process                                 ul. Dojazdowa 10
■ Very low operational costs                                    44-101 Gliwice
■ Secure and maintenance-free operation                         Poland
■ No chemicals required                                         Tel.: +48 32 232 18 36
                                                                Fax: +48 32 232 30 72

Biomimetic Water Purification / Extraction

The new emerging Aquaporin Inside™ technology offers enormous commercial potential in
several water market segments through its capability to separate and purify water from all
other compounds by exploiting – or mimicking – nature’s tremendous capability for selective
water transport across membranes. Biomimetic membranes will soon be ready to hit the
market and this proprietary and superior technology is now ready for introduction to leading
system providers.

Description:                                                    Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
Aquaporin A/S is an industrial biotech/cleantech company        social:
based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Aquaporin has developed           ■    A membrane design very suitable for industrial up-scaling
a novel biomimetic water membrane based on natures’             ■    Initial salt rejection rates of 99.9%
own water filter, aquaporin water channels. The Aquaporin        ■    Initial water flux exceeding 10 kg/m2
Inside™ technology is capable of purifying water to a unique    ■    Osmotic gradients of 30 bar in draw solutions
level of purity, while concurrently reducing energy costs.
In laboratory tests the Aquaporin Inside™ technology has        Aquaporin facilitates new revenue streams from tomorrow’s
demonstrated the potential to be vastly superior both in        technology for water filtration.
terms of efficiency and effectiveness compared to any other
known water purifying technology. While the technology is       Strong IPR innovation within several patent family fields
still in development phase, Aquaporin is extracting water       offers unique value propositions for customers.
with extremely high initial salt rejection rates of 99.9% and   Aquaporin Inside™ is a superior technology both in terms of
initial water fluxes of ~10 kg/m2.                               efficiency and effectiveness compared to any other known
                                                                water purifying technology.
The Aquaporin Inside™ technology is developed in two paral-
lel tracks. Firstly a traditional Reverse Osmosis (RO) mem-     Aquaporin possesses in-depth knowledge of biomimetic
brane track to be used in industrial production where the       membranes based on many years of research as well as a
selective layer consists of natural aquaporin water channels.   genuine entrepreneurial spirit with the indispensable goal of
Secondly, a novel Forward Osmosis (FO) membrane track,          revolutionising the water world.
which is different in design, compared to the Reverse Osmo-
sis membrane track. The design for Forward Osmosis secures
simple production and good up-scaling possibilities for the
desalination market and its vast demand for membranes.


                                                                    Aquaporin A/S

                                                                    CTO Oliver Geschke
                                                                    Ole Maaløes vej 3
                                                                    2200 Copenhagen N
                                                                    Phone +45 82303082

SPIN                                        SPIN DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Supervision and control systems for harvesting of
environmental resources through wireless internet
technology, WEB and smartphones
The Danish electronic development and manufacturing company Crysberg A/S is currently de-
veloping a supervision and control system for water harvesting tanks. The idea originates from
the irrigation business, where Crysberg has a long history and many products, among them
Internet, WEB and smart phone based irrigation systems. The water harvesting supervision is
an add-on to irrigation but also an area for new business. Further, the technology can evolve
to other areas like Environmental Resource Management in general. Crysberg is looking for
partners interested in distribution and development of new markets for the current and future

Description:                                                     Innovative aspects – environmental, economic,
The system aims at controlling level and usage of resources      social:
such as water from man-made storages (reservoirs, tanks)         ■ Gives the customer supervision and control anywhere and
and thereby maximizing resource efficiency.                         anytime
                                                                 ■ Saves water resources through intelligent harvesting
The system consists of an embedded sensor and control unit,      ■ Utilises several communication methods for optimisation
communication module(s), server, WEB/Java application and          of cost and installation
a smart phone application.                                       ■ Monitors waste due to tank or distribution defects
                                                                 ■ Optimises/minimises usage of potable water
The embedded sensor and control unit is in principle a box       ■ Pump supervision and fault monitoring
with an interface for level sensors, pressure sensors and        ■ Integration with weather service providers for forecasting
alarm contacts, pump activation, etc. for supervision of           of rainfall
water harvesting tanks and pumps. The unit contains logic        ■ Water harvesting reduces the use of potable water for
doing alarm reaction, sending e-mails and monitoring vari-         irrigation, etc. to ensure scarce water resources are saved
ous parameters. The unit is currently under development            for human purposes
for water harvesting and pumps control, but will be useable      ■ Supervision anywhere through the internet saves energy
for other purposes like general Environmental Resource             in transport of service staff
Management.                                                      ■ Solar-powered to reduce CO2

The communication modules are used for communication
between the server and the embedded sensor and control
unit. Modules using technologies such as GPRS, Ethernet
(LAN) and radio link are already developed and in production.
A module utilising satellite communication for rural areas is
on the development plan.

