DAMAGES IN TORT GBV

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					             TORT LAW LIBRARY




    DAMAGES IN TORT

                           by




    David K. Allen, MA (Oxon); LL.M (McGill)
         of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law
       Vice Président Immigration Appeal Tribunal
      Honorary Visiting Fellow, Department of Law,
                  University of Leicester
          General Editor, Personal Injuries and
                    Quantum Reports


John T. Hartshorne, LL.B (Exeter); LL.M (Leicester)
          of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law
         Lecturer in Law, University of Leicester

   Robyn M. Martin BA; LL.B; M.U.R.P. (Adel.)
      Professor of Law, University of Hertfordshire




                        London
                   Sweet &c Maxwell
                         2000
                            CONTENTS


                                                                      PAGE
Préface                                                                    v
Abbreviations                                                             xi
Table of Cases                                                            xv
Table of Statutes                                                       xxiii
Table of Statutory Instruments                                         xxxvi
Table of E.C. Législation                                             xxxvii
Table of International Cases                                         xxxviii
Table of International Législation                                    xxxix

                                                                      PARA
1. INTRODUCTION                                                       1-001
    1. The nature of damages                                          1-003
    2. Some other terminology                                         1-007
    3. Différent types of loss                                        1-012
    4. One bite at the cherry                                         1-024
    5. Types of damages                                               1-046

2. DAMAGES IN PERSPECTIVE                                            2-001
  1. CONSTRAINTS OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM                                 2-002
    1. Political constraints and the preferencing of certain types
       of injury                                                     2-009
    2. European and international constraints on damages             2-024
  2. ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS ON DAMAGES                                 2-003
  3. CULTURAL C:ONSTRAINTS ON DAMAGES                                2-052
  4. A CX)MPENSATION SYSTEM TO WHAT END?                             2-062
    1. Damages to what end?                                          2-072
    2. Some criticisms of the tort system of damages                 2-090

3. FACTORS OF GENERAL RELEVANCE TO
   THE ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGES                                         3-001
    1. The disclaimer defence                                        3-004
    2. The consent defence                                           3-019
    3. The illegality defence                                        3-025
    4. The necessity defence                                         3-026
    5. The warning defence                                           3-027
    6. The contrihutory négligence defence                           3-028
    7. Calculation of interest on damages                            3-037
    8. Costs                                                         3-045
    9. Limitation periods                                            3-052
viii                                  CONTENTS

4. LIMITATIONS TO THE PRINCIPLE OF
   COMPENSATION                                                      4-001
   1. CAUSATION AND REMOTENESS OF DAMAGE                             4-003
        1. Causation as a matter of fact                             4-003
        2. Remoteness of damage                                      4-025
        3. Intervening events                                        4-045
   2. THE REQUIREMENT TO MITIGATE                                    4-067
        1.   Examples                                                4-068
        2.   Claimant's impecuniosity                                4-077
        3.   Costs incurred through mitigation                       4-079
        4.   Determining when losses hâve been reduced or avoided
             through "mitigation"                                    4-080
   3.   DÉDUCTION FOR COMPENSATING DAMAGES                           4-083
        1. The relevance of causation                                4-085
        2. Public policy                                             4-088
        3. Reform                                                    4-100

5. NON-COMPENSATORY DAMAGES                                          5-001
  1. NOMINAL DAMAGES                                                  5-001
  2. CONTEMPTUOUS DAMAGES                                            5-002
  3. EXEMPLARY DAMAGES                                               5-004
        1. Oppressive, arbitrary or unconstitutional action by the
           servants of the government                                5-019
        2. Cases in which the defendant's conduct has been
           calculated by him to make a profit for himself
           which may well exceed the compensation payable to the
           claimant                                                  5-023
        3. Cases where exemplary damages are expressly
           authorised by statute                                     5-026
        4. Further restrictions on the award of exemplary
           damages                                                   5-028
        5. Assessment of exemplary damages                           5-037
        6. Vicarious liability                                       5-041
        7. The future of exemplary damages                           5-044
  4.    RESTITUTIONARY DAMAGES                                       5-057

6. DAMAGE/INJURY TO PROPERTY RIGHTS                                  6-001
  1. INTRODUCTION                                                     6-001
  2. DAMAGE TO LAND                                                  6-002
        1.   Expenses                                                6-014
        2.   Loss of profits                                         6-015
        3.   Non-pecuniary losses                                    6-016
        4.   Limited interest of claimant                            6-017
  3. WRONGFUL INTERFERENCE WITH LAND                                 6-020
        1. Temporary deprivation                                     6-021
        2. Permanent deprivation                                     6-028
        3. Housing Act 1988 sections 27 and 28                       6-029
  4.    DESTRUCTION OF GOODS                                         6-032
                                  CONTENTS                                ix


  5.   DAMAGE T O GOODS                                               6-042
  6. CONSEQUENTIAL LOSSES                                              6-048
       1. Loss of profit-earning goods                                6-048
       2. Loss on non-profit-earning goods                            6-054
  7. MlSAPPROPRIATION OF GOODS                                        6-058

7. DAMAGE TO ECONOMIC INTERESTS                                       7-001
   1. INTERFÉRENCE WITH CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS                          7-002
  2. I N F R I N G E M E N T OF INTEI.I ECTUAL PROPERTY R1GHTS ....    7-009
  3. NÉGLIGENCE                                                        7-018
  4 . MLSREPRESENTATION                                               7-019
       1. Fraudulent misrepresentation                                7-020
       2. Négligent misrepresentation under the
          Misrepresentation Act 1967                                   7-025
       3. Innocent misrepresentation                                  7-031

8. DAMAGE TO REPUTATION, MENTAL DISTRESS
    AND PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE                                        8-001
   1. DAMAGE T O RÉPUTATION                                            8-003
      1. Awards for damage to réputation in defamation                 8-005
     2. Awards in cases of false imprisonment and malicious
         prosecution                                                  8-017
  2. MENTAL DISTRESS                                                   8-025
  3 . PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE                                           8-054
  4 . QUANTIFYING DAMAGES FOR MENTAL DISTRESS AND
      PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE                                           8-058

9. DAMAGES FOR PERSONAL INJURY                                        9-001
   1. DAMAGES FOR PECUNIARY LOSS                                       9-003
      1. Pre-trial losses                                              9-004
     2. Post-trial losses                                              9-006
  2. DÉDUCTION OF COLLATÉRAL BENEFITS                                  9-045
      1. Insurance                                                     9-046
     2. Charitable and other payments                                  9-048
     3. Sick pay                                                       9-050
     4. Disability pensions                                            9-053
     5. Retirement pensions                                            9-054
     6. Redundancy payments                                            9-057
     7. Social Security benefits                                       9-058
     8. Rights of third parties                                        9-066
  3. NoN-PECUNIARY LOSSES                                              9-068
      1. Pain and suffering                                           9-071
     2. Loss of amenity                                                9-073
     3. The tariff System                                              9-075
     4. Reform proposais for non-pecuniary losses                      9-083
  4. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF AWARD                                        9-088
      1. Structured settlements                                        9-089
     2. Provisional damages                                            9-096
     3. Intérim damages                                               9-101
x                              CONTENTS


    5. INTEREST                                              9-102

10. DAMAGES ON DEATH                                       10-001
  1. CLAIMANTS UNDER THE FATAL ACCIDENT ACT                10-005
     1. Calculating the dependency                         10-012
    2. Funeral expenses                                    10-027
    3. Non-pecuniary losses                                10-028
    4. Collatéral benefits                                 10-030
    5. Claims brought on behalf of the deceased's estate   10-043

11. THE FUTURE OF DAMAGES IN TORT                          11-001
    1. The Human Rights Act 1998                           11-006
    2. The laws of European States                         11-015
    3. Commonwealth and North American Law                 11-021
    4. Woolf                                               11-023
    5. Funding of damages claims                           11-029
    6. Recoupment                                          11-037
    7. Conclusion                                          11-044

                                                             Page
Index                                                         295

				
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