The server solution is already developed and has been in
use for years. In the development of the embedded sensor
and control unit, the server will utilise and be adapted to
the proven technology. The WEB/Java application and smart
phone application will be developed as an add-on to the            Provider:
existing applications for the irrigation systems.
Crysberg has 25 years of experience in development and
manufacture of sustainable industrial solutions, especially in     Contact
the irrigation field.                                               Søren Haxvig
                                                                   Manager R&D and Quality & Environment | Denmark
                                                                   Cell: +45 61 62 92 09

The SPIN Project

The aim of SPIN is spelt out in the full title of the project:
SPIN aims at enhancing “Sustainable Production through                Our understanding of innovation is
Innovation in SMEs”.                                                  based on the definition of the former
SPIN is based on the simple but normally successful business          Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho who
equation of matching supply and demand. SPIN taps on                  stated: Quite often, when people talk
innovations throughout the Baltic Sea Region (BSR), which
lead to sustainable production in SMEs. It supports SMEs
                                                                      about innovation they mean research
who have developed sustainable solutions to reach out to              and development. But innovation is
a larger market. At the same time it gives enterprises the            broader than that: research is trans-
technical and managerial solutions they need to make their
production process more sustainable and to increase their             forming money into knowledge, while
profits.                                                               innovation is transforming know-
In doing so the project is creating a win-win-win situation:
                                                                      ledge into money and well-being.
The supplier increases his profit by selling more products /
services, the applier increases his profit by reducing produc-
tion costs (e.g. through improved resource efficiency) and /
or by increasing his sales (through innovative production
techniques fulfilling higher environmental or social stand-       situation. All SMEs from the BSR can register and post their
ards). In any case society benefits through reduced environ-      entries directly online. The SPIN partners perform a quality
mental costs or improved working conditions. The slogan of       check and if the data set is meeting the criteria of sustain-
SPIN is therefore: Private Profits – Public Benefits.              able production the entry is made accessible to all users.
                                                                 Users only searching the database for innovations can use it
SPIN has created a number of instruments to fuel this            without registering.
matchmaking throughout the BSR: Innovation highlights
like the ones presented in this brochure are collected in        Other instruments are the SPIN Toolbox and the SPIN Indus-
the SPIN Database. This is a ready-to-use instrument for         try Workshops. The SPIN tools can be applied rather broadly
SMEs wanting to push their innovative products and for           in all kinds of SMEs and are not as specific as the innova-
enterprises seeking an innovative solution for their specific     tion highlights. “Umberto“ is such a tool that is promoted by
                                                                 SPIN. It is a powerful software tool to model, calculate and
                                                                 visualize material and energy flow systems in SMEs with cost
                                                                 intensive production that wish to optimize their processes
                                                                 and improve their competitiveness. Results can be assessed
                                                                 using economic and environmental performance indicators.

                                                                 The SPIN Industry Workshops bring together experts, enter-
                                                                 prises and researchers from different countries of the BSR.
                                                                 The host of the workshop is setting up the agenda of the
                                                                 workshop based on a background analysis on the needs of
                                                                 the SMEs in the specific industry sector of his country.


It’s all about creating a market for innovations – provided     SPIN runs for 3 years (until January 2012) and is supported
that they enhance sustainable production:                       by the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013 of the
                                                                European Union. SPIN is lead by the Federal Environment
While the effective matchmaking between supply and              Agency from Germany and brings together some of the most
demand involving SMEs from the whole BSR is one pillar of       important institutions for eco-innovations in the BSR.
the SPIN project the other important pillar of SPIN is the
improvement of the political, macro-economic framework          Many national governments, sector associations, research
conditions. Based on the results of country specific studies     bodies and transnational NGOs support the project. The im-
and a synthesis report for the whole BSR, SPIN partners have    portance of SPIN is further highlighted by the fact that the
developed the SPIN Strategic Actions. The SPIN Strategic        EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region as well as the Council
Actions translate the findings on SME needs, existing barriers   of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) awarded SPIN the title as
to innovations for sustainable production and experience on     Strategic and Lighthouse Project, respectively.
best-practice incentives into a transnational action plan. It   The website has developed into a
addresses policy makers on national, transnational and Euro-    frequently used information platform for entrepreneurs and
pean level as well as authorities, financing institutions and    policy makers in the BSR but also into a market place for in-
associations. The aim is to reduce barriers and create new      novations and tools supporting sustainable production.
transnational incentives to effectively support an uptake of    For more information please visit the website, which provides
innovations for sustainable production in SMEs of the BSR.      you also with all contact details for each country.

  Federal Environment Agency (UBA) - the Lead Partner
  Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)

  Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL)

  Polish Environmental Partnership Foundation (EPCE)
  Central Mining Institute (GIG)

  Danish Technological Institute (DTI)

   Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering (APINI)

  University of Tartu

   Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)

To top